Chinese culture


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What is Culture Definition ?

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Chinese culture

  1. 1. Explore the Chinese Culture Let’ s learntogether ! Eric Li
  2. 2. What is Culture Definition ?• Some conceive of culture as separating humans from non-humans.• Some define it as communicable knowledge.• Some as the sum of historical achievements produced by man’s social life.• In a word: culture is learned, shared, and transmitted from the generation to the next.
  3. 3. Chinese Culture Overview• China: 9,600,000 square kilometers, is proud of five thousand years’ history.• 56 ethnic groups: living in China have developed their own customs. Too many culture elements!
  4. 4. Brief Contents• 1. Chinese Religion and Philosophy: Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism• 2. Modern business culture & etiquette.• 3. Chinese cuisine.• 4. Chinese arts and crafts: Painting, operas, embroidery, china and martial arts
  5. 5. 1. Religion and Philosophy• China has an approximately 4100-year recorded history. ( From the endlessprimeval period, around 2,100 B.C.)• Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism are the three great thoughts. Mostsocial values are derived from Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Item Central Neonatal Date Duration Sum Figure Confucianism Confucius 479 BC To 2010 2500 years Taoism Laozi 6th century BC To 2010 2500 years Buddhism Sakyamuni 6th century BC To 2010 1500 years into China in 6th Century AD
  6. 6. The Leading FiguresConfucianism Taoism Buddhism Confucius Lao Zi Shakyamuni
  7. 7. 1.1 Confucianism• Confucianism ( 儒家 ; pinyin: Rújiā) is a Chinese Confuciusethical and philosophical system developed from theteachings of Confucius (Kǒng Fūzǐ, lit. "Master Kong",551–478 BC).• It is a complex system of moral, social, political,philosophical, and quasi-religious thought that has hadtremendous influence on the culture and history ofEast Asia.
  8. 8. Teachings of Confucianism Ren 仁 (benevolence, love) & Li 礼 (rites)---respect for the system of social hierarchy.• The basic clou of Confucianism stresses the importance of the individual moral development, so that the state can be governed by moral virtue rather than by the laws.• Golden mean (philosophy): the felicitous middle between the extremes of excess and deficiency “ Rid the two ends, take the middle one.”• Relationships are central to Confucianism. Particular duties arise from ones special situation in relation to others.
  9. 9. 1.2 Taoism• Laozi ( 老子 ; pinyin: Lǎozǐ;) was a philosopher of Lao ZiChina around 6th century B.C. and is a centralfigure in Taoism.• Laozi literally means "Old Master" and is generallyconsidered an honorific.•Taoism is the Chinese religion which believes inghosts and spirits. It emphasized cooperation withthe natural forces.
  10. 10. Teachings of TaoismWu wei ( 无为 ; pinyin: wúwéi) is a centralconcept in Taoism. The literal meaning of wuwei is "without action". It is often expressed bythe paradox wei wu wei, meaning "actionwithout action" or "effortless doing".
  11. 11. 1.3 Buddhism• Buddhism is a religion and philosophy Shakyamuniencompassing a variety of traditions,beliefs and practices, largely based onteachings attributed to Shakyamuni(Gautama), commonly known as theBuddha.• Buddha lived and taught in thenortheastern Indian subcontinentsometime between the 6th and 4thcenturies BC.
  12. 12. Buddhism in China• Buddhism is the most important religion inChina. It is generally believed that it wasspread to Central China in 67 AD during theHan Dynasty (206 BC-220).• During its development in China, it has aprofound influence on traditional Chineseculture and thoughts, and has become one ofthe most important religions in China. Journey to The West
  13. 13. Teachings of the BuddhaLife is filled with suffering.Suffering is caused by people’s wants.• Buddhism promotes code of conduct in life. That iswhat they call Five Precepts of avoiding killing,stealing, indulging, lying and alcohol drinking. It leadsto self-understanding. King of Monkey
  14. 14. Brief Contents• 1. Chinese Religion and Philosophy: Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism• 2. Modern business culture & etiquette. Relactionship (Guanxi), Face (Lian)• 3. Chinese arts and crafts: Painting, operas, embroidery, china and martial arts• 4. Chinese cuisine.
