The Future Of Automobile

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At this stage no one knows very clearly which path the Automobile will take in its attempt to protect the environment - all options are explained in this presentation.

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The Future Of Automobile

  1. 1. Honda FCX Clarity BMW 7 GREEN Chevrolet Volt Honda Insight & FRUGAL Tesla Roadster Feedback – spkingsley@live.in Toyota Prius
  2. 2. WHY ? Energy Security Global Warming
  3. 3. Energy Security gy y • Reliance on Fossil fuels • Not expected to last for ever •– • Import from Politically unstable areas •– OPEC, Middle East, Russia, Venezuela • Increased future demand from developing countries •– Brazil, Russia, India, China
  4. 4. Oil Supply Scenario “Not expected to last forever” 1 Trillion barrels of oil consumed till now • World has consumed 1 trillion barrels of oil - i.e 50% of known, conventional reserves • 25 % of this is consumed in last 10 years • Might last up to 2050 - 2100
  5. 5. Conflict… “Politically unstable countries” “Developing economies” World Oil Reserves World Oil Consumption Saudi Arabia 19.9% USA 25.1% Canada 13.6%* Europe 18.9% Iran I 10.3% 10 3% China# Chi # 8.6% 8 6% Iraq 8.7% Japan 6.5% Kuwait 7.7% Russia # 3.7% UAE 7.4% India # 3.0% Venezuela 6.5% Canada 2.6% Russia 4.6% Brazil # 2.5% Libya 3.2% Saudi Arabia 2.4% Nigeria 2.7% 2 7% Mexico 2.4% USA 1.7% Iran 1.9% China 1.2% Kuwait 0.4% Europe 1.1% Nigeria 0.4% Mexico 0.9% 0 9% Libya 0.3% Source – Energy information administration, International energy outlook 2007
  6. 6. Unconventional Reserves Source – International Energy Agency, Resource to Reserves, Paris, France OECD/IEA, 2005
  7. 7. Unconventional Energy CARBON NON CARBON NON-CARBON Methanol Hydrogen Ethanol C l •Coal •Water •Cane ethanol – Brazil • Natural Gas •Corn ethanol - US Electricity Natural Gas •Hydrogen Bio – Fuel •Coal •Petroleum •Wind •Cellulosic •Solar •Bio-diesel •Gravity y •Nuclear Challenges – Threats – •Cost of oil •Distribution •Competition with food •Storage (electricity) • Storage (Carbon)
  8. 8. Global Warming Rise in the average temperature of the earth Effects • Melting of ice • Rise in sea levels • Climate changes (Dry & wet) Reasons • Greenhouse effect • Increase in concentration of green-house gases – Carbon dioxide (presently 380 ppm) Methane Water W t vapour Nitrous oxide
  9. 9. How to BE GREEN & FRUGAL Reduce Carbon Fuel consumption Use of alternative energy (non-carbon)
  10. 10. CARBON CYCLE Reduce/Stop  Carbon Emission Carbon Credits Fuel Economy norms Alternate Fuel Alternate Fuel Remove  Carbon from  Atmosphere p
  11. 11. How to stop/reduce carbon emission How to stop/reduce carbon emission Reduce Fuel consumption Reduce /stop emission of CO2 Use non‐carbon energy GREEN & FRUGAL CARS
  12. 12. ENERGY DISTRIBUTION – TYPICAL IC ENGINE AUTOMOBILE TANK to WHEEL EFFICIENCY WELL to WHEEL EFFICIENCY
  13. 13. PATH to GREEN & FRUGAL FLEX-FUEL CARS CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANTS CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANTS (IC ENGINES) ALTERNATE FUEL CARS MICRO-HYBRID CARS FUSION OF  MILD HYBRID CARS Atkinson cycle IC ENGINE &  Atki l IC ENGINE & ELECTRIC MOTOR FULL HYBRID CARS ELECTRIC CARS ELECTRIC MOTOR PLUG-IN HYBRID FUSION OF  y Hybrid  & ELECTRIC 
  14. 14. PATH to GREEN & FRUGAL FLEX-FUEL CARS ALTERNATE FUEL CARS MICRO-HYBRID CARS MILD HYBRID CARS FULL HYBRID CARS ELECTRIC CARS PLUG-IN HYBRID
  15. 15. ALTERNATE FUELS On IC ENGINES Ethanol is produced from corn/Sugarcane and other crops. Produces less greenhouse gas emissions than conventional fuels. g g Biodiesel is derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It usually produces less air pollutants than petroleum‐based diesel – B100, B5, B10.. B5 B10 Natural gas (CNG) is a fossil fuel that generates less air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Propane (LPG), also called liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is a abundant fossil fuel that generates less harmful air pollutants and g ee ouse greenhouse gases. Hydrogen can be produced from fossil fuels (such as coal, Natural gas), nuclear power, or renewable resources, such as hydropower. Electricity can be produced from fossil fuels (such as coal, Natural gas), nuclear power, or renewable resources, such as hydropower.
  16. 16. PATH to GREEN & FRUGAL FLEX-FUEL CARS ALTERNATE FUEL CARS MICRO-HYBRID CARS MILD HYBRID CARS FULL HYBRID CARS ELECTRIC CARS PLUG-IN HYBRID
