Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Pulling It All Together        Clay Spinuzzi Clay.spinuzzi@utexas.edu      How to improve information flow in             ...
Value• Understand operations tables and apply them to  microlevel breakdowns.• Understand Contradiction-Discoordination-Br...
OPERATIONS TABLES          How to improve information flow in                                                 3          o...
About the Micro LevelLevel   Focus      Chars             Time            Aware           Disruption        Heuristics    ...
How to improve information flow in                                       5organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
More Operations   How to improve information flow in                                          6   organizations (c) 2011 C...
Breakdowns How to improve information flow in                                        7 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
OS/2 Warp’s Shredder     How to improve information flow in                                            8     organizations...
1989: PC-ALAS  How to improve information flow in                                         9  organizations (c) 2011 Clay S...
How to improve information flow in                                       10organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Operations TablesParticipant      Breakdown                               RecoveryAbel             Entered information int...
Ries, Eric. (2011). The Lean Startup.    New York: Crown Business.            How to improve information flow in          ...
CONTRADICTION-DISCOORDINATION-BREAKDOWN TABLES           How to improve information flow in                               ...
HeuristicsStrategic (activity;       Activity system     macro) -                 diagrams                                ...
Macro: ASDHow to improve information flow in                                       15organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Macro: AND How to improve information flow in                                        16 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Meso: CEMLegend         Document     Conversation /       Meeting      Email                                              ...
Meso: GEM    Email with                                     Whiteboard job   instructions                                 ...
Meso: STG          Prepare for call                  Contact customer and             Record notes on call                ...
Micro: Operations TablesParticipant         Breakdown                               RecoveryAbel                Entered in...
How to improve information flow in                                       21organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Example: GIS-ALASContradiction             Between representations of the                          roadway system.Discoord...
For instance…For instance, if one finding is that two different texts are incompatible,you might• Show with an ASD and AND...
The result…Macro                AND: Dialog box and form come from two different(Contradictions)     activities.Meso      ...
“Participants have trouble relating     dialog boxes and forms.”           How to improve information flow in             ...
“FINDING 1:Participants have trouble relating    dialog boxes and forms.”           How to improve information flow in    ...
IS OUR NETWORK LEARNING?          How to improve information flow in                                                 27   ...
Where do users go for help with              applications?1.   Call someone2.   Use online help3.   Use trial and error4. ...
At Telecorp…• Operational conditions change rapidly• Team members circulate in, out, through the  organization (and the te...
Vertical and Horizontal Expertise• Vertical expertise: Developing more complex,  detailed knowledge about a specific subje...
Ricardo, CLEC Switch Tech“the other groups really dont understand how ourpart of it works. And Im pretty sure that, you kn...
“The best way I learn”•   “Thrown to the wolves”•   “Trial-and-error”•   “Sink or swim”•   “Hide and watch”•   “We were ju...
Apprenticeship: “You never ever do a         partial connection”• Apprenticeship: participating in an activity,  first per...
Formal Telecorp Training Sessions:       “Nine Times Out of Ten”• Two-week training sessions for Sales, CLEC  Provisioning...
Corporate Training Outside Telecorp: “No One Had Time to Listen to Her”• Corporate training was provided by other  telecom...
Documentation: “I Need to Do It from       This Day Forward”• Documentation was sometimes self-  generated, sometimes from...
Computer-Based Training: “Basically       It’s a Crash Course”• Computer-based training tended to focus on  industry-level...
Trial-and-Error: “Willing to get your              hands dirty”• Trial-and-Error: Attempting to complete a task  through s...
Stories: “There was nothing about a dog             on the ticket.”• Stories about how things went wrong.• The case of Rex...
Dimension      Learning                                   Techniques                context  Vertical    Within functional...
How to improve information flow in                                       41organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
LEARNING AND SOCIAL MEDIA          How to improve information flow in                                                 42  ...
Google Plus – Bank of America          (Parody)         How to improve information flow in                                ...
Sherlock, L. (2009). Genre, Activity, and Collaborative Work and Play in WOW              How to improve information flow ...
