Short Story Literary Analysis This is an essay which will analyze the author’s development of a theme or character in a short story.
Introduction The introduction must introduce the author, the title of the story, provide a brief plot summary, state the theme of the story, and explain which literary devices the author uses to develop the theme. Do not forget that the entire essay must be written in present tense!!!!
Examples of literary devices: How does the author use the following literary devices to develop the theme of the story? Setting Characterization (character’s actions, inner thoughts and motivation. Is the character dynamic?) Foreshadowing Irony Point of view (who is telling the story?) Symbolism Plot (conflict, climax, resolution)
Body Paragraphs Each body paragraph must focus on one literary device and how the author uses the device to develop the theme. For example, The conflict in “The Most Dangerous Game” reveals the theme that we can not understand another’s perspective until we have experienced his perspective.
Quotes Each body paragraph must include at least one quote and must follow proper format for integrating quotes. (Directions for integrating quotations are below.)
Conclusion Restate your thesis in different words Tells what you’ve learned by analyzing the work What did you learn about poetry, short stories and plays?
Details This is at least a five paragraph essay. Do not use personal pronouns or contractions. The entire paper must be written in present tense. You must use a minimum of three quotes.
Opinions supported by evidence,relating to: Characterization Voice Style Theme Setting Technical qualities of the writing (artistry, style, use of language) Interpretation Complex ideas and problems Relationship of work to the time, social, historical or political trends
Summary versus Analysis A summary re-tells a story. An analysis examines the cause or effect of an incident in the story, compares or contrasts 2 characters, explains how an event occurred etc…Ex: Mary had a little lamb
Summary: Mary had a little lamb. It followed her to school. No lambs were allowed in school. The children laughed. Analysis: One reason Mary may have brought the lamb to school was to get attention. All the children “laughed and played”, making Mary feel at the center and popular.
Quote Examples1. My Idea Mary appears to have a fetish for lamb wool2. Quote Dr. Benton states that “ Mary’s proclivity for her lamb makes her pet it often and bring it with her.” (Benton 22)3. Explanation of how quote supports my idea. Mary’s constant need to touch and stroke her lamb illustrates Mary’s obsession.
Every quotation should have a reference that indicates where you got it. I shall not see on earth a place more dear” “ Author: Page: Line #:
Anytime you quote something, you need to give the author’s name and the page number the quotation can be found on.Example- Potok 78 NO PAGE
If you are quoting poetry, use the line number instead of the page number.Example- Homer lines 68-70 Type line or lines so readers know you are not referring to the page number
The author’s last name and page number go after the quotation inside of parentheses. This is called the QUO-PAR-PUNC rule.“I shall not see on earth a place more dear” (Homer line 137). QUO= PAR= PUNC= quotation parentheses punctuation
You wouldn’t wear clothes that only cover up the front-side or the back-side of your body, so don’t leave your quotation half naked either.
Odysseus speaks to Alcinous’ court abouthis homeland in Ithaca, recalling, “I shall not see on earth a place more dear” (Homer line 137). Thus, he demonstrates the Greekvalue of loyalty to one’s homeland.
Clothe the FrontThere are two ways tobegin a sentence thatincludes a quotation.1. Use a signal phrase.2. Integrate the author’s words into your own writing.
Signal Phrases A signal phrase indicates that you are about to use language that is not your own.
Signal Phrases If you do not show that these are not your own words it is PLAGIARISM!
Signal PhrasesExample: Polyphemus says of Odysseus, “…..” (95).
Example 1Revise: Odysseus shows that he is an epic hero in the Cyclops episode, “I would not heed them in my glorying spirit,/ but let my anger flare…” (Homer lines 500-501).
WARNINGJust adding a quotation to the end of a related sentence does not mean that you have used a signal phrase.
Example 1Fixed: Odysseus reveals that he desires the credit for his deeds, saying, “I would not heed them in my glorying spirit,/ but let my anger flare…” (Homer lines 500-501).
Example 2Revise: Homer shows that Odysseus is an epic hero by saying, “I drove them, all three wailing, to the ships…” (line 211).
Example 2Fixed: Odysseus shows his loyalty to his homeland by forcing his men to continue on their journey. He explains, “I drove them, all three wailing, to the ships…” (line 211).
Example 3Revise: Odysseus cleverly deceives the Cyclops. “My name is Nohbody…” (Homer line 360).
Example 3Fixed: Odysseus cleverly deceives the Cyclops, declaring, “My name is Nohbody…” (Homer line 360).
Example 4Revise: “…make fair sacrifice to Lord Poseidon” (Homer line 650). With these words, Teiresias helps Odysseus to see that it has been his pride that has kept him from returning home, and he must admit his mistake to Poseidon in order to right the situation.
Example 4Fixed: Teiresias confirms that Odysseus’ pride has kept him from Ithaca, commanding him, “… make fair sacrifice to Lord Poseidon” (Homer line 650). Thus Teiresias reveals that the only way for Odysseus to reestablish right standing with the gods is to finally acknowledge Poseidon’s help in the Trojan War.
Example 5Revise: Odysseus’ sacrifice to Poseidon is the last task he must accomplish before his world is set right again, “Then a seaborne death/ soft as this hand of mist will come upon you/ when you are wearied out with rich old age” (Homer lines 654-656).
Example 5Fixed: Odysseus’ sacrifice to Poseidon is the last task he must accomplish before a peaceful “seaborne death/ soft as this hand of mist will come upon [him]” (Homer lines 654- 655).
Do Not Refer to theQuotation Other than naked quotations, the most common mistake is referring directly to the quotation.
Do Not Refer to theQuotation Teiresias predicts the end of Odysseus’ life in the quote: “seaborne death/ soft as this hand of mist will come upon [him]” (Homer lines 654-655).
Do Not Refer to theQuotation Odysseus cleverly deceives the Cyclops, declaring, “My name is Nobody…” (Homer line 360). This quotation reveals that Odysseus uses intelligence in situations wherein strength is not an option.
For Future Reference… Quote is a verb Quotation is a noun