Enhanced Climate Change Adaptation Capacity of Communities in Contiguous Fragile Ecosystems in the Cordilleras<br />
Biophysical Characterization and Socio-Economic Profiling in Benguet <br />	Benguet State University <br />(FG Calora, MR ...
Topics<br />General Objective<br />Study Sites<br />Sources of Data<br />Methodology<br />Biophysical Characterization<br ...
Topics<br />Socio-Economic Profile<br />Demographic Profile<br />Source of Livelihood<br />Income Structure<br />Source of...
Topics<br />Climate Change Perception and Adaptation<br />Local Terms<br />Climate Change Awareness and Effects<br />Commo...
General Objective<br />To conduct a biophysical characterization and agro-socio economic profiling of selected municipalit...
Study Sites<br />Low elevation (200-999 masl) <br />Barangay Taloy Sur, Tuba<br />Barangay Bayabas, Sablan	<br />Mid eleva...
Sources of Data<br />Cordillera Highland Agriculture Resource Management Project (CHARMP)<br />Community Land Use Plans (C...
Sources of Data<br />National Irrigation Administration (NIA)<br />Local Government Units (LGUs)<br />FAO-developed CLIMWA...
Methodology<br />
Biophysical Characterization<br />Field site reconnaissance and site selection<br />Coordination with LGUs for site reconn...
Biophysical Characterization<br />Soil sampling and undergrowth vegetation analysis in Pan-ayawan, Loo, Buguias<br />GPS r...
Biophysical Characterization<br />Consultation with barangay officials for hazard mapping<br />Validation of identified ha...
Socio-Economic Profiling<br />The researchers conducting a fish bowl technique in randomly selecting the respondents<br />...
Socio-Economic Profiling<br />FGD with the Kayabang Organization members in Bayabas<br />A researcher conducting HH survey...
Socio-Economic Profiling<br />Barangay officials FGD participants doing resource mapping in Taloy Sur, Tuba<br />An FGD pa...
The Climate<br />
Climate Characterization<br />Low elevation – based on data observed in Dagupan City <br />Mid and High elevations – based...
Climate in Benguet<br /><ul><li>Benguet falls under the Type I climate
Characterized by two distinct seasons
wet from May to October
dry during the rest of the year
It is frequented not only by the northeast and southwest monsoons but also by typhoons and other tropical disturbances</li...
average temperature ranges : 15.3 - 22.8ºC;
average sunshine duration: 5.7 hours;
potential evapotranspiration rate:2.45 to 3.71 mm/day;
annual average rainfall: about 3878 mm</li></li></ul><li>Climate in Benguet<br /><ul><li>For the low elevation areas
Warmer, temperature range: 25.8 - 29.7ºC;
Higher average potential evapotranspiration rates: 3.88 - 6.36 mm/day;
average annual rainfall:  1338.8 mm
About 62 % of the total annual rainfall occurs during a three-month period (July - September)</li></li></ul><li>Comparison...
Average annual rainfall from 1976 to 2008, where the annual rainfall was beyond 7000 mm for 1978. The wettest years were f...
Average daily rainfall(mm) over monthly periods from  1999 until 2009 showing extreme rainfall events for 2001, 2004 and 2...
Average monthly daily total rainfall (mm) from 1999-2009 showing an increase in the rainfall events after January and peak...
Significant Findings<br /><ul><li>Climate can still be considered “normal” although some manifestations of climate change ...
There is an increase of about 0.4ºC in temperature from average values computed from 1979-2003 and 1999-2009;
However, a decrease of 0.4ºC during the month of August over the same periods was also observed</li></li></ul><li>Signific...
Water shortages may be attributed not to a decrease in rainfall amounts but perhaps to increasing demand </li></li></ul><l...
Soil Characterization<br /><ul><li>Soil series for the project sites</li></ul>Paoay, Atok: : Paoay Clay loam <br />Loo, Bu...
Soil Characterization<br /><ul><li>Paoay,  Atok – High elevation
Paoay soil series.
The soil is deep with color from dark yellowish brown to brownish yellow.
The soil texture is loam to sandy loam, generally the soil is loose when moist, sticky and plastic when wet, and hard to e...
This type of soil is moderately prone to erosion.</li></li></ul><li>Soil Characterization<br />Loo,  Buguias (Mid elevatio...
Soil Characterization<br /><ul><li>Sablan
Burgos Clay series
The soil is moderate with color from brown .
The soil texture is from sandy loam to sandy clay.
The structure is granular to sub angular blocky,
There is presence of rock fragments increasing as depth of the profile increases.