LinkedInHow to improve information flow in                                       45organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
… and the Documentation     Surrounding It      How to improve information flow in                                        ...
FacebookHow to improve information flow in                                       47organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
HOW DOES NET WORK WORK?         How to improve information flow in                                                48      ...
Implications for Workers•   Rhetoric•   Time management•   Project management•   Adaptability                 How to impro...
Implications for Managers• Black-boxing  – Liaisons  – APIs  – Aggregations• Strategic thinking• Training                 ...
Implications for Researchers – and             Consultants• Bounding the case• Setting up feedback loops                 H...
Implications for Understanding Social                 Media• Social media are part of intersecting activities  – spliced a...
Takeaways• Operations tables can map microlevel breakdowns.• Contradiction-Discoordination-Breakdown tables can  integrate...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Spinuzzi network-6&7

2,305 views

Published on

A slide deck discussing Chapters 6 and 7 of my book Network.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Spinuzzi network-6&7

  1. 1. Pulling It All Together Clay Spinuzzi Clay.spinuzzi@utexas.edu How to improve information flow in 1 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  2. 2. Value• Understand operations tables and apply them to microlevel breakdowns.• Understand Contradiction-Discoordination-Breakdown tables and use them to develop systemic findings.• Pull together the heuristics into a recommendation reports.• Understand and identify learning techniques and challenges in net work.• Understand implications of net work for managers, workers, and researchers/consultants. How to improve information flow in 2 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  3. 3. OPERATIONS TABLES How to improve information flow in 3 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  4. 4. About the Micro LevelLevel Focus Chars Time Aware Disruption Heuristics scale ?Macro Activity Culture, Year, No Contradiction ASD, AND history decadesMeso Goal Tool-in-use; Minutes Yes Discoordination CEM, GEM, tactics , hours STGMicro Operation Rules, habits Seconds No Breakdown Operations Table How to improve information flow in 4 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  5. 5. How to improve information flow in 5organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  6. 6. More Operations How to improve information flow in 6 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  7. 7. Breakdowns How to improve information flow in 7 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  8. 8. OS/2 Warp’s Shredder How to improve information flow in 8 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  9. 9. 1989: PC-ALAS How to improve information flow in 9 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  10. 10. How to improve information flow in 10organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  11. 11. Operations TablesParticipant Breakdown RecoveryAbel Entered information into Hit Cancel wrong fieldBertha Entered information into Hit Backspace, retyped. wrong field.Cynthia Entered information into Reopened dialog box and wrong dialog box. corrected. How to improve information flow in 11 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  12. 12. Ries, Eric. (2011). The Lean Startup. New York: Crown Business. How to improve information flow in 12 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  13. 13. CONTRADICTION-DISCOORDINATION-BREAKDOWN TABLES How to improve information flow in 13 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  14. 14. HeuristicsStrategic (activity; Activity system macro) - diagrams Contradiction-Discoordination- contradictions Activity network Breakdown (CDB) Table diagrams Tactical (action; Genre Ecology Models meso) - Communicative Event Models discoordinations Sociotechnical Graphs Operational Operations tables(operations; micro) - breakdowns How to improve information flow in 14 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  15. 15. Macro: ASDHow to improve information flow in 15organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  16. 16. Macro: AND How to improve information flow in 16 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  17. 17. Meso: CEMLegend Document Conversation / Meeting Email Conversation Email with Whiteboard Notes on about Manager for tracking brochure Q&A notes editing brochure Q&A Email + instructions jobs history Document history Attachment Whiteboard How to improve information flow in 17 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  18. 18. Meso: GEM Email with Whiteboard job instructions tracker Planner Original brochure AnnotationsFolder printout Q&A notes History notes Printed (from Sharlee) instructions How to improve information flow in 18 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  19. 19. Meso: STG Prepare for call Contact customer and Record notes on call discuss billGroup A collections list, annotations Phone call to customer, database screen for on collections list, database collections list, database customers collections screen for customer, screen for customers information, fax cover database screen for collections information, bills sheet, sticky note, customers collections collections list, information, bankruptcy annotations to notices, spiral notebook, collections list, phone calls from coworkers database notes, database screen for customerGroup B collections list, customer Phone call to customer, customer folder with folder with contact customer folder with contact contact information information and last bill information and last bill, and last bill, Word calendar template, email How to improve information flow in 19 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  20. 