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# Excel lesson 2

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### Excel lesson 2

1. 1. Objectives <ul><li>Perform data entry tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Use formulae and functions in worksheet calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and make decisions to choose the most efficient method for calculations </li></ul><ul><li>State the advantage of the automatic recalculation feature </li></ul><ul><li>Format a worksheet </li></ul>
2. 2. 2.1 Introduction
3. 3. 2.2 Data Entry
4. 4. 2.2 Data Entry <ul><li>Data you can enter into a cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not used for calculations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aligned left by default </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for calculations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aligned right by default </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formula </li></ul></ul>
5. 5. 2.2 Data Entry <ul><li>Spreadsheet supports basic word-processing functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To edit cell content, type over the portion of the content you want removed or changed </li></ul></ul>
6. 6. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>To enter a formula, begin with the equal sign (=) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example, = B3+C3+D3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The main operators used for calculations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ Addition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Subtraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Multiplication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ Division </li></ul></ul>
7. 7. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>X and  are not found on the standard keyboard </li></ul>
8. 8. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>To sum up Mary’s total marks in E3, use the formula =B3+C3+D3 to calculate the sum of 78, 70 and 65 </li></ul>
9. 9. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>To sum up the other students’ total marks, copy the formula =B3+C3+D3 to cells E4 to E10 </li></ul><ul><li>Cell addresses in the formula will be updated automatically </li></ul>
10. 10. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>= B4 + C4 + D4 </li></ul><ul><li>= B7 + C7 + D7 </li></ul><ul><li>= B10 + C10 + D 10 </li></ul>
11. 11. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of typing your own formulae, you can use functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in formula that comes with a spreadsheet program </li></ul></ul></ul>
12. 12. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>Functions (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The functions use range address instead of individual cell addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much more efficient way to write a formula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The MIN and MAX function returns the minimum and maximum value in a range respectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No need to do comparisons manually </li></ul></ul></ul>
13. 13. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>= SUM(C3:C10) </li></ul><ul><li>= SUM(D3:D10) </li></ul>
14. 14. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>= MAX(B3:B10); MIN(B3:B10) </li></ul><ul><li>= MAX(C3:B10); MIN(C3:B10) </li></ul><ul><li>= MAX(D3:B10); MIN(D3:B10) </li></ul>
15. 15. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>Automatic recalculation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Updates computation returned by a formula or function automatically if referenced data is modified </li></ul></ul>The automatic recalculation feature makes things very convenient.
16. 16. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>Automatic recalculation (Cont’d) </li></ul>
17. 17. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>Automatic recalculation (Cont’d) </li></ul>
18. 18. 2.3 Calculations and Formulae <ul><li>Error messages when using formulae </li></ul>
19. 19. 2.4 Formatting Worksheets <ul><li>Changing the appearance of a worksheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatting text and changing alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Align the cell entries to the left, right or centre </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change the typeface, style, size and colour of the text </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatting numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change number formats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of decimal places, currency, date, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
20. 20. 2.4 Formatting Worksheets <ul><li>Changing the appearance of a worksheet (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusting the cell display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust the column width and row height, merge cells, add fill effect etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To make sure that the cell entry can be seen clearly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When cell width is too narrow to fit a number, a series of # will be displayed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
21. 21. 2.4 Formatting Worksheets <ul><li>Adding borders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To make information easier to read, we can add table borders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful when presenting numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Deleting a cell entry does not remove its formatting </li></ul></ul>
22. 22. 2.4 Formatting Worksheets <ul><li>Comparing a worksheet before and after formatting </li></ul>
23. 23. 2.5 Creating a Spreadsheet <ul><li>To work out students’ test scores </li></ul>
24. 24. 2.6 Making a “What If” Decision <ul><li>The recalculation feature is useful for planning and making decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different input values can be used to compare the outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples … </li></ul></ul>
25. 25. 2.6 Making a “What If” Decision <ul><li>The intended sale prices </li></ul>
26. 26. 2.6 Making a “What If” Decision <ul><li>How much profit can your class make? </li></ul>
27. 27. 2.6 Making a “What If” Decision
28. 28. Summary <ul><li>We enter text, numeric values and formulae into cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Titles, column and row headings are referred to as labels. </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet programs have built-in functions to help us in calculations. </li></ul>
29. 29. Summary <ul><li>The automatic recalculation feature is useful when we are planning and making decisions. We can make changes of data easily. </li></ul><ul><li>To format a worksheet, we can change the format of text, change alignment, format numbers, adjust the cell display and add in fills and borders. </li></ul>