Technology Risk DSM Analysis for Indian Space Exploration Missions - AIAA SPACE 2013 VPS

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Technology Risk DSM Analysis for Indian Space Exploration Missions - AIAA SPACE 2013 VPS

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Technology Risk DSM Analysis for Indian Space Exploration Missions - AIAA SPACE 2013 VPS

  1. 1. Complex Project Interface and Technology Risk Assessment utilizing DSM Methods for Indian Space Exploration Missions AIAA SPACE 2013 Conference By Prasad Sundararajan
  2. 2. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment Indian Space Program  Earth Observation (IRS, INSAT, IRNSS)  Space Science & Planetary Exploration Design/Dependency Structure Matrix [DSM] Chandrayaan-I Mission  India’s first deep space mission  Discoveries of the mission  Interface DSM and Technology Risk DSM Indian Mars Orbiter (“Mangalyaan”) Mission  India’s first interplanetary mission to the Red Planet  Technology Risk DSM Astrosat-1 Mission  Multi-wavelength Astronomy Satellite  Technology Risk DSM
  3. 3. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment A PSLV launch by ISRO
  4. 4. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment Design/ Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) – A Systems Engineering Management Tool for gaining insights on architectural and Integration benefits in complex engineering product/ process.  DSM is an N x N matrix network modeling tool  Represent the elements/ components in a complex engineering system and their interactions/ interfaces in a graphical matrix format.  Highlight the product system’s architecture, the principal design and project implementation behavior in the development of the complex product.
  5. 5. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment The Design/ Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) A B C D E F G H A X B C X X D X X E X F X X G X X H X X Task A depends on information from Task E Task C and D must be done concurrently
  6. 6. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment Interface DSM  Consists of a component interface dependency section and a section identifying the dependencies of components on the operational phases.  The interface dependency value assigned to the DSM cell is obtained by summing values representing the physical, energy and information interactions that exist between a pair of elements.  The purpose of the rating is to identify the spacecraft component interfaces with high interdependence and to identify critical components for the operational phases.
  7. 7. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment Matrix Values for Strength of Component Interface Dependencies Type of Element Interaction Physical Interface - a direct physical interface exists in the defined system architecture Energy Interface - a direct energy transfer exists between components such as power, propulsion, or thermal loads Information interface a) direct transfer of information between the components b) indirect information exchanged between the components Points 2 2 2 1 Matrix Values for Strength of Operation's dependence on a Component Type of component interaction during critical operations phase Essential component - a single point or major component failure can cause failure in the specific operational phase Critical component - a single point or major component failure can cause degraded operations during the specific operational phase Points 4 2
  8. 8. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment TRF NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Definition TRL 1 Actual system 'flight proven' through successful mission operations 9 2 2 Actual system completed and "flight qualified" through test and demonstration System prototype in a space environment 8 7 3 4 4 System/ subsystem model or prototype demonstrated in a relevant environment Component validation in relevant environment Component validation in laboratory environment 6 5 4 5 5 5 Analytical and experimental critical function and/ or characteristic proof-of-concept Technology concept and/or application formulated Basic principles observed and reported 3 2 1 TRF of Component A X TRF of Component B X Interface dependence value between A and B = TR-DSM matrix value for A-B interface
  9. 9. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment Technology Risk DSM  The technology risk DSM is intended to provide an overall view of the project’s technological and operational risk areas  TR-DSM can be utilized as an analytical tool throughout a project’s development life cycle for identifying and communicating high-risk areas in a single system view.  The high TRF values identify the components/ subsystems that require a thorough mitigation strategy during development.
  10. 10. Chandrayaan-1 Mission Objectives: Place an unmanned spacecraft in polar orbit around the moon Conduct mineralogical and chemical mapping of the entire lunar surface (95%) Upgrade technological base for future planetary missions Orbit: Lunar Polar Orbit at 100 KM Circular Launched by Indian PSLV XL. Timeline: Oct 22, 2008 - Aug 29, 2009 Spacecraft: Basic architecture derived from the IRS satellite bus, Spacecraft mass 1380 kg. Single solar panel generated 700 W power. Onboard liquid engine with 440 N performed orbit raising maneuvers. Eleven Science Instruments (ISRO - 5, NASA - 2, ESA - 3, Bulgaria - 1) Credit: NASA/ ISRO
  11. 11. Credit: ISRO
  12. 12. Magmatic Water detected on Moon’s Surface at Bullialdus impact crater by M3 Instrument carried aboard Chandrayaan-1 - NASA, August 27, 2013 Credit: NASA/APL/ USGS
  13. 13. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment
  14. 14. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment
  15. 15. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment India’s First Interplanetary Mission to the Red Planet Credit: ISRO Annual Report 2012-13
  16. 16. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment Credit: ISRO
  17. 17. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment Science Objectives of Indian Mars Orbiter Mission: Exploration of Martian Surface Features  Morphology  Topography  Mineralogy Study of Martian Upper Atmosphere  Detect and measure Methane with an accuracy of ppb  Explore the Martian Exosphere (>= 400 km above the surface of Mars) neutral density and composition Optical Imaging  Mars  Phobos and Deimos  Context for Science Payloads
  18. 18. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment Indian Mars Orbiter Science Payloads Payload Mass (kg) Primary Scientific Objective Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) 1.5 Methane Sensor for MARS (MSM) 3.6 Escape processes of Mars upper atmosphere through Deuterium/Hydrogen Detect presence of Methane Martian Exospheric Composition Explorer (MENCA) MARS Color Camera (MCC) 4.3 Study the neutral composition of the Martian upper atmosphere 1.4 Optical imaging TIR imaging spectrometer (TIS) 4.0 Map surface composition and mineralogy
  19. 19. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment
  20. 20. Astrosat-1 Mission Objectives:  To carry out simultaneous observations of cosmic sources for high resolution timing, spectral and imaging studies.  High-resolution UV imaging for morphological studies of galactic and extragalactic objects Orbit: Circular near equatorial orbit of about 650 km altitude with orbital inclination of 8 degrees Timeline: 2014 - 2018 Spacecraft: Basic architecture derived from Cartosat satellite bus, Spacecraft mass 1600 kg. Two solar panels generating 1,250 Watts. Credit: ISRO Pointing accuracy is < 0.05º and 0.2 arcsec/s drift. Five Science Instruments (mass: 868 kg) Single Solid State Recorder: 120 Gb
  21. 21. Indian Space Exploration Missions Technology Risk Assessment

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