Scientific method-Spiller


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Katie Spiller

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Scientific method-Spiller

  1. 1. Scientific MethodScientific Method
  2. 2. Steps in the ScientificSteps in the Scientific MethodMethod  ObservationObservation  HypothesisHypothesis  ExperimentExperiment  Data CollectionData Collection  ConclusionConclusion  RetestRetest
  3. 3. ObservationsObservations  GatheredGathered through yourthrough your sensessenses  A scientistA scientist noticesnotices something insomething in theirtheir naturalnatural worldworld
  4. 4. ObservationsObservations  AnAn exampleexample of anof an observationobservation mightmight be noticing thatbe noticing that many salamandersmany salamanders near a pond havenear a pond have curved, notcurved, not straight, tailsstraight, tails
  5. 5. HypothesisHypothesis  A suggestedA suggested solution to thesolution to the problem.problem.  Must beMust be testabletestable  Sometimes writtenSometimes written asas If…Then…If…Then… statementsstatements  PredictsPredicts anan outcomeoutcome
  6. 6. HypothesisHypothesis  AnAn example of aexample of a hypothesishypothesis mightmight be that thebe that the salamanders havesalamanders have curved tails due tocurved tails due to a pollutant in thea pollutant in the moist soil wheremoist soil where they live.they live.
  7. 7. ExperimentExperiment  A procedureA procedure toto testtest thethe hypothesis.hypothesis.
  8. 8. ExperimentExperiment VariableVariable –– factor in thefactor in the experimentexperiment that is beingthat is being testedtested
  9. 9. ExperimentExperiment A good orA good or “valid”“valid” experimentexperiment will only havewill only have ONEONE variable!variable!
  10. 10. Controls and VariablesControls and Variables
  11. 11. Scientific Experiments FollowScientific Experiments Follow RulesRules  An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens.
  12. 12. The Control VariableThe Control Variable  The experimenter makes aThe experimenter makes a special effort to keepspecial effort to keep otherother factors constantfactors constant so thatso that they will not effect thethey will not effect the outcome.outcome.  Those factors are calledThose factors are called control variables.control variables.
  13. 13. What is the Purpose of aWhat is the Purpose of a Control?Control?  Controls are NOT being tested  Controls are used for COMPARISON
  14. 14. Other Variables  The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable.  The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable.
  15. 15. Example of Controls &Example of Controls & VariablesVariables  For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school.  You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one.  Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself.
  16. 16. What are the Variables inWhat are the Variables in Your Experiment?Your Experiment?  Varying the route is theVarying the route is the independent variableindependent variable  The time it takes is theThe time it takes is the dependent variabledependent variable  Keeping the same walkerKeeping the same walker throughout makes the walker athroughout makes the walker a control variable.control variable.
  17. 17. One more thing… it is best to make several trials with each independent variable.
  18. 18. Valid ExperimentsValid Experiments
  19. 19. Remember: To be a ValidRemember: To be a Valid Experiment:Experiment:  Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groups  There should be only one variable
  20. 20. DataData  Results of the experiment  May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative
  21. 21. DataData  Must be organized  Can be organized into charts, tables, or graphs
  22. 22. ConclusionConclusion  The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment
  23. 23. RetestRetest In order to verify the results, experiments must be retested.
  24. 24. Solving a ProblemSolving a Problem 1)Identify a Problem 2) State Observations about the problem 3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…) 4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis 5) Collect Data 6) Form a Conclusion 7) Retest
  25. 25. RERUN  R Restate the purpose of the experiment. For some labs, you may be given the purpose and for others you may have to reword the question. This can normally be completed in one sentence. (The purpose of this lab was to …).
  26. 26. RERUN  E Summarize the experiment. What did you do in this lab? Give enough details that one with some science background could follow the steps with out much assistance. For some labs, this can be completed in two or three sentences. For other labs, it may take six to eight sentences. (In this lab we …).
  27. 27. RERUN  R Analyze the results. Three main items should be included in this section. First, restate the hypothesis. Next, give actual data. Remember, this can be done with quantitative and/or qualitative observations. Finally, state whether the hypothesis was supported or rejected. You are only conducting this experiment once. You will NOT be able to prove any concept to be right, wrong, correct or incorrect. This section of the RERUN will take a complete paragraph to complete. If a lab has more than one hypothesis, you may need more than one paragraph. (My hypothesis was …). (The data shows …). And, (The hypothesis was …).
  28. 28. RERUN  U Describe any uncertainties or problems that you had. What could have gone wrong? You should be able to complete this section in two or three sentences. (One problem that I had …). Or, (One thing that may have gone wrong was …).
  29. 29. RERUN  N What can you do now? How could you apply this lab in your life? Or, how could we change this lab in the future? (One way to use in this information would be …). Or, (One new thing I learned was …).