Ch16 measures of performance


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Ch16 measures of performance

  1. 1. Chapter 16 Measures of Job Performance
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>To describe the various measures used to determine job performance </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the appropriate use of each type of measure </li></ul><ul><li>To detail the important characteristics of each measure </li></ul>
  3. 3. Job Performance Measures <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To serve as criteria measures in validation studies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of Criterion Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They define what is meant by job performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They determine the appropriateness of the selection program. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Job Performance Measures <ul><li>Production data —quality and/or quantity of output </li></ul><ul><li>HR personnel data —absenteeism, turnover, and related variables </li></ul><ul><li>Training proficiency —a specially developed test or simulation of training information or activities developed in training </li></ul><ul><li>Judgmental data —opinions (usually supervisors’) of subordinates’ performance </li></ul>
  5. 5. Production Data <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is easy to see, collect, and count (sometimes!!!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its importance is obvious, easily understood, and accepted by employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is objective—the direct result of job actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Production Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity—usually expressed as the number of units produced within a specified time period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality—the goodness of the product indirectly measured by defects, errors, or mistakes identified either per number of units or per unit of time. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. TABLE 16.1 Examples of Production Criteria Measures for Various Jobs Number of unit returns to his/her department because of defects Profit of unit Manager Number of customer complaints Number of returns Dollar volume of sales Number of orders Salesperson Number of defects Weight of scrap Number of units produced per week Weight of output per week Skilled machine operator Rating by students as to amount learned in course Number of student credit hours taught University faculty member Quality Quantity Job Title Production Measure
  7. 7. Absenteeism <ul><li>Measures of Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of separate instances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total number of days absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of short absences (one or two days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long weekends (one-day absences on a Monday or Friday) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voluntary Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absences over which employees have control. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involuntary Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absences due to severe illness, jury duty, union activities, deaths, and accidents. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Turnover <ul><li>Turnover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure of permanent separation from the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Turnover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary turnover—resignation despite the opportunity for continued employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary turnover—termination by the organization for any of several reasons </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Grievances <ul><li>Grievance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An employee’s complaint against some aspect of management’s behavior (e.g., poor treatment of subordinates) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grievance Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steps and procedures for filing a grievance that may be part of a union-management contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues in Measuring Grievances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations in working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness of individuals to file grievances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union representatives’ purposes in filing grievances </li></ul></ul>牢騷 哭餓
  10. 10. Accidents <ul><li>Measuring Accidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury to workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues in Measuring Accidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical and financial thresholds for classifying incidents as an accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption of worker carelessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher situational incidence of hazards for some jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations in worker training and job activities </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Promotions <ul><li>Promotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure of career progress, based on the number of vertical job changes for an individual that result in increased responsibility and authority. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues in Measuring Promotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The assumption that promotions are the result of high performance rather than other factors such as job tenure and organization change/growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations imposed by short career ladders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguishing lateral from vertical promotions. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Training Proficiency <ul><li>Training Proficiency 精熟 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure of employees’ performance immediately after completing a training program. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measuring Proficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization of training programs—instructional materials, techniques, training mastery measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking of training effects to increases in worker KSAs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures of Training Proficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training instructor judgments about trainees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores on paper-and-pencil tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores on work sample tests </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Judgmental Data <ul><li>Types of Judgmental Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait rating scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require the supervisor to evaluate subordinates on the extent to which each individual possesses personal characteristics thought to be necessary for good work performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Behavioral Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The supervisor is asked to rate each subordinate on major or critical tasks of the job as determined from job analysis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BARS or BES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) reflect ratings of actual work behaviors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral Expectation Scales (BES) define the rating points in relation to expected job behaviors. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Developing BARS or BES Ratings <ul><li>Use the Critical-Incidents Technique to gather data from groups of incumbents/supervisors. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the critical incidents to other incumbents/ supervisors to form dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the incidents and the dimensions to other groups to independently sort the incidents into the dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask other groups of incumbents/supervisors to rate the incidents assigned to each dimension. </li></ul><ul><li>For each dimension, a set of critical incidents is selected that represents various levels of performance on the dimension. </li></ul>
  15. 15. FIGURE 16.1 An Example of a BES Rating Dimension for the Job of Bartender Dimension: Interacting with Customers 7 Employee can be expected to smile, greet a regular customer by name as she approaches, and ask how specific family members are doing. 6 5 Employee can be expected to smile and ask to be of service to the customer. 4 3 Employee can be expected to greet customer by grunting or hissing. 2 1 Employee can be expected to remain silent until customer waves money or yells loudly.