  15. 15. 2. Modern Business Culture &Etiquette.1. Why should we know Chinese culture? A. China is becoming a economic powerhouse. B. Commercial activity is not merely the exchange and cooperation based on economic benefits, it is also the collision and communicating between different cultures that each side has. C. Every person is grown in a particular culture, learning the “right way” of doing things .2. The background of Modern business culture and etiquette.For nearly two thousand years Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism hasmolded and shaped the civilization of China and exerted a profoundinfluence upon almost one fourth of human race.
  16. 16. 2.1 Relationship (Guanxi)• “Guanxi” literally means "relationships“, stands for any type of relationship.Chinese people care more about the social relationship than commercialrelationship in doing the business: “Guanxi” means one will be quick to do afavor, do anything necessary for the other party: "You scratch my back, I’llscratch yours."• Most important business cannot occur until relationship if sound, writtenagreement secondary to Guan xi. Guanxi is hard to form, but long lasting.• The reciprocal nature of “Guanxi" and its implied obligations is the mainreason why Chinese are reticent to engage in deeper relationships with peoplethey do not know.
  17. 17. 2.2 “Face” (Lian or Mianzi)“Lian” can be translate into “face” in English which is one of the most importantcultural traits of Chinese people. Giving face (giving due respect) is a veryimportant concept in China. You must give the appropriate respect according torank and seniority.For example in the business negotiation:The Chinese often avoid the word “No” to save face for both parties. Wordssuch as “bu fangbian” (inconvenient) , “tai kunnan” (too difficult) or “huoxu”(maybe) are synonyms of “No” in Chinese culture.
  18. 18. Affect of Relationship andFace.Relationship and face are completely legal in Chinese culture and not regardedas bribery.How to establish relationship?Courtesy calls for reciprocity ( 礼尚往来: lǐshàng wǎng lái )  1. Relationship starts with and builds on the trustworthiness of the individual or the company.2. Frequent contacts with each other foster understanding and emotional bonds and the Chinese often feel obligated to do business with their friends first.3. Wine has close connection with social relationship in China . ----also seems today that friendship depends only on the volume of drink being consumed. "If we are good friends, then bottoms up; if not, then just take a sip" is a common phrased exchanged during gatherings. Not good.
  19. 19. Cardinal Rules in NegotiationBusiness negotiations in China require a much more patient approach. TheChinese culture makes the people suspicious of strangers, the term "we"llconsider it" will be heard frequently.• Dont say or do anything to embarass the Chinese participants and causethem to lose "face."• Dont point your finger or any sharp object such as a pen or pencil atanyone.• Dont lose your temper and raise your voice.• Don’t wear Bright colours.
  20. 20. 2.3 Gift GivingGift giving is a big part of any culture. Especially growing up Chinese. Gifts areoften used in “Guanxi" to establish, or bring equilibrium to the relationship.Things to avoid.• Do not give knives, scissors, letter openers, etc. It implies the severing of arelationship• Do not expect that a gift will be opened immediately• Avoid giving things to people in groups of four, since the number four inChinese is a homonym for the word death .• Never give a Chinese gentleman a green hat. It is associated with adultery.• Do not wrap gifts in white, blue or black paper.• Gifts may be refused three times before they are accepted.
  21. 21. 2.3 Dining Etiquette1. If you are the guest, wait to be seated as hierarchy is involved .2. Eating usually begins once the host offers the first drink .3. Let older people eat first, or if you hear an elder say "lets eat", you can start to eat.4. When helping yourself to the dishes, you should take food first from the plates in front of you rather than those in front of others.5. Do not stick chopsticks vertically into your food, especially not into rice, as this will make Chinese think of funerals.
