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Excel Lesson 3

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Excel Lesson 3

  1. 1. Objectives <ul><li>State the advantages of using charts to present data </li></ul><ul><li>Know the different chart types such as bar charts, pie charts and line charts </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different situations in which each chart type is used </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the terms chart title, axis title, legend, category label and data label </li></ul>
  2. 2. 3.1 Why We Use Charts <ul><li>Tables and charts present information in a form that people can easily understand </li></ul>
  3. 3. 3.1 Why We Use Charts <ul><li>Tables and charts present information in a form that people can easily understand </li></ul>This statement is more effective as it uses numbers to quantify the difference. However, it has a lot of words.
  4. 4. 3.1 Why We Use Charts <ul><li>Tables and charts present information in a form that people can easily understand </li></ul>This graphic is simple and effective in getting the message across. You can make your point more clearly in this way than using just words. You should use tables and graphics in your presentation whenever possible but refrain from using too many.
  5. 5. 3.1 Why We Use Charts <ul><li>Spreadsheets allow us to present numbers in charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier and clearer for us to understand data that is presented graphically </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 3.1 Why We Use Charts <ul><li>Charts are a good way to summarise and display results pictorially </li></ul><ul><li>When changes are made to input data, the chart(s) will be updated automatically </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3.2 Types of Charts <ul><li>Bar Charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of bars of equal width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The height or length of the bars is proportional to the value it represents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be drawn vertically or horizontally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes data comparison easy </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 3.2 Types of Charts <ul><li>No, home ownership rate is over 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Production and related </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3.2 Types of Charts <ul><li>Line Charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of lines connecting the data values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to show trends </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 3.2 Types of Charts <ul><li>A line chart shows data values over time (trend) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3.2 Types of Charts <ul><li>Pie Chart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of a round shape divided into many sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the sectors are 100% and each sector is a proportion of the 100% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each sector represents an item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angle of each sector is the proportional value of the item to the whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot present groups of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a pie chart when you want to show how an amount is being divided </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 3.2 Types of Charts
  13. 13. 3.3 Parts of a Chart <ul><li>Legend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains what each colour in the chart represents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data label </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The value of what each bar represents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each bar represents a category </li></ul><ul><li>Category label shows the name of each bar </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3.3 Parts of a Chart Chart title Category Legend Data label
  15. 15. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  16. 16. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  17. 17. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  18. 18. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  19. 19. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  20. 20. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  21. 21. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  22. 22. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  23. 23. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  24. 24. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  25. 25. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  26. 26. 3.4 A Spreadsheet and Its Charts - An Example
  27. 27. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts <ul><li>General Guidelines for Good Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting chart format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different chart types can portray different types of information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep charts simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not squeeze too much information into a chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use consistent formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A consistent chart format helps to maintain your audience’s attention. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use labels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labels help your audience understand what data the chart contains. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts <ul><li>Pie Charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pie charts are good at comparing parts of a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use too many wedges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your audience really not to see significant information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lump insignificant items under the category ‘Others’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems associated with using too many wedges: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pie charts appear complicated and untidy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labeling is difficult </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts
  30. 30. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts <ul><li>Place labels in wedges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing the legend in the wedge would make it faster and easier for the reader to understand what it means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing labels in a separate legend box causes readers to look up the legend box all the time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To draw attention to a particular sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make it appear separate from the pie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a striking colour or pattern </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts <ul><li>Bar Charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for highlighting the difference between quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be drawn vertically and horizontally </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts <ul><li>Limit the scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid showing quantities that are drastically larger or smaller than others </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts <ul><li>Line charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrates the relationship of figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Straight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used to show observation points </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curved-line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used to show general trends </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that the line is thick enough to be easily seen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts <ul><li>Line charts (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep number of lines small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimise the number of lines in a line chart to perhaps 2 or 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most people cannot make sense of a line chart that tries to compare more than 3 lines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts
  36. 36. 3.5 Guidelines for Effective Charts <ul><li>Bar, line, pie </li></ul><ul><li>Pie – Keep number of wedges down </li></ul><ul><li>Bar – Limit the scale </li></ul><ul><li>Line – Lines must be thick enough so that they can be easily seen </li></ul>
  37. 37. Summary <ul><li>A chart is a good way to summarise and display results. </li></ul><ul><li>A bar chart is used to compare data. </li></ul><ul><li>A pie chart is used to show the proportions of the whole amount. </li></ul><ul><li>A line chart is used to show changes in data over time. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Summary <ul><li>A legend is added to a chart to explain what each colour in the chart represents. </li></ul><ul><li>A data label indicates the value of each bar or slice of pie that represents. </li></ul><ul><li>A category label shows the name of each bar or slice of pie that represents. </li></ul>

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