These soils are prone to erosion</li></li></ul><li>Soil Characterization<br /><ul><li>Tuba</li></ul>Bakakeng series for tu...
Soil Analysis<br />Macronutrient levels for NPK, where the N level (%) for all sites was low while the P(ppm) adequate exc...
Soil Analysis<br />The soil pH and organic matter content(%) of the project site showing  that the soils of the project si...
Biodiversity<br />There are 28  plant species belonging 14 families which were identified to be endangered based on the co...
Conservation Status<br />Conservation status of 28 species identified under the IUCN classification for the different muni...
Plant Families<br />The plant families of the identified endangered/threatened species based on the IUCN classification<br />
Biodiversity Indices<br />The biodiversity indices (Shanon and Pielou’s Similarity Index)  for trees and undergrowth per m...
List of Endangered, Threatened and Vulnerable Species<br />
List of Endangered, Threatened and Vulnerable Species<br />
List of Endangered, Threatened and Vulnerable Species<br />
Low Elevation<br />Mid Elevation<br />High Elevation<br />
Water Sources<br />The sources of water mentioned by farmers used for agricultural purposes on the project site<br />
Land Use and Topography<br /><ul><li>Topography strongly influences land-use patterns and resource utilization, especially...
Atok, Sablan, and Tuba: Forest
Buguias: Agricultural
The forest areas are vulnerable to changes not only due to climatic factors but also due to encroachment by farmers</li></...
Topography<br /><ul><li>Topography is not directly related to elevation
Atok and Tuba: moderate to steep slopes
Buguias, and Sablan: gently sloping and rolling to moderately steep slopes </li></li></ul><li>Slope distribution in the fo...
Area covered by the four municipalities<br />Land Area<br />
Land Use and Topographic Maps<br />Land use map : Atok<br />Topographic Map : Atok<br />
Land-use Map: Buguias<br />Topographic Map : Buguias<br />
Topographic Map: Sablan<br />Land-use Map : Sablan<br />
Topographic Map : Tuba<br />Land-use Map : Tuba<br />
Climate Related Hazards<br />Climate related hazards within the last 5 years of economic impacts in the area were mapped<b...
Community Hazard Map as  identified by the community  of Paoay<br />The hazards identified The were:<br />Climate Induced ...
Community Hazard Map as  identified by the community  of  Loo<br />Climate induced Hazards<br />Floods<br />Severe and Mod...
Community Hazard Map as  identified by the community  of  Bayabas<br />Climate induced Hazards<br />Severe and Moderate Er...
Community Hazard Map as  identified by the community  of  Taloy Sur<br />Climate induced hazards<br />Severe / Moderate Er...
Socio Economic Profile<br />
 Demographic Profile<br />Gender <br />66.7% female<br />33.3% male<br />Civil  Status<br />Married – 81.5%<br />Ethnicity...
41-50 , 27.6%
31-40, 23.9%
Residency
21-30, 17.3%
31-50, 17.3%
Occupation
Farmer – 57.2%</li></ul>- others: business, employed, OFW, hired labors<br /><ul><li>Average monthly income
< 5000 pesos ,34.2%
<10000 pesos, 25.9%
< 20000 pesos, 10.7%</li></li></ul><li>Source of Livelihood<br />Main Source of livelihood<br />
Income Structure<br /><ul><li>Households with 10 members – highest average monthly income (P 20,240)
<4 household members and >10 ~ low income
Poverty line P 6,713/mo; many are poor but do not go hungry
Majority of farmers still have off-farm works in Bayabas and Taloy Sur unlike in Paoay and Loo
Sablan, higher dependence on natural forest for wood carving and furniture making</li></li></ul><li>Income Bracket<br />Mo...
Source of Farm Labor<br />The potential source of labor from the municipalities.<br />
Gender and Climate Change<br />
Gender Differentials<br />Gender differentials of farming activities for Tuba and Sablan showing that women have added wee...
Agri-based Livelihood and Climate Change<br />
Major Crops<br />Major crops in the project sites<br />
Major Crops<br />Major crops by municipality<br />
Cropping Patterns<br />Cropping patterns used in the project sites.<br />
Production Inputs<br />Some production inputs for Atok, Buguias, Sablan and Tuba<br />
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BSU Assessments Study - Benguet

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Highlights of the study on Vulnerability and Adaptation Capacity Assessments in the Cordillera Region - Benguet.

