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How are Networks Historicized?             Clay Spinuzzi      Clay.spinuzzi@utexas.edu           How to improve informatio...
Value• Learn how to apply key theoretical concepts  (contradictions and translation) to historical  changes.• Learn how ac...
How to improve information flow in                                       3organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
The Central Disagreement• Activity theory: Development precedes and  underpins political-rhetorical interests  [weaving]• ...
CASES        How to improve information flow in                                               5        organizations (c) 2...
Universal Service   How to improve information flow in                                          6   organizations (c) 2011...
Accident Location and Analysis          How to improve information flow in                                                ...
CoworkingHow to improve information flow in                                       8organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
IMVUHow to improve information flow in                                       9organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
HISTORY AND CHANGE         How to improve information flow in                                                10         or...
How to improve information flow in                                       11organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Activity TheoryCONTRADICTIONS                  How to improve information flow in                                         ...
How to improve information flow in                                       13organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Spinuzzi, C. (2007).                                       Accessibility scans and                                       i...
Spinuzzi, C. (2011). Losing by                                       Expanding: Corralling the                            ...
How to improve information flow in                                       16organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Client                                                Client                                                 ClientClient ...
Contradictions are…• Material• Transformational• Developmental                How to improve information flow in          ...
How to improve information flow in                                       19organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
How to improve information flow in                                       20organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Client                                                Client                                                 ClientClient ...
Client                                        ClientHow to improve information flow in                                    ...
How to improve information flow in                                       23organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
How to improve information flow in                                       24organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Ries, Eric. (2011). The Lean Startup.    New York: Crown Business.            How to improve information flow in          ...
IMVU’s contradiction• Object: IMVU ties together existing friends  with real-life identities.  Vs.• Object: IMVU allows us...
IMVU’s Pivot• “We adopted the view that our job was to find  a synthesis between our vision and what  customers would acce...
IMVU’s Pivot• “Once we pivoted away from the original  strategy, things began to change. Aligned with  a superior strategy...
Exercise: Contradictions• Examine one tool in your own case. What  problem is it trying to solve? What frictions  caused i...
Actor-Network TheoryTRANSLATION                       How to improve information flow in                                  ...
3. Translationa.   Problematizationb.   Interessementc.   Enrollmentd.   Mobilization                  How to improve info...
How to improve information flow in                                       32organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
Translations are…• Material• Transformational• Associational                How to improve information flow in            ...
Universal Service is …• The principle of universal interconnection  (1907)• Total market penetration (early 1970s)• Univer...
1996                                        1987                                       1995                               ...
Translation:          Multilateral Negotiation• Problematization. What must be accomplished or  negotiated?• Interessement...
• How could Bell hold onto the market after    patents ran out?  • How could competing telecomms defeat the    problem of ...
• Independent telecomms had to   interconnect to keep themselves relevant   by linking to shared subscriber universe. • Be...
• Telecomms and Bell sign interconnection   agreements. • Bell denies long distance service and subscriber   universe to t...
• By the mid-1920s, Bell had consolidated   the market and become a de facto   monopoly, a “natural monopoly.”Mobilization...
Ries, Eric. (2011). The Lean Startup.    New York: Crown Business.            How to improve information flow in          ...
IMVU’s Pivot“We adopted the view that our job was to find asynthesis between our vision and whatcustomers would accept; it...
IMVU’s Translation• Problematization: How do we build a product that  people want to use?• Interessement: Who will be invo...
Exercise: Translations• Examine a tool from your case. Strip away the  layers of translation.• 4. How has it been mobilize...
Takeaways• Know how to apply key theoretical concepts  (contradictions and translation) to historical  changes.• Understan...
Exercise: Examining Contradictions• Go back to your ASDs and ANDs for your work  case. Trace backwards to the contradictio...
Exercise: Examining TranslationsApply translation to an ASD:• 4. How has an element been mobilized?• 3. How have actants w...
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Spinuzzi network-4

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A slide deck discussing Chapter 4 of my book Network.

