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ADS-B Update: equipping for 2020 (August 2015 edition)

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Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (or ADS-B) is a confusing topic, but it's important for all pilots to understand. This fast-paced presentation covers ADS-B basics, how weather and traffic work, plus the options for both panel-mount and portable ADS-B avionics.

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ADS-B Update: equipping for 2020 (August 2015 edition)

  1. 1. John Zimmerman Sporty’s Pilot Shop ADS-B Update Equipping for 2020 – portables and panel
  2. 2. John Zimmerman • Active GA Pilot Comm/Multi/Inst/Heli • Vice President Sporty’s Pilot Shop ADS-B Update
  3. 3. • What is ADS-B? • Key terms • How does it work? • Panel-mount avionics • Portable avionics • Tips and advice presentation overview ADS-B Update
  4. 4. ADS-B System Overview
  5. 5. Quick History Where did ADS-B come from? • Capstone Program launched in Alaska in the late 1990s • Can we use new technology to improve safety? • Accurate position with GPS/WAAS • Transmit to ground and airplanes • Ground station network • New aircraft transponders • Datalink weather Answer: yes.
  6. 6. Where are we now? Quick History • Current system built on success of Capstone program • Final ADS-B Out rules finalized in 2011 – nothing is changing now • Ground station network is complete • Lots of options for hardware Pretty mature systemnow.
  7. 7. What does it all mean? Key Terms • NextGen • ADS-B • ADS-B Out and ADS-B In • ADS-B Out options • 1090ES and 978 (UAT) • ADS-B In terms • FIS-B and TIS-B
  8. 8. NextGen: Next Generation Air Transportation System Key Terms • Transforms America’s air traffic control system from an aging, ground-based system to a satellite-based system • The goals of NextGen are to: • Shorten routes • Save time and fuel • Reduce traffic delays • Increase capacity • Increase safety • World peace, free beer…
  9. 9. NextGen: Next Generation Air Transportation System Key Terms NextGen ADS-B NextGen has 5 major elements – only one of them is ADS-B
  10. 10. ADS-B Key Terms • Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast • Automatic: it works in the background • Dependent: depends on other aircraft being equipped • Surveillance: it’s a technology to track aircraft • Broadcast: each aircraft broadcasts its position and velocity
  11. 11. ADS-B In and Out Key Terms NextGen ADS-B ADS-B Out ADS-B In
  12. 12. ADS-B In and Out Key Terms • ADS-B Out: a surveillance technology for tracking aircraft • Aircraft report position, velocity and altitude once per second • Aircraft will be required to equip with ADS-B Out by 1/1/2020 if operating in class A, B, C airspace and above 10,000 ft.
  13. 13. ADS-B In and Out Key Terms • ADS-B In: an aircraft’s ability to receive transmissions from ground stations and other aircraft • Allows pilots to receive weather and traffic • ADS-B In equipage is optional
  14. 14. 978 vs. 1090 Key Terms NextGen ADS-B ADS-B Out ADS-B In 978 1090 978 1090
  15. 15. 978 vs. 1090 Key Terms • ADS-B in the US supports two different datalinks: • 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (ES) • 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT)
  16. 16. 1090ES Key Terms • 1090ES – ADS-B Out • ES is based on 1090 MHz just like Mode A/Cs transponders • Mode S transponders can be upgraded to ES transponders by adding a WAAS GPS and upgrading software • ES is the only ADS-B transmitter accepted outside the US and above 18,000 ft. Must be certified and installed
  17. 17. 978 UAT Key Terms • 978 UAT – ADS-B Out • Only allowed in the US, and only below 18,000 ft. • If you use 978 UAT you still need to carry at least a transponder Must be certified and installed
  18. 18. 1090ES Key Terms • 1090ES – ADS-B In • Can detect other aircraft equipped with 1090ES transmitters • Receives other traffic from ground stations • Does NOT receive weather Can be portable or installed
  19. 19. 978 UAT Key Terms • 978 UAT – ADS-B In • Can detect other aircraft with 978 MHz transmitters (air-to-air) • Receives information about other traffic from ground stations • 978 receivers are capable of receiving ADS-B weather Can be installed or portable
  20. 20. NextGen, ADS-B, In/Out, 978/1090 Key Terms Confused yet?