  17. 17. “micro” Hybrid Stage 1 – Stop engine at idle (0 … 5 Sec) Restart when pressing clutch or accelerator Stage 2 – Integrated Starter-Generator (ISG) Regenerative braking Stop engine at idle (0 … 5 Sec) Restart when pressing clutch or accelerator
  18. 18. “micro” Hybrid Stage 2 IC Engine (Gas/Diesel) E FUEL TANK ISG Battery B Integrated Starter-Generator
  19. 19. “micro” Hybrid Operating phases Stage 2 •Normal IC Engine •Integrated starter‐Generator •Engine drives wheel /Charges battery •Stops in idle/Restarts •Stops in idle/Restarts Stage 3 • Stage 2 + •Regenerative braking
  20. 20. PATH to GREEN & FRUGAL FLEX-FUEL CARS ALTERNATE FUEL CARS MICRO-HYBRID CARS MILD HYBRID CARS FULL HYBRID CARS ELECTRIC CARS PLUG-IN HYBRID
  21. 21. “mild” hybrid IC Engine (Gas/Diesel) Battery (NiMH/Li-ion) E FUEL TANK ISG B Integrated Starter-Generator Honda Insight g
  22. 22. “mild” hybrid Operating phases Starting/Moving from rest IC engine supplies power to wheels  as well as charges battery Cruising IC engine supplies power to wheels  as well as charges battery
  23. 23. “mild” hybrid Operating phases Overtaking/Accelerating IC engine  as well as Battery/Motor  supplies power to wheels. “MOTOR ASSIST” Braking Braking energy is recovered, converted to current and charges the battery. “REGENERATIVE BRAKING”
  24. 24. PATH to GREEN & FRUGAL FLEX-FUEL CARS ALTERNATE FUEL CARS MICRO-HYBRID CARS MILD HYBRID CARS FULL HYBRID CARS ELECTRIC CARS PLUG-IN HYBRID
  25. 25. “full” hybrid IC Engine (Gas/Diesel) Battery (NiMH/Li-ion) Generator E FUEL TANK G B M Power Splitter DC Motor Toyota Prius
  26. 26. “full” hybrid Operating phases Starting/Moving from rest Electric Motor supplies power to  wheels. Low speed/City  Electric Motor supplies power to  wheels.
  27. 27. “full” hybrid Operating phases Cruising/Highway IC Engine supplies power to wheels as well as charges the battery. Overtaking/Accelerating In addition to engine power, power is drawn from battery through the motor.
  28. 28. “full” hybrid Operating phases Braking Kinetic energy of braking is recovered and di t d t charge d d directed to h the battery.
  29. 29. PATH to GREEN & FRUGAL FLEX-FUEL CARS ALTERNATE FUEL CARS MICRO-HYBRID CARS MILD HYBRID CARS FULL HYBRID CARS ELECTRIC CARS •Plug‐in Electric •Fuel cell Electric •Extended Range Electric PLUG-IN HYBRID
  30. 30. Electric CAR “Plug-in electric” MOTOR Battery (NiMH/Li-ion) M B EXTERNAL CHARGING
  31. 31. Some well known Plug-in Electric cars….. Tesla Roadster Reva Mitsubishi Mi bi hi iMiEV Nissan Leaf Fisker Karma
  32. 32. Electric CAR FC – EV - Fuel cell electric Vehicle HYDROGEN MOTOR Battery (NiMH/Li-ion) H2 TANK M H2 FUEL CELL B Honda FCX Clarity
  33. 33. Electric CAR FC – EV - Fuel cell electric Vehicle METHANOL MOTOR Battery (NiMH/Li-ion) METHANOL TANK M REFORMER H2 FUEL CELL B
  34. 34. ANODE FUEL CELL PRINCIPLE H2 H2+ + e- PEM CATHODE H2+ + e- + O2 H2O ON-BOARD REFORMER
  35. 35. Some well known Fuel cell Electric cars….. Chevrolet Equinox – 43/48 mpkg Honda FCX Clarity – 77/67 mpkg Toyota FCHV
  36. 36. Electric CAR ER- EV– Extended range electric vehicle MOTOR IC ENGINE Battery (NiMH/Li-ion) FUEL TANK G E M B Chevrolet Volt EXTERNAL CHARGING
  37. 37. PATH to GREEN & FRUGAL FLEX-FUEL CARS ALTERNATE FUEL CARS MICRO-HYBRID CARS MILD HYBRID CARS FULL HYBRID CARS ELECTRIC CARS PLUG-IN HYBRID
  38. 38. Plug-in hybrid IC Engine (Gas/Diesel) Battery (NiMH/Li-ion) Generator E FUEL TANK G B M Power Splitter DC Motor External Charging
  39. 39. Plug-in hybrid Operating phases Starting/Moving from rest Electric Motor supplies power to  wheels. Low speed/City  Electric Motor supplies power to  wheels.
  40. 40. Plug-in hybrid Operating phases Cruising/Highway IC Engine supplies power to wheels as well as charges the battery. Overtaking/Accelerating In addition to engine power, power is drawn from battery through the motor.
  41. 41. Plug-in hybrid Operating phases Braking Kinetic energy of braking is recovered and di t d t charge d d directed to h the battery. External Charging The battery can b Th b tt be externally t ll charged, overnight.
  42. 42. Honda FCX Clarity BMW 7 ELECTRIC – FUEL CELL THE HYDROGEN – IC ENGINE GREEN & FRUGAL Chevrolet Volt Honda Insight ELECTRIC – ER-EV HYBRID - MILD ELECTRIC CAR HYBRID - FULL Tesla Roadster Toyota Prius
  43. 43. the Past that was ……. Ferdinand Porsche (1875 – 1951) Earliest Hybrid … li b id 1901 – Mixtie Lohner-Porsche Electromobile 1912 – Detroit Electric 1913 – Thomas Edison Earliest Electrics …
  44. 44. Thank You ….meet you in the future
  45. 45. B ….mini power plants feeding in to a SMART GRID

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