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Simple Model of Ni-MH Battery Model using PSpice

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Simple Model of Ni-MH Battery Model using PSpice by Bee Technologies

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Simple Model of Ni-MH Battery Model using PSpice

  1. 1. Nickel-Metal Hydride BatterySimplified SPICE Behavioral Model All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 1
  2. 2. Contents 1. Benefit of the Model 2. Model Feature 3. Concept of the Model 4. Parameter Settings 5. Ni-Mh Battery Specification (Example) 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic 6. Extend the number of Cell (Example) 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=7 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=7 Simulation Index All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 2
  3. 3. 1. Benefit of the Model• The model enables circuit designer to predict and optimize Ni-MH battery runtime and circuit performance.• The model can be easily adjusted to your own Ni-MH battery specifications by editing a few parameters that are provided in the datasheet.• The model is optimized to reduce the convergence error and the simulation time. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 3
  4. 4. 2. Model Feature• This Ni-MH Battery Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model is for users who require the model of a Ni-MH Battery as a part of their system.• The model accounts for Battery Voltage(Vbat) vs. Battery Capacity Level (SOC) Characteristic, so it can perform battery charge and discharge time at various current rate conditions.• As a simplified model, the effects of cycle number and temperature are neglected. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 4
  5. 5. 3. Concept of the Model Ni-Mh battery + Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model [Spec: C, NS] Output Characteristics Adjustable SOC [ 0-1(100%) ] -• The model is characterized by parameters: C which represent the battery capacity and SOC which represent the battery initial capacity level.• Open-circuit voltage (VOC) vs. SOC is included in the model as an analog behavioral model (ABM).• NS (Number of Cells in series) is used when the Ni-mh cells are in series to increase battery voltage level. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 5
  6. 6. 4. Parameter Settings Model Parameters: C is the amp-hour battery capacity [Ah] – e.g. C = 0.3, 1.4, or 2.8 [Ah] NS is the number of cells in series + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y – e.g. NS=1 for 1 cell battery, NS=2 for 2 cells battery TS C A LE = 1 (battery voltage is double from 1 cell) U 1 C = 1350M SO C = 1 SOC is the initial state of charge in percent N S = 1 – e.g. SOC=0 for a empty battery (0%), SOC=1 for a full charged battery (100%) (Default values) TSCALE turns TSCALE seconds(in the real world) into a second(in simulation) – e.g. TSCALE=60 turns 60s or 1min (in the real world) into a second(in simulation), TSCALE=3600 turns 3600s or 1h into a second.• From the Ni-Mh Battery specification, the model is characterized by setting parameters C, NS, SOC and TSCALE. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 6
  7. 7. 5. Ni-Mh Battery Specification (Example) Nominal Voltage 1.2V Typical 1350mAh Capacity + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y TSC A LE = 1 Minimum 1250mAh U 1 SO C = 1 C = 1350M Charging Current × Time 1350mA × about 1.1h N S = 1 Discharge cut-off voltage 1.0V Battery capacity Battery capacity [Typ.] is input as aa [Typ.] is input as model parameter model parameter• The battery information refer to a battery part number HF-A1U of SANYO. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 7
  8. 8. 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic Measurement Simulation 1. 8V 1. 7V 1. 6V 1. 5V Charge: 1350mA 1. 4V 1. 3V 1. 2V 1. 1V 1. 0V 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s V( HI ) (min.) Ti me + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y • Charging Current: 1350mA × about 1.1h TS C A LE = 60 U 1 C = 1350M SO C = 0 SOC=0 means SOC=0 means N S = 1 battery start from 0% battery start from 0% of capacity (empty) of capacity (empty) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 8
  9. 9. 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic− Simulation Circuit and Setting PARAMETERS: ra te = 1 C Ah = 1350m H ICharge Voltage Charge Voltage C 1 OUT+ V in OUT- 10n 3V 0 IB A TT IN+ IN- G 1 L im it ( V ( % I N + , % I N - ) / 1 m , 0 , r a t e * C A h ) 0 0 + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y TSC ALE = 60 AAconstant current charger at constant current charger at U 1 C = 1350M rate of capacity (e.g. SO C = 0 rate of capacity (e.g. 11minute into aa N S = 1 minute into 1×1350mA) 1×1350mA) second (in simulation) second (in simulation)*Analysis directives:.TRAN 0 62 0 25m.PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 9
