Indian Space Exploration Missions

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An overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions 2010

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  • * Prasad Sundararajan has been an active member of AIAA since 1992 and a member of its Economics Technical Committee. He is a newly elected Associate Fellow of AIAA (2010). He has been involved in aerospace and AIAA related activities throughout his graduate education and professional career for the past 16 years both at the regional and national levels. He holds a Master’s in Mechanical Engineering from Concordia University, Montreal, Canada and an MBA from Rollins College, Florida. He also earned an Advanced Project Management Certificate from Stanford University, California. * His primary areas of interest and expertise are in space strategy and space policy studies of emerging space powers, comparative economic and technology analysis, and the practical application of internet technologies for knowledge management and disbursement of space related information.
  • 1)Introduction –ISP founded in 1963 with a vision of utilizing space technology for the socio-economic benefits of the Indian Citizens. 2) The Space Application Triad – One of the largest constellation of Telecom (INSAT Series) and Remote Sensing (IRS Series). 3) Space Science has been a part of ISP since the first mission, ARYABHATTA launched in 1975 that conducted experiments in celestial X-ray, solar neutron, gamma and ionosphere. 4) Autonomy in access to space – Launch Vehicles and satellites development. 5) Maturation of the ISP over the past 45 years along with rapid industrialization and economic growth since the 1990s enables ISEP with dedicated missions.
  • Department of Space and Space Commission comes under the direct leadership of the Prime Minister. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) with its various centers located throughout the country is the nodal agency for implementing the space policy goals. Primary Goal – Space Applications, Autonomy to access to Space (LVs) and Satellite development. Secondary Goal – Technology / Industrial development, Commercialization, International cooperation. Emerging Trend – Dedicated Space Science & Exploration Missions for advancing fundamental research and Human Spaceflight Program development to be a major space power
  • Chandrayaan-1 – India’s First Deep Space Mission; Successful launch by Indigenous PSLV, orbital maneuvers to 100 KM polar orbit, Scientific observation by Indian and International (NASA/ESA/ Bulgaria) instruments. Discovery of Water Molecules (H20 and OH) on lunar surface by NASA instrument M Cubed, Confirmation of micro-magnetic spheres on the far side of Moon and Moon as a source of abundant Hydrogen atoms. India’s Presence on Moon – Moon Impact Probe (MIP) successfully separated from Orbiter and impacted Moon on November 14, 2008. Mission ended prematurely due to loss of contact with probe due to thermal management problems. Onboard liquid engine with a 440 N was utilized to perform several orbit raising maneuvers
  • Chandrayaan-2 – India’s second Lunar Exploration Mission in collaboration with Roscosmos. ISRO – Launch Vehicle (PSLV), Lunar Orbiter, Mini-Rover, Program Management. Roscosmos – Lunar Landing System, Rover. Development/ deployment of advanced technologies – thermal management, low orbit maneuver (50 KM), propulsion & power systems, systems development for rover maneuvers and in-situ analysis.
  • The Multi-wavelength satellite is the first Indian dedicated space based telescope and an unique asset for the period. To cover a wide band of the electromagnetic spectrum - soft X-rays (0.3–8 keV), hard X-rays (10–100 keV), near and far ultraviolet bands (120–300 nm) and visible band. {AGN – Active Galectic Nuclei SNR – Super Nova Remnants} Science Instruments weighing 868 kg from India (five), one each from Canadian Space Agency (UVIT) and University of Leicester, UK (SXT –CCD). A solid-state recorder with 120 Gb storage capacity will be used for on board storage of data. Two carriers at a rate of 105 Mb/s will transmit the payload data to the newly established Indian Space Science Data Center. Expected to give a fillip to Indian space based astronomy studies. Collaboration with international agencies and researchers.
  • SRE 1- First recoverable space capsule by ISRO. A 550kg capsule that conducted two experiments (1) Study of the growth of Ga-Mg-Zn based quasi crystals in the space environment. (2) Nano-materials research performed to facilitate the synthesis of self-assembled Hydroxyapatite, a bone material that has a great potential in tissue engineering. The SRE-1 was covered with more than 350 insulating silica tiles, an advanced thermal protection system (TPS), which were designed and manufactured indigenously. SRE-2: Upgraded version of SRE-1; Collaboration with JAXA in scientific experiment; ISRO is interested in marketing the SRE as a cost-effective platform for microgravity studies. Technology development for SRE series would form the basis for an Indian Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV).
