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Spinuzzi network-5

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A slide deck discussing Chapter 5 of my book Network.

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Spinuzzi network-5

  1. 1. How are Networks Enacted? Clay Spinuzzi Clay.spinuzzi@utexas.edu How to improve information flow in 1 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  2. 2. Value• Understand how sociotechnical networks allow us to examine work coordination and organization.• Understand how a sociotechnical network analysis can complement networked organizations.• Understand and use three aspects of text: inscriptions, genres, and boundary objects.• Model instances of net work using three heuristics. How to improve information flow in 2 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  3. 3. THE TEAM-UP How to improve information flow in 3 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  4. 4. How to improve information flow in 4organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  5. 5. FEATURING ANDHow to improve information flow in 5organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  6. 6. How to improve information flow in 6organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  7. 7. How to improve information flow in 7organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  8. 8. How to improve information flow in 8organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  9. 9. A shift in work• Modular work: “The understanding of work grounded in the Industrial Revolution… [dividing] labor progressively across space and time.” (p.136)• Net work: “The coordinative work that weaves and splices divergent work activities and that enables the standing sets of transformations that characterize such work.” (p.135) How to improve information flow in 9 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  10. 10. MODULAR WORK How to improve information flow in 10 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  11. 11. How to improve information flow in 11organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  12. 12. How to improve information flow in 12organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  13. 13. Characteristics of Modular Work• Long-term or lifelong • Clearly defined roles jobs • Vertical expertise• Steady contacts with • Organizational, other organizations and disciplinary, trade public boundaries• Linear development of • Interior vs. exterior expertise How to improve information flow in 13 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  14. 14. NET WORK How to improve information flow in 14 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  15. 15. How to improve information flow in 15organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  16. 16. Net Work• Net work: “The coordinative work that weaves and splices divergent work activities and that enables the standing sets of transformations that characterize such work.” (p.135) How to improve information flow in 16 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  17. 17. Characteristics of Net Work• Downsizing • Continual• Automation reorganization• Flattening of work • Breaking down of hierarchies “silos”/ “stovepipes”• Proliferating • Increase in intercompany telecommunications, relationships making it possible to connect any two points in the organization How to improve information flow in 17 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  18. 18. Standing Sets of TransformationsPrevious Report report template in Highlighting and Microsoft Word annotations BRILLIANCE- generated Emails re draft report customer specifics Report (sent to Account Manager via BRILLIANCE email) BRILLIANCE keyword notes for Tier 1 performance report (in draft report) Face to face Edits and email Spreadsheet queries of projects IM and face to Wiki Answers face contact with Carl Final draft of Cover email report (to (to client) client) Meeting (with (From Luis (From Stacys top tier client) This months report becomes the previous observation, observation, report for the next cycle. O4.2) O3.4) How to improve information flow in 18 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  19. 19. How to improve information flow in 19organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  20. 20. How to improve information flow in 20organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  21. 21. How to improve information flow in 21organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  22. 22. In Net Work…• Negotiation becomes an essential skill• Trust becomes an ongoing project• Organizations become looser aggregations• Rhetoric becomes an essential area of expertise. How to improve information flow in 22 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  23. 23. “Interpenetrated”• Anyone can link up with anyone else inside or outside the organization, so any work activities can be intersected. How to improve information flow in 23 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  24. 24. THREE SENSES OF TEXTS How to improve information flow in 24 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  25. 25. Three Senses of Texts• Inscriptions• Genres• Boundary Objects How to improve information flow in 25 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  26. 26. Inscriptions• Concrete traces that represent phenomena in stable, circulable ways• By representing a phenomenon, we can dominate it• “Relatively immutable media that resist transport”• Create realities How to improve information flow in 26 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  27. 27. Genres• Types of inscriptions• Relatively stable, developing• Woven to respond to recurrent situations• Spliced to adapt to local conditions and intersecting activities.• Connected in assemblages (genre ecologies) How to improve information flow in 27 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  28. 28. Boundary Objects• Star & Griesemer: “objects which are both plastic enough to adapt to local needs and the constraints of the several parties employing them, yet robust enough to maintain a constant identity across sites”• Material links between activities (bridges)• Functionally different in different activities• Often texts – and text assemblages (genre ecologies) How to improve information flow in 28 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  29. 29. So texts …• Are inscriptions that represent phenomena• Belong to genres that construct relatively stable relationships• Function as boundary objects that bridge activities How to improve information flow in 29 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  30. 