20. Micro: Operations TablesParticipant Breakdown RecoveryAbel Entered information into Hit Cancel wrong fieldBertha Entered information into Hit Backspace, retyped. wrong field.Cynthia Entered information into Reopened dialog box and wrong dialog box. corrected. How to improve information flow in 20 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  21. 21. How to improve information flow in 21organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  22. 22. Example: GIS-ALASContradiction Between representations of the roadway system.Discoordinations Between representations of county designations.Breakdowns Students were unsure how to interpret theme names; they selected inappropriate themes; they had trouble distinguishing themes. How to improve information flow in 22 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  23. 23. For instance…For instance, if one finding is that two different texts are incompatible,you might• Show with an ASD and AND that the texts come from two separate activities• Show with your GEM that people are using other, unofficial texts to help them work between the two incompatible texts• Show with your CEM that people regularly have to relate the two incompatible texts to get work done• Show with your STG that although people use a lot of different unofficial texts as workarounds, they all do basically the same thing – they fit the same niche• Show with your operations table that people frequently encounter breakdowns, across all participants, when they try to relate the incompatible texts – and that they find different ways to recover How to improve information flow in 23 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  24. 24. The result…Macro AND: Dialog box and form come from two different(Contradictions) activities.Meso GEM: Participants A and B use sticky notes to alter(Discoordinations) forms; Participant C uses a notebook to keep extra information; Participant D keeps correcting the dialog box. CEM: All participants show deviated sequences representing repairs when they deal with dialog boxes and forms. STG: Participants A, B, and C have all added unofficial texts and all show fewer disruptions than Participant D.Micro (Breakdowns) Operations Table: all participants encountered breakdowns when dealing with dialog boxes and forms, but Participant D encountered far more. How to improve information flow in 24 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  25. 25. “Participants have trouble relating dialog boxes and forms.” How to improve information flow in 25 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  26. 26. “FINDING 1:Participants have trouble relating dialog boxes and forms.” How to improve information flow in 26 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  27. 27. IS OUR NETWORK LEARNING? How to improve information flow in 27 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  28. 28. Where do users go for help with applications?1. Call someone2. Use online help3. Use trial and error4. Use a work-around5. Give up6. Consult the documentationSource: Novick, David G, Edith Elizalde, and Nathaniel Bean. 2007. Towarda more accurate view of when and how people seek help with computerapplications. In SIGDOC ‘07: Proceedings of the 25th annual ACMinternational conference on Design of communication, 95-102. New York,NY, USA: ACM. How to improve information flow in 28 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  29. 29. At Telecorp…• Operational conditions change rapidly• Team members circulate in, out, through the organization (and the telecommunications industry)• Team members engage in boundary crossing and develop horizontal as well as vertical expertise How to improve information flow in 29 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  30. 30. Vertical and Horizontal Expertise• Vertical expertise: Developing more complex, detailed knowledge about a specific subject. – (Example: A switch tech learns more about switches)• Horizontal expertise: Developing broader knowledge about related subjects. – (Example: A switch tech learns a little about how salespeople work so he can explain technical problems to them) How to improve information flow in 30 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  31. 31. Ricardo, CLEC Switch Tech“the other groups really dont understand how ourpart of it works. And Im pretty sure that, you know,we dont understand how some of their stuff works.I mean, they start talking about the ASRs, theprovisioners, and FOCs … I have no idea whattheyre talking about. Now, when I go out in thefield and we work on something and were seeinglike an, you know, an AIS condition for a circuit andwhat have you, they dont understand what weretalking about. So sometimes we can actually word ita different way so they can understand what weretalking about.” How to improve information flow in 31 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  32. 32. “The best way I learn”• “Thrown to the wolves”• “Trial-and-error”• “Sink or swim”• “Hide and watch”• “We were just thrown into it”• “Fast and furious”• “Digging in”• “Get your hands dirty”• “This is a different kind of industry.” How to improve information flow in 32 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  33. 