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# Hydraulic turbines

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### Hydraulic turbines

1. 1. SPONDAN S. BORA
2. 2. Definition Hydraulic Turbine is a prime mover that uses the energy of flowing water and converts it into the mechanical energy in the form of rotation of runner wheel. Also termed as ‘water turbines’.
3. 3. Flow sheet of hydroelectric power plant
4. 4. Classification  Based on hydraulic action of water  Based on direction of flow  Based on head of water and quantity of flow  Based on specific speed  Based on disposition of turbine shaft  Based on name of originator (commonly used turbines)
5. 5. Based on hydraulic action of water  Impulse turbine : One in which all the energy of water is converted to kinetic energy before the water strikes the vanes of the runner wheel. This is done by passing the flow through nozzle or some guidelines. The runner is rotated by the force of water and water passes over the wheel at atmospheric pressure. Ex- Pelton Wheel
6. 6. Impulse Turbine
7. 7.  Reaction Turbine : Here, water entering the runner wheel of the turbine has both kinetic energy and pressure energy that is total head of water striking the runner wheel ,consist partly of pressure head. E.g- Francis turbine, Propeller turbine, Kaplan turbine
8. 8. Reaction Turbine (Kaplan Turbine)
9. 9. Based on direction of flow  Radial flow turbine : A radial flow turbine is a turbine in which the water as it move along the vane flow towards the axis of rotation or away from it. Radial flow turbine is of two types: I. Inward flow turbine : If the flow of water is towards the axis of rotation, its called inward flow turbine. II. Outward flow turbine : If the flow of water is away from the axis of rotation , its called outward flow turbine.