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BSU Assessments Study - Benguet

  1. 1. Enhanced Climate Change Adaptation Capacity of Communities in Contiguous Fragile Ecosystems in the Cordilleras<br />
  2. 2. Biophysical Characterization and Socio-Economic Profiling in Benguet <br /> Benguet State University <br />(FG Calora, MR Parao, JF Malamug, RS Batani, MD Gapasin)<br />
  3. 3. Topics<br />General Objective<br />Study Sites<br />Sources of Data<br />Methodology<br />Biophysical Characterization<br />Socio – Economic Profiling<br />The Climate<br />Biophysical Characterization<br />Soil Characterization<br />Biodiversity<br />Water Sources<br />Land Use and Topography<br />Climate Related Hazards<br />
  4. 4. Topics<br />Socio-Economic Profile<br />Demographic Profile<br />Source of Livelihood<br />Income Structure<br />Source of Farm Labor<br />Gender and Climate Change<br />Gender Differentials<br />Agri-based Livelihood and Climate Change<br />Major Crops<br />Cropping Patterns<br />Production Inputs<br />Marketing Strategies<br />Farm Size<br />Livestock Production<br />
  5. 5. Topics<br />Climate Change Perception and Adaptation<br />Local Terms<br />Climate Change Awareness and Effects<br />Common Farming Problems<br />Perceived Effects of Climate Change<br />Adaptation<br />Issues, Gaps and Constraints <br />Key Messages<br />Recommendations<br />
  6. 6. General Objective<br />To conduct a biophysical characterization and agro-socio economic profiling of selected municipalities in Benguet <br />Bayabas, Sablan<br />Taloy Sur, Tuba<br />Loo, Buguias<br />Paoay, Atok<br />
  7. 7. Study Sites<br />Low elevation (200-999 masl) <br />Barangay Taloy Sur, Tuba<br />Barangay Bayabas, Sablan <br />Mid elevation (1000-2000 masl)<br />Barangay Loo, Buguias<br />High elevation (>2000 masl)<br />Barangay Paoay, Atok<br />
  8. 8. Sources of Data<br />Cordillera Highland Agriculture Resource Management Project (CHARMP)<br />Community Land Use Plans (CLUP)<br />Barangay Natural Resources Management Plans (BNRMP)<br />Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) – BSU, Baguio City and Dagupan City<br />
  9. 9. Sources of Data<br />National Irrigation Administration (NIA)<br />Local Government Units (LGUs)<br />FAO-developed CLIMWAT Program<br />Plant inventories, soil collection, field interviews and validation, household interviews, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews<br />
  10. 10. Methodology<br />
  11. 11. Biophysical Characterization<br />Field site reconnaissance and site selection<br />Coordination with LGUs for site reconnaissance and data collection<br />
  12. 12. Biophysical Characterization<br />Soil sampling and undergrowth vegetation analysis in Pan-ayawan, Loo, Buguias<br />GPS reading being undertaken by the team<br />
  13. 13. Biophysical Characterization<br />Consultation with barangay officials for hazard mapping<br />Validation of identified hazard-prone areas<br />
  14. 14. Socio-Economic Profiling<br />The researchers conducting a fish bowl technique in randomly selecting the respondents<br />Trekking on foot to reach far-flung areas for survey (in Beckes, Paoay) <br />
  15. 15. Socio-Economic Profiling<br />FGD with the Kayabang Organization members in Bayabas<br />A researcher conducting HH survey with one of the respondents<br />
  16. 16. Socio-Economic Profiling<br />Barangay officials FGD participants doing resource mapping in Taloy Sur, Tuba<br />An FGD participants dicussing the resource map in Bayabas, Sablan<br />
  17. 17. The Climate<br />
  18. 18. Climate Characterization<br />Low elevation – based on data observed in Dagupan City <br />Mid and High elevations – based on data recorded in Baguio City and La Trinidad, Benguet<br />
  19. 19. Climate in Benguet<br /><ul><li>Benguet falls under the Type I climate
  20. 20. Characterized by two distinct seasons
  21. 21. wet from May to October
  22. 22. dry during the rest of the year
  23. 23. It is frequented not only by the northeast and southwest monsoons but also by typhoons and other tropical disturbances</li></li></ul><li>Climate in Benguet<br /><ul><li>For the mid and high elevations:
  24. 24. average temperature ranges : 15.3 - 22.8ºC;
  25. 25. average sunshine duration: 5.7 hours;
  26. 26. potential evapotranspiration rate:2.45 to 3.71 mm/day;
  27. 27. annual average rainfall: about 3878 mm</li></li></ul><li>Climate in Benguet<br /><ul><li>For the low elevation areas