  • The Human Spaceflight Program is a major initiative for ISRO and has been approved by the Indian Planning Commission but awaiting Government approval for full-funding. HSF Program is seen as a natural progression for ISRO, given the maturation of the Indian Space Program inline with Indian economic and technical growth and to keep up with the much larger Chinese space program. Expected to cost about $2.5 Billion for Phase 1. (to be accomplished by 2015/2020). Concept studies of Phase 2 – Human mission to Moon for short duration and observatory presence. Provides an opportunity for collaboration with Russia (in development) and ISS (participation after 2015 and future international human spaceflight ventures).
  • Technology development initiatives for the space exploration program. Advanced Propulsion such as ion engine, Deep space power source such as Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Chandrayaan-1’s premature demise after 312 days emphasizes the need for better thermal management and control. Technologies for low-gravity orbital maneuvers.
  • Indian Space Program Budget – about $1.0 Billion in 2010. About 0.08 % of the Indian GDP of $1.25 Trillion (Real$ 2009). Space Science/ exploration represents about 6-8% of ISRO budget. Human Spaceflight Program to cost additional $2.5 billion (2010-15). Emphasis on LV development (GSLV mk3 and indigenous Cryogenic and kerosene based engines), satellite development and ground segment development.
  • 1) Chandrayaan-2 as a follow-on to the successful Chandrayaan-1 Mission that discovered the presence of surficial water. 2) Aditya-1 is a small space science satellite of 100 kg to be placed in near Earth orbit of 600 km to study the solar corona and coronal mass ejections (CME). This is expected to be launched by 2012 when the solar activity is at the maximum during the current solar cycle. 3) Mars Orbiter envisages placing a 500 kg spacecraft in low latitude (<100 km) orbit around Mars and to monitor radiation, electric and magnetic fields and energetic particles in Martian space. 4) Outer planet and asteroid/ comet flyby missions are still in conceptual studies stage.
  • ISP founded in 1963 with a vision of utilizing space technology for the socio-economic benefits of the Indian Citizens. 2) The Space Application Triad – One of the largest constellation of Telecom (INSAT Series – increased TV coverage from 26% in 1980 to 90% in 2000) and Remote Sensing (IRS Series) constellations. 3) Emphasis on indigenous development of Satellites, LVs and advanced technologies to position the nation as a space power of merit and collaboration and to avoid technology denial regimes of political nature. 4) Increasing national economic growth and integration with global economy (6-8% average national GDP growth since 1990s) directly benefiting ISP with raising budget allocation and dedicated space exploration missions and the ambitious human spaceflight program. 5) The benefits of international collaboration in space exploration has been highlighted by the Chandrayaan-1 mission with six foreign instruments from NASA, ESA and Bulgaria. Cooperation in scientific missions with JAXA, ESA and Roscosmos are underway and India/ ISRO is positioning itself as a desirable space power for future national (with foreign payloads) and international missions.
  • Indian Space Exploration Missions

    1. 1. Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions AIAA 2010-0973 48 th Aerospace Sciences Meeting (ASM) Orlando, FL By Prasad Sundararajan January 6, 2010
    2. 2. Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions <ul><li>Indian Space Program (ISP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Oriented - Telecom, Remote Sensing, Meteorology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Framework – Space Policy Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging Trend –Space Exploration Missions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian Space Exploration Program (ISEP) – Mission Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lunar Exploration – Chandrayaan 1 (2008/09) & Chandrayaan 2 (2013) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space Astronomy – Astrosat (2010), Aditya (2012) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microgravity Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Space Capsule Recovery Experiment: SRE 1 (2007) & SRE 2 (2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Spaceflight Program – first LEO mission by 2015-20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planetary Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Future Missions to Mars (2014), Asteroids/ Comets (2016) and Outer Solar System (2018+) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISEP – Technology Development </li></ul><ul><li>ISEP - Economics & Future Missions </li></ul>
    3. 3. Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions
    4. 4. Chandrayaan-1 Mission Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Place an unmanned spacecraft in polar orbit around the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct mineralogical and chemical mapping of the entire lunar surface (95%) </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade technological base for future planetary missions </li></ul><ul><li>Orbit: Lunar Polar Orbit at 100 KM Circular </li></ul><ul><li>Launched by Indian PSLV XL. </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline: Oct 22, 2008 - Aug 29, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Spacecraft: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic architecture derived from the IRS satellite bus, Spacecraft weight 1380 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Single solar panel generated 700 W power. </li></ul><ul><li>Onboard liquid engine with 440 N performed orbit raising maneuvers. </li></ul><ul><li>Eleven Science Instruments (six foreign) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Chandrayaan-2 Mission Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate the origin and evolution of the Moon with improved versions of Chandrayaan-1 instruments for imaging, mineralogy and chemical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Study of lunar radiation environment with alpha and neutron spectrometers </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline: 2013 (Launch by Indian PSLV/ GSLV) </li></ul><ul><li>Spacecraft: </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar Orbiter basic architecture derived from the IRS satellite bus. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Lunar Lander & Rover </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Lunar Orbiter & Mini-Rover </li></ul><ul><li>In-situ analysis of lunar regolith by instruments carried by rovers </li></ul>Chandrayaan-2 Indian Lunar Rover