  21. 21. NextGen, ADS-B, In/Out, 978/1090 Key Terms • 1090ES (Out) • Above 18,000 ft. and int’l • Turboprops and jets • 1090ES (In) • Traffic only • No weather • 978 (Out) • Below 18,000 ft. in US only • GA/piston • 978 (In) • Traffic • Weather
  22. 22. FIS-B Key Terms • Flight Information Services – Broadcast • Text weather (METARs, TAFs, PIREPs) • Graphical weather (radar) • Airspace status (TFRs, NOTAMs) • Constantly broadcast
  23. 23. TIS-B Key Terms • Traffic Information Services – Broadcast • A custom traffic report sent only to aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out • Aircraft with ADS-B In can also see other aircraft if they are equipped with ADS-B Out (air-to-air traffic) • Most airplanes do not have ADS-B Out • Not the same as Mode S or TIS traffic
  24. 24. ADS-B In – how does it work?
  25. 25. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work? • Weather is broadcast continuously – AM radio • Traffic is different. Ground stations only broadcast in response to ADS-B Out aircraft – text messaging • FAA sends a customized traffic product to each Out aircraft • 30nm in diameter around the Out aircraft and within 3500 ft. • If you’re close to an ADS-B Out aircraft (in the “hockey puck”) you could see traffic. But it’s for the other aircraft. • Since most airplanes do not have ADS-B Out, this is rare.
  26. 26. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work? • Except – you will always receive air-to-air traffic • Doesn’t depend on ground stations • Single band receives only 978 air-to-air; dual band receives both
  27. 27. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work?
  28. 28. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work?
  29. 29. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work?
  30. 30. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work? Key takeaway: Unless you are squawking ADS-B Out and creating your own customized hockey puck of information, you are not getting an accurate picture of surrounding traffic.
  31. 31. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work?
  32. 32. ADS-B weather products ADS-B In – how does it work? Factoid: Four types of ADS-B ground stations, arranged in this pattern. Station Type Weather Products and Range Surface (Only at select airports) 500 NM winds and temperature aloft, 100 NM METAR, TAF, SIGMET, NOTAM, 150 NM Regional NEXRAD Low altitude (67% of airborne stations) 500 NM winds and temperature aloft 250 NM METARs, TAFs, AIRMET, SIGMET, PIREP, SUA 150 NM regional NEXRAD 100 NM NOTAM (no CONUS NEXRAD) Medium altitude (22% of airborne stations) Entire CONUS NEXRAD, 750 NM winds and temperatures aloft, 375 NM METARs, TAFs, AIRMET, SIGMET, PIREP, SUA, 200 NM regional NEXRAD 100 NM NOTAM High altitude (11% of airborne stations) Entire CONUS NEXRAD, 1000 NM winds and temperature aloft, all 158 CONUS Class B/C airport METAR/TAF 500 NM AIRMET, SIGMET, PIREP, SUA 250 NM regional NEXRAD 100 NM NOTAM
  33. 33. ADS-B weather timing ADS-B In – how does it work? Product Range * Transmission Interval CONUS NEXRAD composite reflectivity (low resolution) Contiguous US 15 minutes Regional NEXRAD composite reflectivity (medium resolution) 150 to 250 nm 2.5 minutes (5 minute update) AIRMETs / SIGMETs 100 to 500 nm 5 minutes METARs 100 to 500 nm, all class B and C airports 5 minutes NOTAM(D), FDC NOTAM, TFRs 100 nm 5 minutes PIREPS 250 to 500 nm 10 minutes Special use airspace 500 nm 10 minutes TAFs 100 to 500 nm, all class B and C airports 10 minutes Winds and Temps aloft 500 to 1000 nm 10 minutes Sportys.com/Stratus
  34. 34. ADS-B vs. XM Weather ADS-B In – how does it work? Data ADS-B XM METARS Small airports within 250 – 500 nm and all class B and C airports Nationwide TAFS Within 250-500 nm Nationwide Winds / Temps Aloft Within 500-1,000 nm Nationwide PIREPS Within 250-500 nm Nationwide Radar Low-resolution CONUS (lower 48) Medium-resolution regional within 250 nm High-resolution nationwide AIRMETS / SIGMETS Within 250-500 nm Nationwide Coverage US, Puerto Rico, and Guam US and Canada Cloud satellite image None Yes NOTAMs Within 100 nm None TFRs Within 100 nm Nationwide Special use airspace status Within 250-500 nm None Cost Free (your tax dollars at work) $35-$55 monthly subscription fee
  35. 35. ADS-B vs. XM Weather ADS-B In – how does it work? XM ADS-B National ADS-B Regional
  36. 36. ADS-B coverage at 1500 ft. ADS-B In – how does it work?
  37. 37. ADS-B coverage at 5000 ft. ADS-B In – how does it work?
  38. 38. Panel-mount ADS-B
  39. 39. 5 things to know before you upgrade ADS-B In Action 1. ADS-B Out will be required in most airspace where a Mode C transponder is today on 1/1/2020 2. A WAAS GPS must be included in your install 3. ADS-B Out compliance must be panel-mount (no portables). 4. ADS-B In equipage is optional. 5. You still need your Mode C transponder if 978.