  28. 28. Warmer, temperature range: 25.8 - 29.7ºC;
  29. 29. Higher average potential evapotranspiration rates: 3.88 - 6.36 mm/day;
  30. 30. average annual rainfall: 1338.8 mm
  31. 31. About 62 % of the total annual rainfall occurs during a three-month period (July - September)</li></li></ul><li>Comparison of average daily temperatures (C) between the periods 1979 – 2003 and 1999 – 2009 (PAGASA)<br />
  32. 32. Average annual rainfall from 1976 to 2008, where the annual rainfall was beyond 7000 mm for 1978. The wettest years were from 1977-1982 while the driest years were from 1992-1996.<br />
  33. 33. Average daily rainfall(mm) over monthly periods from 1999 until 2009 showing extreme rainfall events for 2001, 2004 and 2009 based on the agrometeorological data from PAGASA-BSU La Trinidad. <br />
  34. 34. Average monthly daily total rainfall (mm) from 1999-2009 showing an increase in the rainfall events after January and peaking August then receding to start its annual cycle <br />
  35. 35. Significant Findings<br /><ul><li>Climate can still be considered “normal” although some manifestations of climate change were noted
  36. 36. There is an increase of about 0.4ºC in temperature from average values computed from 1979-2003 and 1999-2009;
  37. 37. However, a decrease of 0.4ºC during the month of August over the same periods was also observed</li></li></ul><li>Significant Findings<br /><ul><li>The range in daily temperatures (difference between minimum and maximum) is becoming greater in the colder months (8.1ºC)
  38. 38. Water shortages may be attributed not to a decrease in rainfall amounts but perhaps to increasing demand </li></li></ul><li>Biophysical Characterization<br />
  39. 39. Soil Characterization<br /><ul><li>Soil series for the project sites</li></ul>Paoay, Atok: : Paoay Clay loam <br />Loo, Buguias: Umingan soil series <br />Bayabas, Sablan: Burgos clay series <br />Taloy Sur, Tuba: Bakakeng series<br />
  40. 40. Soil Characterization<br /><ul><li>Paoay, Atok – High elevation
  41. 41. Paoay soil series.
  42. 42. The soil is deep with color from dark yellowish brown to brownish yellow.
  43. 43. The soil texture is loam to sandy loam, generally the soil is loose when moist, sticky and plastic when wet, and hard to extremely hard when dry.
  44. 44. This type of soil is moderately prone to erosion.</li></li></ul><li>Soil Characterization<br />Loo, Buguias (Mid elevation)<br />Umingan soil series. <br />The soil is from very dark grayish brown to dark yellowish brown, <br />The soil texture is from soil clay to clay loam. <br />Rock fragments are present in all horizons ranging from 10% to 20%. <br />The soil structure is generally subangular blocky. <br /> This type of soils is slightly prone to erosion.<br />
  45. 45. Soil Characterization<br /><ul><li>Sablan
  46. 46. Burgos Clay series
  47. 47. The soil is moderate with color from brown .
  48. 48. The soil texture is from sandy loam to sandy clay.
  49. 49. The structure is granular to sub angular blocky,
  50. 50. There is presence of rock fragments increasing as depth of the profile increases.
  51. 51. These soils are prone to erosion</li></li></ul><li>Soil Characterization<br /><ul><li>Tuba</li></ul>Bakakeng series for tuba., <br />The soil is deep with color from dark reddish brown to red, <br />The soil texture is from clay loam to silty slay, <br />These soils are slight prone to erosion.<br />
  52. 52. Soil Analysis<br />Macronutrient levels for NPK, where the N level (%) for all sites was low while the P(ppm) adequate except for Atok and Buguias. , the K(ppm) was sufficient for all sites.<br />
  53. 53. Soil Analysis<br />The soil pH and organic matter content(%) of the project site showing that the soils of the project site were acidic and the organic matter content was low<br />
  54. 54. Biodiversity<br />There are 28 plant species belonging 14 families which were identified to be endangered based on the conservation status classification of the IUCN, <br />These ranged from vulnerable, threatened, endangered, critically endangered CITES, rare and nearly threatened<br />
  55. 55. Conservation Status<br />Conservation status of 28 species identified under the IUCN classification for the different municipalities collected from the established biodiversity plots<br />
  56. 56. Plant Families<br />The plant families of the identified endangered/threatened species based on the IUCN classification<br />