  16. 16. Computerized Adaptive Rating Scale <ul><li>Computerized Adaptive Rating Scale (CARS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires that the rater select between two statements of job performance behaviors that both describe behavior on a specific performance dimension and differ in terms of their level of performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of paired statements continues until all appropriate pairs are used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The performance rating is then calculated as a function of all items chosen by the rater. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. FIGURE 16.2 Examples of Paired Statements of the Teaching Performance Dimension Responding to Students’ Questions about Class Material <ul><li>PAIR #1 </li></ul><ul><li>Rephrases question asked by student to ensure clarity of question. </li></ul><ul><li>Tells students to read appropriate material from class notes and then ask question. </li></ul><ul><li>PAIR #2 (Assuming rater chose statement #2 in previous pair) </li></ul><ul><li>Rewords student’s question as research question and responds in technical detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores student question and proceeds with lecture. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Development of a CARS Instrument <ul><li>Identify and define work performance dimensions to be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate job behaviors for each performance dimension. </li></ul><ul><li>Match written job behavior statements to performance dimensions and rate effectiveness of behavioral statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate those behavior statements which have limited agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the sorting and rating of remaining behavioral statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Retain statements that indicate a high level of agreement for both the job performance dimension and the effectiveness ratings. </li></ul><ul><li>Write CARS form. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Problem of Bias <ul><li>Avoiding supervisor biases in making judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Training supervisors to avoid common errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo —rating the subordinate equally on different performance scales because of a rater’s general impression of the worker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leniency/Severity —rating a disproportionate number of workers either high or low respectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central tendency —rating a large number of subordinates in the middle of the scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematically collecting data to ensure complete data </li></ul>
  20. 20. 360-Degree Feedback <ul><li>360-Degree Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superiors, peers, and subordinates of the individual being reviewed rating that person on a number of work behaviors and work results. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of Rating Differences in 360-Degree Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in how individuals conceptualize the rating instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in how raters interact with the ratee affect their ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal biases of raters </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Appropriate Characteristics of Selection Measures <ul><li>Individualization </li></ul><ul><li>Controllability </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Measurability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Variance </li></ul><ul><li>Practicality </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity for Selection </li></ul><ul><li>What If Some of the Characteristics Aren’t There? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major violations of these characteristics can lower the correlation coefficient artificially and reduce the probability of demonstrating empirical validity. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Issues in Criterion Use In Validation <ul><li>Single versus Multiple Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When to Use Each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For managerial decision making or for research purposes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming the Single Measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to combine different measures into one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dollar Criterion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The worth of the performance measure to the organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The weight of correlated relationships of separate measures used to form a single composite performance factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using job experts to form the composite measure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Key Terms and Concepts <ul><li>Job performance measures </li></ul><ul><li>Production data </li></ul><ul><li>HR personnel data </li></ul><ul><li>Training proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Judgmental data </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Event history analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance systems </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Promotions </li></ul><ul><li>lateral promotions </li></ul><ul><li>vertical promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Training proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Judgmental data </li></ul><ul><li>Trait rating scale </li></ul><ul><li>Simple behavioral scale </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Expectation Scale (BES) </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized Adaptive Rating Scale (CARS) </li></ul><ul><li>360-Degree feedback </li></ul>