  40. 40. What about experimental aircraft? ADS-B In Action 1. FAA: “Non-TSO ADS-B Out avionics may be installed on amateur-built and light sport aircraft with experimental airworthiness certificates.” 2. S-LSA upgrades must be approved by the manufacturer. Harder to do. 3. Glass cockpits are in the same situation – part of the TC so it’s not automatic. Pay attention
  41. 41. What about portables? ADS-B In Action • Technically feasible, but don’t count on it. • Would be like an IFR approach-approved portable GPS – doesn’t exist. • FAA: “Portable ADS-B Out systems, also known as ‘suitcase’ units, should not be operated (transmitting) aboard any aircraft. While marketing associated with these units may imply approval for use by way of an FCC license, the FAA prohibits their use.” http://1.usa.gov/1E0vadh
  42. 42. Garmin GDL 88 ADS-B In Action • 978 (UAT) with lots of options: • Out/In/Both • With or without GPS • With or without dual antennas • Works with GTN and GNS series • Integration with new Connext system • Remote mounted • Starting at $3,995 list price
  43. 43. Garmin GDL 84 ADS-B In Action • 978 (UAT) Out • 978 and 1090 In • Includes WAAS GPS • Includes FlightStream to send weather and traffic to iPad (no panel interface) • Remote mounted • Starting at $3,995 list price
  44. 44. Garmin GTX 330ES ADS-B In Action • 1090ES Out transponder • Panel-mounted • No GPS option • GTX 330 can be upgraded to ES • $3,995 list price for GTX 330ES
  45. 45. FreeFlight ADS-B In Action • Lots of options: • RANGR 978 – In, Out, In/Out • RANGR FDL-1090TX • Add-on GPS option • STC’d on dozens of airplanes • Remote mounted • Starting at $1,995 list price
  46. 46. L-3 Lynx ADS-B In Action • Lots of options: • NGT-1000 – 978 Out with GPS • NGT-9000 – 1090 with screen • NGT-9000D+ – ADS-B and active traffic • STC’d on dozens of airplanes • Remote mounted (978) or panel mount (1090) options • From $2,000 to $12,000
  47. 47. Appareo panel-mount ADS-B In Action • All-in-one box: 1090ES ADS-B Out and WAAS GPS built-in • Integrates with Stratus portable for enhanced ADS-B In • Quick installation – 50% less than remote mount 978 • $3490 including everything • Certification early 2016
  48. 48. Lots of options! ADS-B In Action Questions to consider
  49. 49. Questions to consider ADS-B In Action • Do you ever fly above 18,000 ft. or outside US? • If so, you need a 1090ES transponder.
  50. 50. Questions to consider ADS-B In Action • How is your Mode C transponder? • If it’s in bad shape, you probably need a 1090ES transponder – get ADS-B Out and a new transponder.
  51. 51. Questions to consider ADS-B In Action • Do you have a WAAS GPS? • If you do, some remote mounted boxes work well. If not, remember to buy a solution that includes it.
  52. 52. Questions to consider ADS-B In Action • Do you already have ADS-B In (portable)? • If so, you may only need to buy ADS- B Out for the panel
  53. 53. It’s all about the install ADS-B In Action • Ask about total installation cost. This can be a lot depending on the type of box and airplane. • 978 remote mounted boxes are generally less expensive on the hardware, but more expensive to install • Lots of installation errors – send email to FAA: 9-AWA-AFS-300-ADSB-AvionicsCheck@faa.gov
  54. 54. When to equip? Now! ADS-B In Action • “Bottom line: equipping with ADS-B Out now, instead of waiting, was clearly worth the investment and makes receivers like the Stratus so much more capable when it comes to traffic.” - Vertical Magazine • Don’t fix a Mode C transponder – replace it!
