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What is ns? 
 Object-oriented, discrete event driven network 
simulator 
 It was normally used in wired & wireless protocol 
 Written in C++ and OTcl
ADVANTAGES 
1. Debugging of errors makes easy, 
2. It is cheap doesnot not require any equipment, 
3. Even an complex scenario can be tested effiently.
ns Architecture 
Tcl 
OTcl 
TclCL 
ns-2 
Event 
Scheduler 
Network 
Components 
C/C++
Simulation Network 
Wired Network 
Routing: Distance Vector, Link State 
Transportation: TCP and UDP 
Queuing disciplines: drop-tail 
Wireless 
Ad-hoc routing and mobile IP: AODV 
Sensor-MAC, WiMAX (new) 
Power control in wireless networks
NS2 Functionalities 
Traffic models and applications 
◦ FTP, CBR 
Transport protocols 
◦ Unicast: TCP, UDP 
Routing and queuing 
◦ Wired and ad-hoc routing 
◦ Queuing protocols: drop-tail, etc 
Physical media 
◦ Wired (point-to-point, LANs), wireless (multiple 
propagation models), satellite
Ns – structure 
Types 
1. Event Schedular 
2. Turn on Tracing 
3. Network Topology 
4.Transport Connection 
5. Generate Traffic 
6.Start Simulation
Attaching Transport 
Agents to Nodes-tcp/udp 
TCP : 
set src [new Agent/TCP/FullTcp] 
set sink [new Agent/TCP/FullTcp] 
$ns_ attach-agent $node_(s1) $src 
$ns_ attach-agent $node_(k1) $sink 
$ns_ connect $src $sink
Udp agent 
Set udp0 [new Agent/Null] 
ns attach-agent $n0 $udp0 
set cbr0 [new Application/Traffic/CBR] 
$cbr0 attach-agent $udp0 
$udp0 set packetSize_ 536 ; #(max=1000) 
set null0 [new Agent/Null] 
$ns attach-agent $n1 $null0 
$ns connect $udp0 $null0
PACKETS 
It is the collection of data,whether header is called or not all 
header files where present in the stack registers. 
Cmn header 
Ip header 
Tcp header 
Rtp header 
Trace header 
Header 
data
Trace Analysis 
Trace packets on individual link 
Tracefile format:
NAM 
ns has a companion network animator called nam 
hence, has been called the nsnam project
Xgraph 
 One part of the ns-allinone package is 'xgraph', a 
plotting program which can be used to create graphic 
representations of simulation results.

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Network simulator 2

  • 1.
  • 2. What is ns?  Object-oriented, discrete event driven network simulator  It was normally used in wired & wireless protocol  Written in C++ and OTcl
  • 3. ADVANTAGES 1. Debugging of errors makes easy, 2. It is cheap doesnot not require any equipment, 3. Even an complex scenario can be tested effiently.
  • 4. ns Architecture Tcl OTcl TclCL ns-2 Event Scheduler Network Components C/C++
  • 5. Simulation Network Wired Network Routing: Distance Vector, Link State Transportation: TCP and UDP Queuing disciplines: drop-tail Wireless Ad-hoc routing and mobile IP: AODV Sensor-MAC, WiMAX (new) Power control in wireless networks
  • 6. NS2 Functionalities Traffic models and applications ◦ FTP, CBR Transport protocols ◦ Unicast: TCP, UDP Routing and queuing ◦ Wired and ad-hoc routing ◦ Queuing protocols: drop-tail, etc Physical media ◦ Wired (point-to-point, LANs), wireless (multiple propagation models), satellite
  • 7. Ns – structure Types 1. Event Schedular 2. Turn on Tracing 3. Network Topology 4.Transport Connection 5. Generate Traffic 6.Start Simulation
  • 8. Attaching Transport Agents to Nodes-tcp/udp TCP : set src [new Agent/TCP/FullTcp] set sink [new Agent/TCP/FullTcp] $ns_ attach-agent $node_(s1) $src $ns_ attach-agent $node_(k1) $sink $ns_ connect $src $sink
  • 9. Udp agent Set udp0 [new Agent/Null] ns attach-agent $n0 $udp0 set cbr0 [new Application/Traffic/CBR] $cbr0 attach-agent $udp0 $udp0 set packetSize_ 536 ; #(max=1000) set null0 [new Agent/Null] $ns attach-agent $n1 $null0 $ns connect $udp0 $null0
  • 10. PACKETS It is the collection of data,whether header is called or not all header files where present in the stack registers. Cmn header Ip header Tcp header Rtp header Trace header Header data
  • 11. Trace Analysis Trace packets on individual link Tracefile format:
  • 12. NAM ns has a companion network animator called nam hence, has been called the nsnam project
  • 13. Xgraph  One part of the ns-allinone package is 'xgraph', a plotting program which can be used to create graphic representations of simulation results.