  22. 22. Brief Contents• 1. Chinese Religion and Philosophy: Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism• 2. Modern business culture & etiquette.• 3. Chinese cuisine.• 4. Chinese arts and crafts: Painting, operas, embroidery, china and martial arts
  23. 23. 3. Chinese cuisine• Chinese culinary arts are famous all over the world. Chinese dishes appeal tothe senses through sight, smell, taste, texture.• Chinese cuisine includes a variety of different flavors due to Chinas vastgeography and diverse nationalities. Local dishes with their own distinctivenesscan be roughly divided into eight regional cuisines. 业 务 流 程
  24. 24. Chinese Eight Regional Cuisines Jiangsu Anhui HunanHigh cutting techniques Nutritious food Known for sour and spicy dishes large meatball Yi xiang fish Fujianpeculiar about soup Zhejiang Tai bai fish light, crisp, elegant Sichuan Spicy-hotTremella and quail eggs soup Dong po Pork Shandong Guangdongexcellent seafood Delicacies Chicken with chili sauce Sea pumpkin Fotiaoqiang
  25. 25. Beijing Roast Duck Beijing Roast duck is thought to be one of the most delicious dishes all over the world; most visitors coming to Beijing will never forget to have a try.
  26. 26. 4. Chinese arts and crafts 1. Traditional Festival: Spring Festival 2. Chinese Folk Arts: Beijing Opera, Martial Arts 3. Chinese crafts: Painting, Embroidery, China 4. Chinese Architecture
  27. 27. Spring Festival• There are many traditional festivals in China,such as Spring Festival, Lantern Festival,Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival. Festival• But Spring Festival, also known as Chinesenew year, is the most important in our culture,just as important as Christmas Day in westernculture.
  28. 28. Spring Festival Traditional The origin of Spring Festival—”Nian”, lunar FireworksChinese Dumpling Festival -- the most to scare are used and important year. Celebration—reunion in Chinese New thanksgiving the beast “Nian” and to get foods rid of ill luck Year  New Years Eve Dinner  Fireworks Reflect the best wishes to the upcoming year  Dui Lian
  29. 29. Chinese Folk Arts Two special arts Chinese folk arts Traditional Festival 业 Martial Arts Beijing 务 Opera 流 (Kung Fu) 程
  30. 30. Beijing Opera• Beijing opera is the most influential opera in China and has a history of around 200 years. It synthesizes the arts of singing, dancing, recitation, martial arts, and instrumental music. Symbolism dominates the motions and stage designs.• There are four main roles in Beijing Opera:• Sheng: is the male role in Beijing Opera.• Dan: is all female roles.• Jing: is known as hualian, a role with a painted face, who is a man of special character, features and personality.• Chou: is also called xiaohualian. A chou may be a kind-hearted, humorous and funny fellow ( some time likes buffoon).
  31. 31. Beijing Opera • Sheng • Dan • Jing • Chou • The facial painting is worth appreciating for its artistic value
  32. 32. Martial Arts (Kung Fu ) • Anyone who has seen classical Chinese Kung Fu movies will be Do you know deeply impressed by Lee, Bruce Jet Li or Jackie Chan? the Chinese Wushu, which is called Kung Fu or Chinese martial arts in the west.
  33. 33. Martial Arts (Kung Fu )• Kung Fu is an important and unique component of Chinese cultural heritage with centuries of cultural history attached.• Kung Fu not only includes physical exercise but also Chinese philosophy, meditation and aesthetics.• Kung Fu’s purpose from self-defense to health maintenance and finally as method of self-cultivation.
  34. 34. Kong Fu
  35. 35. Chinese Architecture  A Chinese structure is based on the principle of balance and symmetry.  Office buildings, residences, temples, and palaces all follow the principle that the main structure is the axis.  The secondary structures are positioned as two wings on either side to 业 the main room and yard. form 务 流 程
  36. 36. The Forbidden City
  37. 37. The Great Wall• The Great Wall of China, one of the greatest wonders of the world, the Great Wall winds up and down across deserts, grasslands, mountains and plateaus, from east to west of China. With a history of more than 2000 years.
  38. 38. Painting, Embroidery, China embroidery painting china
  39. 39. The EndMost of the materials are from internet: If you want to know more please refer to the following websites :1. 北京交通大学经济管理学院 1 队2. profile.html4. Thank you! Beijing escort