33. Apprenticeship: “You never ever do a partial connection”• Apprenticeship: participating in an activity, first peripherally, then with increasing responsibility (Lave & Wenger).• The most frequently mentioned form of training (51 of 84 interviews; 20 of 23 functional areas)• Contingency based: Shadowing, work reviews. How to improve information flow in 33 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  34. 34. Formal Telecorp Training Sessions: “Nine Times Out of Ten”• Two-week training sessions for Sales, CLEC Provisioning, Customer Service, NOC, Data Entry• Training books full of sample printouts• Inquiry-Response-Evaluation (IRE)• Stories – emphasizing contingencies• Exercises How to improve information flow in 34 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  35. 35. Corporate Training Outside Telecorp: “No One Had Time to Listen to Her”• Corporate training was provided by other telecommunications providers (such as BigTel), equipment manufacturers, and software trainers.• Areas: Bill Verification, Translations, and Alarm Management.• Products: manuals, three ring binders.• Provided linkages across companies.• Benefited individuals more than teams. How to improve information flow in 35 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  36. 36. Documentation: “I Need to Do It from This Day Forward”• Documentation was sometimes self- generated, sometimes from third parties.• Documentation could also be a byproduct of other work.• Some documentation was difficult to find and poorly publicized. How to improve information flow in 36 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  37. 37. Computer-Based Training: “Basically It’s a Crash Course”• Computer-based training tended to focus on industry-level rather than local concerns and fixed concepts rather than contingencies.• Three areas: NOC, NW Design and Inventory, and CLEC Design and Inventory.• Four-hour training, automated test. How to improve information flow in 37 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  38. 38. Trial-and-Error: “Willing to get your hands dirty”• Trial-and-Error: Attempting to complete a task through self-directed exploration.• Entirely contingency-based.• “Sink or swim”; “thrown to the wolves.”• Resulted in limited stable knowledge passed by word of mouth. How to improve information flow in 38 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  39. 39. Stories: “There was nothing about a dog on the ticket.”• Stories about how things went wrong.• The case of Rex.• Emphasized contingencies, provided resources to deal with them.• Oral, ephemeral. How to improve information flow in 39 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  40. 40. Dimension Learning Techniques context Vertical Within functional Apprenticeship; formal Telecorp groups training sessions; trial and error; stories; documentation Vertical Within trades, Computer-based training; corporate disciplines, fields training outside Telecorp Horizontal Across functional Trial and error, stories, apprenticeship groups Horizontal Across Trial and error, stories, apprenticeship organizations How to improve information flow in 40 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  41. 41. How to improve information flow in 41organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  42. 42. LEARNING AND SOCIAL MEDIA How to improve information flow in 42 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  43. 43. Google Plus – Bank of America (Parody) How to improve information flow in 43 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  44. 44. Sherlock, L. (2009). Genre, Activity, and Collaborative Work and Play in WOW How to improve information flow in 44 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  45. 45. LinkedInHow to improve information flow in 45organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  46. 46. … and the Documentation Surrounding It How to improve information flow in 46 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  47. 47. FacebookHow to improve information flow in 47organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  48. 48. HOW DOES NET WORK WORK? How to improve information flow in 48 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  49. 49. Implications for Workers• Rhetoric• Time management• Project management• Adaptability How to improve information flow in 49 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  50. 50. Implications for Managers• Black-boxing – Liaisons – APIs – Aggregations• Strategic thinking• Training How to improve information flow in 50 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  51. 51. Implications for Researchers – and Consultants• Bounding the case• Setting up feedback loops How to improve information flow in 51 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  52. 52. Implications for Understanding Social Media• Social media are part of intersecting activities – spliced and woven• Social media are understandable at different levels of activity How to improve information flow in 52 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  53. 53. Takeaways• Operations tables can map microlevel breakdowns.• Contradiction-Discoordination-Breakdown tables can integrate insights and anchor systemic findings.• The models can support recommendation reports.• Identify learning techniques and challenges in net work.• Understand implications of net work for managers, workers, and researchers/consultants. How to improve information flow in 53 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi

×