30. FOUR CASES OF NET WORK How to improve information flow in 30 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  31. 31. CASE 1: FOLLOWING AN ORDER How to improve information flow in 31 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  32. 32. How to improve information flow in 32organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  33. 33. In this case• Stable genres wove together different functional groups.• Texts codeveloped because they had to circulate as a whole.• Stable boundary objects spliced together different temporalities and activities. How to improve information flow in 33 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  34. 34. Communicative Event ModelLegend Document Conversation / Meeting Email Conversation Email with Whiteboard Notes on about Manager for tracking brochure Q&A notes editing brochure Q&A Email + instructions jobs history Document history Attachment Whiteboard How to improve information flow in 34 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  35. 35. Communicative Event ModelLegend Document Conversation / Meeting Email Conversation Email with Whiteboard Notes on about Manager for tracking brochure Q&A notes editing brochure Q&A Email + instructions jobs history Document history Attachment Whiteboard How to improve information flow in 35 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  36. 36. CASE 2: FOLLOWING THE MONEY How to improve information flow in 36 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  37. 37. Cash Posting: Coordinating Texts How to improve information flow in 37 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  38. 38. Cash Posting: Transferring Texts How to improve information flow in 38 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  39. 39. Credits & Collections: Coordinating Texts How to improve information flow in 39 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  40. 40. Credits & Collections: Transferring Texts How to improve information flow in 40 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  41. 41. Specialized Languages• “Everybody interprets things differently”• “Trying to shorten your 20-minute conversation into 10 words is kind of difficult” How to improve information flow in 41 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  42. 42. Genre Ecology Model Email with Whiteboard job instructions tracker Planner Original brochure AnnotationsFolder printout Q&A notes History notes Printed (from Sharlee) instructions How to improve information flow in 42 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  43. 43. Genre Ecology Model Email with Whiteboard job instructions tracker Planner Original brochure AnnotationsFolder printout Q&A notes History notes Printed (from Sharlee) instructions How to improve information flow in 43 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  44. 44. CASE 3: FOLLOWING THESUBSTITUTIONS How to improve information flow in 44 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  45. 45. Sociotechnical Graphs• Assemblages of humans and nonhumans• Syntagm: Associative (AND)• Paradigm: Substitutive (OR) How to improve information flow in 45 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  46. 46. How to improve information flow in 46organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  47. 47. A Basic Set of Resources at the NOCF1 notes, email, “winpops,” phone lists, list ofworkers active tickets How to improve information flow in 47 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  48. 48. Substitutions at the NOC How to improve information flow in 48 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  49. 49. Substitutions and Splicing“Every worker can now bring new genres intothe ecology, hybridize these genres, and seeknew relationships among them.” (p.167) How to improve information flow in 49 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  50. 50. How to improve information flow in 50organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  51. 51. An STG for One Instance Prepare for call Contact customer to Record notes on call discuss billArnold: field notes collections list, Phone call to database screen for annotations on customer, collections customers collections collections list, list, database screen information, fax cover database screen for for customers sheet, sticky note, customer, database collections collections list screen for customers information collections informationArnold: interview collections list, Bills, phone call to collections list, annotations on customer annotations to collections list, collections list, bankruptcy notices, database notes, spiral notebook, database screen for phone calls from customer coworkers How to improve information flow in 51 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  52. 52. An STG Across Participants Prepare for call Contact customer and discuss Record notes on call billArnold collections list, annotations on collections list, Phone call to customer, database screen for database screen for customer, database screen for collections list, database customers collections customers collections information, bankruptcy screen for customers information, fax cover sheet, notices, spiral notebook, phone calls from collections information, bills sticky note, collections list, coworkers annotations to collections list, database notes, database screen for customerBill database screen for customers collections Phone call to customer, database screen for information, fax cover sheet, sticky note, collections list, database customers collections collections list, annotations to collections list, screen for customers information, collections list, database notes, database screen for customer collections information, bills, annotations to collections list, spiral notebook of call log phone call to supervisorClara collections list, annotations on collections list, Phone call to customer, database screen for database screen for customer, database screen for collections list, database customers collections customers collections information, log of previous screen for customers information, collections list, customer interactions collections information, log of annotations to collections list, previous customer log of previous customer interactions interactions How to improve information flow in 52 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  53. 