  10. 10. 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic• Battery voltage vs. time are simulated at 0.2C, 1.0C, and 2.0C discharge rates. 1. 6V PARAMETERS: ra te = 1 C Ah = 1350m 1. 5V sense H I 1. 4V C 1 0 IN+ OUT+ 10n + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y TS C A LE = 60 IN- OUT- 0 U 1 C = 1350M 1. 3VG 1 SO C = 1 0.2CG VALU E N S = 1lim it ( V ( % I N + , % I N - ) / 1 m , 0 , r a t e * C A h ) 1. 2V 0 TSCALE turns 11minute into aa TSCALE turns minute into 1C second(in simulation), battery starts second(in simulation), battery starts 1. 1V from 100% of capacity (fully from 100% of capacity (fully charged) charged) 2C 1. 0V 0. 9V*Analysis directives: 0s 60s V( HI ) 120s 180s 240s 300s 360s (min.).TRAN 0 360 0 100m Ti me.STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.2,1,2.PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 10
  11. 11. 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic Measurement Simulation 1.6 0.2C (270mA) 1.5 1.0C (1350mA) 2.0C (2700mA) 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 270mA 1350mA C V g a o e 1.0 2700mA ] [ t l 0.9 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 Discharge Capacity [mAh] Simulation 1.2 + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y 1.0 TS C A LE = 60 U 1 C = 1350M 0.8 SO C = 1 0.6 N S = 1 0.4 Mesurement 0.2 C A • Nominal Voltage: 1.2V p a u y c Simulation t i l % C R 0.0 p d e a o y c ) ( t f i • Capacity: 1350mAh 0 1 2 3 4 5 • Discharge cut-off voltage: 1.0V Discharge Rate (Multiples of C) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 11
  12. 12. 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic− Simulation Circuit and Setting PARAMETERS: ra te = 0 .2 C Ah = 1350m sense H I C 1 0 IN+ OUT+ AAconstant current constant current 10n + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y discharger at rate of TSC ALE = 60 IN- OUT- discharger at rate of 0 U 1 C = 1350M G 1 capacity (e.g. 1×1350mA) capacity (e.g. 1×1350mA) SO C = 1 G VALU E N S = 1 lim it ( V ( % I N + , % I N - ) / 1 m , 0 , r a t e * C A h ) 11minute into aa minute into second (in simulation) second (in simulation) 0*Analysis directives:.TRAN 0 296.4 0 100m.PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 12
  13. 13. 6. Extend the number of Cell (Example) Ni-MH needs 77 Ni-MH needs cells to reach cells to reach this voltage level this voltage level Basic Specification + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y TS C A LE = 3600 Voltage - Rated 8.4V U 1 SO C = 1 C = 1500M Capacity 1500mAh N S = 7 The number of The number of Structure 1 Row x 7 Cells Side to Side cells in series is cells in series is input as aamodel input as model Number of Cells 7 parameter parameter Voltage − Rated 8.4 NS = = Ni - MH Nominal Voltage 1.2• The battery information refer to a battery part number HHR-150AAB01F7 of Panasonic. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 13
  14. 14. 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=7 The battery needs 5 hours to be fully charged 12. 6V 11. 9V 11. 2V 10. 5V Voltage 9. 8V 9. 1V 8. 4V 7. 7V 7. 0V 0s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10s V( HI ) (hour) Ti me• Charging Current: 300mA (0.2 Charge) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 14
  15. 15. 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=7− Simulation Circuit and Setting PARAMETERS: ra te = 0 .2 C Ah = 1500m H ICharge Voltage Charge Voltage C 1 OUT+ V in OUT- 10n 12V 0 IB A TT IN+ IN- G 1 L im it ( V ( % I N + , % I N - ) / 1 m , 0 , r a t e * C A h ) 0 0 + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y TSC ALE = 3600 U 1 C = 1500M SO C = 0 N S = 7 11hour into aasecond hour into second (in simulation) (in simulation)*Analysis directives:.TRAN 0 5.2 0 2.5m.PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 15
  16. 16. 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=7 11. 2V 10. 5V 9. 8V 9. 1V 0.2C 8. 4V 0.5C 7. 7V 1C 7. 0V 6. 3V 0s 1. 0s 2. 0s 3. 0s 4. 0s 5. 0s 6. 0s V( HI ) (hour) Ti me• Voltage - Rated: 8.4V• Discharging Current: 300mA(0.2C), 750mA(0.5C), 1500mA(1.0C) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 16
  17. 17. 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=7− Simulation Circuit and Setting Parametric sweep Parametric sweep “rate” for multiple rate “rate” for multiple rate discharge simulation discharge simulation PARAMETERS: ra te = 1 C Ah = 1500m sense H I C 1 0 IN+ OUT+ 10n + - N I-M H _ B A T T E R Y TSC A LE = 3600 IN- OUT- 0 U 1 C = 1500M G 1 SO C = 1 G VALU E N S = 7 lim it ( V ( % I N + , % I N - ) / 1 m , 0 , r a t e * C A h ) 11hour into aasecond hour into second (in simulation) (in simulation) 0*Analysis directives:.TRAN 0 6 0 2.5m.STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.2,0.5,1.PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 17
  18. 18. Simulation IndexSimulations Folder name1. Charge Time Characteristic................................. Charge_Time2. Discharge Time Characteristic............................. Discharge_Time3. Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic.................................. Discharge_SOC4. Charge Time Characteristic, NS=7....................... Charge_Time(NS)5. Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=7................... Discharge_Time(NS) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 18

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