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鉛蓄電池のシンプルモデル(PSpice)

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鉛蓄電池のシンプルモデル(PSpice) by Bee Technologies

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鉛蓄電池のシンプルモデル(PSpice)

  1. 1. Lead-Acid BatterySimplified SPICE Behavioral Model All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 1
  2. 2. Contents 1. Benefit of the Model 2. Model Feature 3. Concept of the Model 4. Parameter Settings 5. Lead-Acid Battery Specification (Example) 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic 6. Extend the number of Cell (Example) 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3 Simulation Index All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 2
  3. 3. 1. Benefit of the Model• The model enables circuit designer to predict and optimize Lead- Acid battery runtime and circuit performance.• The model can be easily adjusted to your own Lead-Acid battery specifications by editing a few parameters that are provided in the datasheet.• The model is optimized to reduce the convergence error and the simulation time. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 3
  4. 4. 2. Model Feature• This Lead-Acid Battery Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model is for users who require the model of a Lead-Acid Battery as a part of their system.• The model accounts for Battery Voltage(Vbat) vs. Battery Capacity Level (SOC) Characteristic, so it can perform battery charge and discharge time at various current rate conditions.• As a simplified model, the effects of cycle number and temperature are neglected. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 4
  5. 5. 3. Concept of the Model Lead-Acid battery + Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model Output [Spec: C, NS] Characteristics Adjustable SOC [ 0-1(100%) ] -• The model is characterized by parameters: C which represent the battery capacity and SOC which represent the battery initial capacity level.• Open-circuit voltage (VOC) vs. SOC is included in the model as an analog behavioral model (ABM).• NS (Number of Cells in series) is used when the Lead-acid cells are in series to increase battery voltage level. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 5
  6. 6. 4. Parameter Settings Model Parameters: C is the amp-hour battery capacity [Ah] – e.g. C = 1, 50, or 100 [Ah] NS is the number of cells in series – e.g. NS=1 for 1 cell battery, NS=2 for 2 cells battery (battery voltage is double from 1 cell) + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY TSCALE = 1 U1 C = 50 SOC is the initial state of charge in percent SOC = 1 – e.g. SOC=0 for a empty battery (0%), SOC=1 for a full NS = 1 charged battery (100%) (Default values) TSCALE turns TSCALE seconds(in the real world) into a second(in simulation) – e.g. TSCALE=60 turns 60s or 1min (in the real world) into a second(in simulation), TSCALE=3600 turns 3600s or 1h into a second.• From the Lead-Acid Battery specification, the model is characterized by setting parameters C, NS, SOC and TSCALE. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 6
  7. 7. 5. Lead-Acid Battery Specification (Example) Nominal Voltage 2.0 [Vdc] /Cell Capacity 50Ah + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY Rated Charge 0.1C10A TSCALE = 1 U1 SOC = 1 Voltage Set 2.23 [Vdc] /Cell C = 50 NS = 1 Charging Time 24 [hours] @ 0.1C10A Battery capacity [Typ.] is input as a model parameter• The battery information refer to a battery part number MSE Series of GS YUASA. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 7
  8. 8. 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic Measurement Simulation 1.4V 2.6V 210mA 1 2 3 1.2V 2.5V 180mA 1.0V 2.4V 150mA 0.8V 2.3V 120mA Voltage: 2.23V 0.6V 2.2V 90mA 0.4V 2.1V 60mA Current: 5A (0.1C10A) 0.2V 2.0V 30mA >> 0V 1.9V 0A 0s 4s 8s 12s 16s 20s 24s 1 V(X_U1.SOC) 2 V(HI) 3 I(IBATT)/50 (hour) Time • Charging Time: 24 [hours] @ 0.1C10A + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY TSCALE = 3600 U1 C = 50 SOC = 0 SOC=0 means NS = 1 battery start from 0% of capacity (empty) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 8
  9. 9. 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic  Simulation Circuit and Setting PARAMETERS: rate = 0.1 CAh = 50Charge Voltage HI OUT+ OUT- C1 Vin 10n 2.23V IBATT IN+ IN- 0 G1 Limit(V(%IN+, %IN-)/0.1m, 0, rate*CAh ) 0 0 + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY A constant current charger at TSCALE = 3600 U1 C = 50 rate of capacity (e.g. 150A) SOC = 0 NS = 1 1 hour intoa second (in simulation) *Analysis directives: .TRAN 0 24 0 25m .PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 9
  10. 10. 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic Measurement Simulation 2.2V 2.0V 0.1C10A 1.8V 0.23C10A 1.6V 0.65C10A 1.0C10A 1.4V 10ms 100ms 1.0s 10s 100s V(HI) (hour) Time + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY TSCALE = 3600 U1 C = 50 SOC = 1 SOC=1 means NS = 1 battery start from 100% of capacity All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 10