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Spinuzzi network-4

  1. 1. How are Networks Historicized? Clay Spinuzzi Clay.spinuzzi@utexas.edu How to improve information flow in 1 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  2. 2. Value• Learn how to apply key theoretical concepts (contradictions and translation) to historical changes.• Learn how activity theory and actor-network theory conceptualize and investigate historical changes.• Apply concepts to social media. How to improve information flow in 2 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  3. 3. How to improve information flow in 3organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  4. 4. The Central Disagreement• Activity theory: Development precedes and underpins political-rhetorical interests [weaving]• Actor-network theory: Political-rhetorical interests precede and underpin development [splicing] How to improve information flow in 4 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  5. 5. CASES How to improve information flow in 5 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  6. 6. Universal Service How to improve information flow in 6 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  7. 7. Accident Location and Analysis How to improve information flow in 7 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  8. 8. CoworkingHow to improve information flow in 8organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  9. 9. IMVUHow to improve information flow in 9organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  10. 10. HISTORY AND CHANGE How to improve information flow in 10 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  11. 11. How to improve information flow in 11organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  12. 12. Activity TheoryCONTRADICTIONS How to improve information flow in 12 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  13. 13. How to improve information flow in 13organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  14. 14. Spinuzzi, C. (2007). Accessibility scans and institutional activity: An activity theory analysis.How to improve information flow inorganizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi College English, 70(2). 14
  15. 15. Spinuzzi, C. (2011). Losing by Expanding: Corralling the Runaway Object. Journal ofHow to improve information flow in Business and Technical 15organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi Communication, 25(4).
  16. 16. How to improve information flow in 16organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  17. 17. Client Client ClientClient How to improve information flow in 17 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  18. 18. Contradictions are…• Material• Transformational• Developmental How to improve information flow in 18 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  19. 19. How to improve information flow in 19organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  20. 20. How to improve information flow in 20organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  21. 21. Client Client ClientClient How to improve information flow in 21 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  22. 22. Client ClientHow to improve information flow in 22organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi Client Client
  23. 23. How to improve information flow in 23organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  24. 24. How to improve information flow in 24organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  25. 25. Ries, Eric. (2011). The Lean Startup. New York: Crown Business. How to improve information flow in 25 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  26. 26. IMVU’s contradiction• Object: IMVU ties together existing friends with real-life identities. Vs.• Object: IMVU allows users to discover new friends with virtual identities. How to improve information flow in 26 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  27. 27. IMVU’s Pivot• “We adopted the view that our job was to find a synthesis between our vision and what customers would accept; it wasn’t to capitulate to what customers thought they wanted or to tell customers what they ought to want.” (Reis 2011, p.50) How to improve information flow in 27 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  28. 28. IMVU’s Pivot• “Once we pivoted away from the original strategy, things began to change. Aligned with a superior strategy, our product development efforts became magically more productive – not because we were working harder but because we were working smarter, aligned with our customers’ real needs.” (Reis 2011, p.51) How to improve information flow in 28 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  29. 29. Exercise: Contradictions• Examine one tool in your own case. What problem is it trying to solve? What frictions caused it to develop? How to improve information flow in 29 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  30. 30. Actor-Network TheoryTRANSLATION How to improve information flow in 30 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  31. 31. 3. Translationa. Problematizationb. Interessementc. Enrollmentd. Mobilization How to improve information flow in 31 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  32. 32. How to improve information flow in 32organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  33. 33. Translations are…• Material• Transformational• Associational How to improve information flow in 33 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  34. 34. Universal Service is …• The principle of universal interconnection (1907)• Total market penetration (early 1970s)• Universally obtainable slates of services (1996) How to improve information flow in 34 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  35. 35. 1996 1987 1995 1898How to improve information flow in 35organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  36. 36. Translation: Multilateral Negotiation• Problematization. What must be accomplished or negotiated?• Interessement. What stakeholders are involved in the negotiation?• Enrollment. How do these stakeholders relate—how do they negotiate?• Mobilization. How can the stakeholders be persuaded to link up and accomplish the objectives? How to improve information flow in 36 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  37. 37. • How could Bell hold onto the market after patents ran out? • How could competing telecomms defeat the problem of no economy of scale? • How could municipalities ensure phone coverage? • How could individuals get a single line with simple, affordable service? • How could the federal government promote national good?Problematization: Actors define eachother. Of an infinite range of actors, theseemerge. How to improve information flow in organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi 37
  38. 38. • Independent telecomms had to interconnect to keep themselves relevant by linking to shared subscriber universe. • Bell had to interconnect to expand into local markets. • Municipalities had to escape boom-bust cycle.Interessement: Actors lock each other intoplace -- they define their interests ascongruent. How to improve information flow in organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi 38
  39. 39. • Telecomms and Bell sign interconnection agreements. • Bell denies long distance service and subscriber universe to those who won’t sign. • Municipalities favor interconnection. • Federal government begins regulating. • Market is divided between long distance and local.Enrollment: Multilateral negotiationsenable interessement. How to improve information flow in 39 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  40. 40. • By the mid-1920s, Bell had consolidated the market and become a de facto monopoly, a “natural monopoly.”Mobilization: Actors choose aspokesperson, link up, and accomplishobjectives. How to improve information flow in organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi 40
  41. 41. Ries, Eric. (2011). The Lean Startup. New York: Crown Business. How to improve information flow in 41 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  42. 42. IMVU’s Pivot“We adopted the view that our job was to find asynthesis between our vision and whatcustomers would accept; it wasn’t to capitulateto what customers thought they wanted or totell customers what they ought to want.” (Reis2011, p.50) How to improve information flow in 42 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  43. 43. IMVU’s Translation• Problematization: How do we build a product that people want to use?• Interessement: Who will be involved in IMVU, and how? What is our job, what is our market, and how will we interoperate with other IM networks?• Enrollment: How do we get those actors to choose sides? How do we get people to accept their role as paying customers?• Mobilization: How do we wrap up our code, interoperability, market, processes, etc. and call it “IMVU”? How to improve information flow in 43 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  44. 44. Exercise: Translations• Examine a tool from your case. Strip away the layers of translation.• 4. How has it been mobilized?• 3. How have actors been enrolled?• 2. How were those actors interessed?• 1. What problematized the situation in order to interesse them? How to improve information flow in 44 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  45. 45. Takeaways• Know how to apply key theoretical concepts (contradictions and translation) to historical changes.• Understand how activity theory and actor- network theory conceptualize and investigate historical changes.• Understand how to apply concepts to social media. How to improve information flow in 45 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  46. 46. Exercise: Examining Contradictions• Go back to your ASDs and ANDs for your work case. Trace backwards to the contradictions that led to the current configuration. How did they get here?• Look at the ASD and trace the origins of some of the more commonly used tools. Why were these tools brought in? From what other activities did they come?• Speculate how current contradictions indicate upcoming changes. What will they be? How to improve information flow in 46 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi
  47. 47. Exercise: Examining TranslationsApply translation to an ASD:• 4. How has an element been mobilized?• 3. How have actants within that element been enrolled?• 2. How were those actants interessed (locked into place by their relations)?• 1. How was the issue problematized in such a way as to attract the actants? How to improve information flow in 47 organizations (c) 2011 Clay Spinuzzi

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