    6. 6. ASTROSAT Mission Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous multi-wavelength monitoring of intensity variations in a broad range of cosmic sources (but not the best sensitivity/ resolution) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring the X-ray sky for new transients </li></ul><ul><li>Sky surveys in the hard X-ray and UV bands </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband spectroscopic studies of X-ray binaries, AGN, SNRs, clusters of galaxies and stellar coronae </li></ul><ul><li>Study of periodic and non-periodic variability of X-ray sources </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline: 2010-2015 (Launch by Indian PSLV) </li></ul><ul><li>Orbit: 650 km altitude circular orbit, with an orbital inclination of 8° </li></ul><ul><li>Spacecraft: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic architecture consists of a three-axis stabilized satellite (1650 kg), with a capability for orientation maneuvers and attitude control. </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing accuracy of about one arc-second. </li></ul>Multi-wavelength Indian Astronomy Satellite
    7. 7. SRE 1 & 2 Missions Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and demonstrate capability to recover an orbiting capsule back to earth and to carryout micro-gravity experiments in orbit. </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline: </li></ul><ul><li>SRE-1 (Jan. 10-22, 2007); Polar SSO at 635 km. Launched as a co-passenger on PSLV-C7. Recovered from Indian Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>SRE-2 (2010); LV: PSLV </li></ul><ul><li>Spacecraft: </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies tested in SRE-1 include navigation, guidance and control systems, hypersonic aero-thermo dynamics, communication black-out management, deceleration and flotation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>SRE-2: Three experiments to be conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of E-coli cells in a bio-reactor </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of space radiation and micro-gravity on seeds of rice and medicinal plants (JAXA) </li></ul><ul><li>Study the effect of microgravity on photosynthesis on a culture of bacteria </li></ul>Space Capsule Recovery Experiment
    8. 8. Human Spaceflight Program Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a fully autonomous manned space vehicle to carry two crew to 400 km LEO and safe return to earth after mission duration of few orbits to 2 days extendable up to 7 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Rendezvous and docking capability with space station/ orbital platform, safety provisions and provision for extra vehicular activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline: 2015-20 (Launch by Indian GSLV mk2) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Development: </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rated GSLV mk2 & mk3 </li></ul><ul><li>Crew Module and escape system (for 2 to 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical technology development areas, astronaut training, new launch pad for HSF Missions </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with Russia for a 2013 Soyuz Mission with Indian cosmonaut and Technical cooperation </li></ul>Indian Human Spaceflight Program (Phase 1 – LEO Mission)
    9. 9. Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions <ul><li>Space Access - Launch Vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up-rated PSLV XL – launched Chandrayaan-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GSLV mk2 with Indian Cryogenic Engine, Human rated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GSLV mk3 – (4.5 tons GEO, human-rated, deep-space missions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground Segment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Deep Space Network (18 m and 32 m antennas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Space Science Data Center (ISSDC) for space exploration missions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space Science Instrumentation Facility (detectors/ sensors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (graduates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Propulsion and Power Systems, NGC and In-situ analysis tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Spaceflight Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronaut Training Center, Vehicle Simulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crew Module and Escape System, Health Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment Control and Life Support System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Protection Systems, Space Suits/ seats, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New HSF Launch Pad and Facilities </li></ul></ul>Technology Development
    10. 10. Indian Space Program - Economics Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions
    11. 11. Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions
    12. 12. Strategic Perspectives and Technical Architecture Overview of Indian Space Exploration Missions <ul><li>Indian Space Program (ISP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founding vision – Utilize space assets for socio-economic benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecom (INSAT Series), Remote-Sensing (IRS Series), Meteorology Satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging Trend – Dedicated Space Exploration Missions and HSF Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Collaboration (with emphasis on mutual scientific and technical benefit, Enhance stature of nation as a space/technology power) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous capability in Launch Vehicles and all facets of space exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian Space Exploration Program (ISEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand the evolution and composition of Solar System and celestial bodies by deep space missions (Orbiter/ Rover) and Space Telescopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Indian Deep Space Mission, Chandrayaan-1 successfully completed, with a major discovery of Lunar Water by NASA instrument , M Cubed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microgravity Research – Space Capsule Recovery Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Planetary Missions to Moon (CHY-2, Orbiter/ Rover, 2013), Mars (2014), Asteroids/ Comets (2016) and Outer Solar System (2018+) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Spaceflight Program - First Mission by 2015-18 </li></ul>Findings & Conclusion

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