  11. 11. 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic Simulation Circuit and Setting PARAMETERS: rate = 1 CAh = 50 sense HI C1 IN+ OUT+ 10n IN- OUT- G1 0 0 GVALUE + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY limit(V(%IN+, %IN-)/0.1m, 0, rate*CAh ) TSCALE = 3600 U1 C = 50 SOC = 1 0 NS = 1 A constant current discharger at rate of capacity (e.g. 150A) TSCALE turns 1 hour into a second(in simulation), battery starts from 100% of capacity (fully charged)*Analysis directives:.TRAN 0 10 0.02 25m.STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.1, 0.23, 0.65, 1.PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 11
  12. 12. 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic Measurement Simulation 2.2 @25C 2.0 Cell Voltage [V] 1.8 0.1C10A 1.0C10A 0.25C10A 1.6 0.6C10A 1.4 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 [0-100%] Capacity [%] Simulation 1.2 + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY Mesurement (% of Rated Capacity) 1.0 TSCALE = 3600 Simulation U1 C = 50 0.8 SOC = 1 0.6 NS = 1 0.4 0.2 • Nominal Voltage: 2.0V 0.0 • Capacity: 50Ah 0 1 2 3 Discharge Rate (Multiples of C) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 12
  13. 13. 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic Simulation Circuit and Setting PARAMETERS: rate = 0.1 CAh = 50 sense HI C1 IN+ OUT+ A constant current 10n IN- OUT- discharger at rate of G1 capacity (e.g. 150A) 0 GVALUE 0 limit(V(%IN+, %IN-)/0.1m, 0, rate*CAh ) + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY TSCALE = 3600 U1 C = 50 0 SOC = 1 NS = 1 1 hour into a second (in simulation)*Analysis directives:.TRAN 0 9.898 0 100m.PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 13
  14. 14. 6. Extend the number of Cell (Example) Lead-Acid needs 3 cells to reach this voltage level Basic Specification + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY TSCALE = 3600 Voltage - Rated 6.0 [Vdc] /Cell U1 C = 100 SOC = 1 Capacity 100Ah NS = 3 Rated Charge 0.1C10A The number of cells in series is input as a model parameter Voltage Set 2.23V*3 [Vdc] /Cell Charging Time 24 [hours] @ 0.1C10A Voltage  Rated 6 NS   Lead - Acid Nominal Voltage 2.0• The battery information refer to a battery part number MSE-100-6 of GS YUASA. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 14
  15. 15. 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3 The battery needs 24 hours to be fully charged 1.4V 7.8V 210mA1 2 3 1.2V 7.5V 180mA 1.0V 7.2V 150mA 0.8V 6.9V 120mA Charge Voltage: 6.69V 0.6V 6.6V 90mA 0.4V 6.3V 60mA Charge Current: 10A (0.1C10A) 0.2V 6.0V 30mA >> 0V 5.7V 0A 0s 4s 8s 12s 16s 20s 24s 1 V(X_U1.SOC) 2 V(HI) 3 I(IBATT)/100 (hour) Time• Charging Current: 10A (0.1C10A) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 15
  16. 16. 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3  Simulation Circuit and Setting PARAMETERS: rate = 0.1 CAh = 100 HICharge Voltage OUT+ OUT- C1 Vin 10n 6.69V IBATT IN+ IN- 0 G1 Limit(V(%IN+, %IN-)/0.1m, 0, rate*CAh ) 0 0 + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY TSCALE = 3600 U1 C = 100 SOC = 0 NS = 3 1 hour into a second (in simulation) *Analysis directives: .TRAN 0 24 0 25m .PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 16
  17. 17. 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3 6.6V 6.0V 5.4V 0.1C10A 0.25C10A 4.8V 0.6C10A 1.0C10A 4.2V 10ms 100ms 1.0s 10s 100s V(HI) Time (hour)• Voltage - Rated: 6.0V• Discharging Current: 10A(0.1C), 23A(0.23C), 65A(0.65C), 100A(1.0C) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 17
  18. 18. 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3  Simulation Circuit and SettingParametric sweep “rate” for multiple rate discharge simulation PARAMETERS: rate = 1 CAh = 100 sense HI C1 IN+ OUT+ 10n IN- OUT- G1 0 GVALUE 0 limit(V(%IN+, %IN-)/0.1m, 0, rate*CAh ) + - LEAD-ACID_BATTERY TSCALE = 3600 U1 C = 100 0 SOC = 1 NS = 3 1 hour into a second (in simulation) *Analysis directives: .TRAN 0 10 0.02 25m .STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.1, 0.23, 0.65, 1 .PROBE V(*) I(*) W(*) D(*) NOISE(*) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 18
  19. 19. Simulation IndexSimulations Folder name1. Charge Time Characteristic................................. Charge_Time2. Discharge Time Characteristic............................. Discharge_Time3. Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic.................................. Discharge_SOC4. Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3....................... Charge_Time(NS)5. Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3................... Discharge_Time(NS) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 19

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