53. An STG Across Groups Prepare for call Contact customer and Record notes on call discuss billGroup A collections list, annotations Phone call to customer, database screen for on collections list, database collections list, database customers collections screen for customer, screen for customers information, fax cover database screen for collections information, bills sheet, sticky note, customers collections collections list, information, bankruptcy annotations to notices, spiral notebook, collections list, phone calls from coworkers database notes, database screen for customerGroup B collections list, customer Phone call to customer, customer folder with folder with contact customer folder with contact contact information information and last bill information and last bill, and last bill, Word calendar template, email How to improve information flow in 53 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  54. 54. … And Detecting Discoordinations Prepare for call Contact customer and Record notes on call discuss billGroup A collections list, annotations Phone call to customer, database screen for on collections list, database collections list, database customers collections screen for customer, screen for customers information, fax cover database screen for collections information, bills sheet, sticky note, customers collections collections list, information, bankruptcy annotations to notices, spiral notebook, collections list, phone calls from coworkers database notes, database screen for customerGroup B collections list, customer Phone call to customer, customer folder with folder with contact customer folder with contact contact information information and last bill information and last bill, and last bill, Word calendar template, email How to improve information flow in 54 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  55. 55. CASE 4: FOLLOWING THE WORKERS How to improve information flow in 55 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  56. 56. At Telecorp, workers…• Circulate in quickly• Circulate through quickly• Circulate out quickly• Circulate among telecommunications companies How to improve information flow in 56 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  57. 57. “She Must Have Been on Crack Yesterday!”• Susan: Data entry trainee• Called by former coworker• Still answering questions about former job after two weeks• [Networks can always be reconstituted.] How to improve information flow in 57 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  58. 58. Changing the “Lingo”• Ricardo: Supervisor at CLEC switch• Used one social language for dialer techs across organizations• Learned other social languages for communicating with other functional groups• [Networks learn multidimensionally.] How to improve information flow in 58 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  59. 59. Social LanguagesMade up of Embed• Terms • Expertise• Concepts • Activities • Kinds of work How to improve information flow in 59 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  60. 60. CEMs, GEMs, STGsAPPLYING THE HEURISTICS TOSOCIAL MEDIA How to improve information flow in 60 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  61. 61. Genre Ecology Models & Social Media How to improve information flow in 61 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  62. 62. Communicative Event Models and Social Media How to improve information flow in 62 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  63. 63. Sociotechnical Graphs and Social Media Negotiate Draft PostAlice LinkedIn, phone call, LinkedIn, email, LinkedIn, email, Word contact list, old printout, Word document resume documentBen LinkedIn, face-to-face LinkedIn, email, LinkedIn, email conversation, contact printout with list, calendar annotations, face-to- face conversation, copies of previous workCharla LinkedIn, Instant LinkedIn, email, LinkedIn, email, Word Messaging, contact printout, Word document list, copies of previous document, old work projects in project management software, archived emails How to improve information flow in 63 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  64. 64. Sociotechnical Graphs and Social Media Negotiate Draft PostExperienced LinkedIn, LinkedIn, email, LinkedIn,workers phone call, printout, Word email, Word contact list, document document old resumeStudents LinkedIn, face- LinkedIn, email, LinkedIn, email to-face printout with conversation, annotations, contact list, face-to-face calendar conversation, copies of previous work How to improve information flow in 64 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  65. 65. Sociotechnical Graphs and Social Media Negotiate Draft PostExperienced LinkedIn, LinkedIn, email, LinkedIn,workers phone call, printout, Word email, Word contact list, document document old resumeStudents LinkedIn, face- LinkedIn, email, LinkedIn, email to-face printout with conversation, annotations, contact list, face-to-face calendar conversation, copies of previous work How to improve information flow in 65 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  66. 66. Exercise: CEMsIdentify a sequence• Base it on evidence (observations, interviews, artifacts, analytics, etc.)• Describe it as a sequence of communicative handoffs• Note discoordinations and error handling How to improve information flow in 66 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  67. 67. Exercise: GEMsUsing the same data, generate (or look at) agenre ecology (resources)• Base it on evidence (observations, interviews, artifacts, analytics, etc.)• Describe it as an interconnected set of resources• Note discoordinations How to improve information flow in 67 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  68. 68. Exercise: STGs• Identify the minimum set of resources in common for a sequence• Identify common substitutions for standard texts (e.g., an electronic document for a printout; yelling across the room instead of winpops)• Attempt to detect differences among groups How to improve information flow in 68 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  69. 69. Takeaways• Understand how sociotechnical networks allow us to examine work coordination and organization.• Understand how a sociotechnical networks analysis can complement networked organizations.• Understand and use three aspects of text: inscriptions, genres, and boundary objects.• Model instances of net work using three heuristics: CEMs, GEMs, and STGs. How to improve information flow in 69 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi

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