  55. 55. Portable ADS-B Receivers
  56. 56. Portables ADS-B In Action • Many of the benefits of installed ADS-B, for less money • iPad has been the game changer • Great for renters, clubs • Portable devices are ADS-B In only • Lots of options to choose from
  57. 57. Poll What iPad app are you flying with? 1) ForeFlight Mobile 2) Garmin Pilot 3) WingX Pro7 4) Other
  58. 58. SkyRadar D and DX • ADS-B weather and GPS • Dual band traffic • Optional AHRS • WiFi connection • Works with WingX, DroidEFB, iFly • Requires external power • $699 or $849 (with AHRS)
  59. 59. iLevil 2 SW and AW • ADS-B weather and GPS • Single-band traffic • Built-in AHRS • Works with WingX, FlyQ, Xavion • Internal battery and solar panel (SW) • $1195 for SW • $1395 for AW (adds pitot/static)
  60. 60. Dual XGPS170 • ADS-B weather and GPS • Single-band traffic • Built-in battery • Works with WingX, FlyQ, others • $499.99
  61. 61. Sagetech Clarity • ADS-B weather and GPS • Dual band traffic • Optional AHRS model • Built-in battery • Works with WingX, FlyQ, Fltplan Go • Small size and light weight • $1150 and $1400 (AHRS)
  62. 62. Garmin GDL 39 and GDL 39 3D • ADS-B weather and GPS • Dual band traffic • Optional AHRS model • Optional battery • Works with Garmin Pilot app • Also works with Garmin GPSs • $549 to $899 (AHRS with battery)
  63. 63. Appareo Stratus 1S and 2S • ADS-B weather and GPS • Single or dual band traffic models • Optional AHRS model • Optional pressure altitude sensor • Optional flight data recorder • Built-in 8-hour battery • No wires or antennas (WiFi) • Works with ForeFlight app • $549 or $899 (dual band + AHRS)
  64. 64. Choosing a Receiver • ForeFlight Mobile  Stratus 1S or Stratus 2S • Garmin Pilot  Garmin GDL 39 or GDL 39 3D • WingX Pro 7  SkyRadar, Dual XGPS170, Clarity, iLevil • FlyQ  Dual XGPS170, Clarity, iLevil First choose an app
  65. 65. Choosing a Receiver • Choose an app first, not the receiver. • ADS-B reception is comparable among all (good enough). • Consider battery life – if you don’t want to plug in, it’s nice to have; if you’re going to hardwire it’s not important. • Decide if traffic is an important factor – if it’s low priority (or you’re ADS-B Out), single band is fine. Buying tips
  66. 66. Choosing a Receiver • Do you fly IFR? If yes, the AHRS is a nice backup; if not you can save some money. • Consider the hardware/app integration – how do features work, how do you complete firmware upgrades? • All receivers include a GPS, so you don’t need a separate one. Buying tips
  67. 67. ADS-B In Action
  68. 68. Turn on weather with map layers ForeFlight and Stratus
  69. 69. Use different chart layers ForeFlight and Stratus
  70. 70. METARs and TAFs ForeFlight and Stratus
  71. 71. METARs and TAFs ForeFlight and Stratus
  72. 72. TFRs ForeFlight and Stratus
  73. 73. AIRMETs and SIGMETs ForeFlight and Stratus
  74. 74. Pilot Reports ForeFlight and Stratus
  75. 75. Winds Aloft ForeFlight and Stratus
  76. 76. NOTAMs ForeFlight and Stratus
  77. 77. Traffic – tap for more info ForeFlight and Stratus
  78. 78. Also includes GPS ForeFlight and Stratus
  79. 79. AHRS – split screen attitude ForeFlight and Stratus
  80. 80. AHRS – synthetic vision ForeFlight and Stratus
  81. 81. Tips for Flying with ADS-B
  82. 82. Tips and Tricks 1. Turn ADS-B receiver on 2. Go to Settings app on iPad, connect via WiFi or Bluetooth 3. Start the app 4. Turn on weather overlays Connecting to your iPad
  83. 83. Tips and Tricks • Take some time to find the right spot – in your airplane • Line of sight for ADS-B (ground based) • View of the sky for GPS (satellite based) • Keep it steady for AHRS (if applicable) • Direct sunlight? Location, location, location!
  84. 84. Tips and Tricks • Use external antennas if needed • Heated windshields can have an effect – experiment (DV window, suction cup) • Don’t worry about low vs. high towers – practically speaking, you’ll get lots Reception issues
  85. 85. Tips and Tricks • Make it a habit to check ADS-B status • Battery life • Age of weather products • GPS reception • LED dimming Checking status
  86. 86. Tips and Tricks Checking status with ADS-B Out
  87. 87. Tips and Tricks Show ADS-B ground stations
  88. 88. Tips and Tricks Charging tips • Know your device’s battery life • Stratus and Clarity = 8 hours • Garmin, Dual and iLevil = 3-5 hours • Most need 2 amp chargers, like the iPad • Charge it when you charge your iPad
  89. 89. Tips and Tricks Connect to multiple devices
  90. 90. Tips and Tricks Measure tool
  91. 91. Tips and Tricks Rubber band flight planning
  92. 92. Tips and Tricks Remember the delay
  93. 93. Tips and Tricks Use your eyeballs!!!
  94. 94. ipadpilotnews.co m Additional resources iPad Pilot News • How-to articles • iPad Tips & News • iPad Newsletter
  95. 95. John Zimmerman zimmerman@sportys.com ADS-B: A Pilot’s Guide @jtzim

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