  57. 57. Biodiversity Indices<br />The biodiversity indices (Shanon and Pielou’s Similarity Index) for trees and undergrowth per municipality<br />
  58. 58. List of Endangered, Threatened and Vulnerable Species<br />
  59. 59. List of Endangered, Threatened and Vulnerable Species<br />
  60. 60. List of Endangered, Threatened and Vulnerable Species<br />
  61. 61. Low Elevation<br />Mid Elevation<br />High Elevation<br />
  62. 62. Water Sources<br />The sources of water mentioned by farmers used for agricultural purposes on the project site<br />
  63. 63. Land Use and Topography<br /><ul><li>Topography strongly influences land-use patterns and resource utilization, especially crop in crop production</li></li></ul><li>Land Use<br /><ul><li>Major land uses in the project sites
  64. 64. Atok, Sablan, and Tuba: Forest
  65. 65. Buguias: Agricultural
  66. 66. The forest areas are vulnerable to changes not only due to climatic factors but also due to encroachment by farmers</li></li></ul><li>Major land uses in the four study sites<br />Land Use<br />
  67. 67. Topography<br /><ul><li>Topography is not directly related to elevation
  68. 68. Atok and Tuba: moderate to steep slopes
  69. 69. Buguias, and Sablan: gently sloping and rolling to moderately steep slopes </li></li></ul><li>Slope distribution in the four study sites<br />Topography<br />
  70. 70. Area covered by the four municipalities<br />Land Area<br />
  71. 71. Land Use and Topographic Maps<br />Land use map : Atok<br />Topographic Map : Atok<br />
  72. 72. Land-use Map: Buguias<br />Topographic Map : Buguias<br />
  73. 73. Topographic Map: Sablan<br />Land-use Map : Sablan<br />
  74. 74. Topographic Map : Tuba<br />Land-use Map : Tuba<br />
  75. 75. Climate Related Hazards<br />Climate related hazards within the last 5 years of economic impacts in the area were mapped<br />Note:<br />All study sites were vulnerable to severe and moderate erosion due to heavy rainfall, loose soil and rugged topography<br />Flooding is only common near river banks except in Paoay<br />All study sites were vulnerable to fires as a result of hotter weather conditions<br />
  76. 76. Community Hazard Map as identified by the community of Paoay<br />The hazards identified The were:<br />Climate Induced Hazards<br />Severe and moderate Erosion was observed near road side<br />Flood<br />Frost*<br />Man induced Hazards<br />Forest Fires , these occurred due to thrown cigarette butts and camp fires<br />Insufficient water supply*<br />
  77. 77. Community Hazard Map as identified by the community of Loo<br />Climate induced Hazards<br />Floods<br />Severe and Moderate Erosion<br />Frost*<br />Human induced Hazards<br />Forest Fire<br />Insufficient water supply*<br />
  78. 78. Community Hazard Map as identified by the community of Bayabas<br />Climate induced Hazards<br />Severe and Moderate Erosion<br />Flood<br />Human induced Hazards<br />Forest Fire<br />Insufficient water supply*<br />
  79. 79. Community Hazard Map as identified by the community of Taloy Sur<br />Climate induced hazards<br />Severe / Moderate Erosion<br />Human induced Hazards<br />Forest Fire<br />Insufficient water supply*<br />
  80. 80. Socio Economic Profile<br />
  81. 81. Demographic Profile<br />Gender <br />66.7% female<br />33.3% male<br />Civil Status<br />Married – 81.5%<br />Ethnicity<br />Kankana-ey – 49%<br />Ibaloi – 36.2 %<br />Education<br />High School Graduate – 23%<br />College level – 17.3 %<br /><ul><li>Age
  82. 82. 41-50 , 27.6%
  83. 83. 31-40, 23.9%
  84. 84. Residency
  85. 85. 21-30, 17.3%
  86. 86. 31-50, 17.3%
  87. 87. Occupation
  88. 88. Farmer – 57.2%</li></ul>- others: business, employed, OFW, hired labors<br /><ul><li>Average monthly income
  89. 89. < 5000 pesos ,34.2%
  90. 90. <10000 pesos, 25.9%
  91. 91. < 20000 pesos, 10.7%</li></li></ul><li>Source of Livelihood<br />Main Source of livelihood<br />
  92. 92. Income Structure<br /><ul><li>Households with 10 members – highest average monthly income (P 20,240)
  93. 93. <4 household members and >10 ~ low income
  94. 94. Poverty line P 6,713/mo; many are poor but do not go hungry
  95. 95. Majority of farmers still have off-farm works in Bayabas and Taloy Sur unlike in Paoay and Loo
  96. 96. Sablan, higher dependence on natural forest for wood carving and furniture making</li></li></ul><li>Income Bracket<br />Monthly income bracket range (MIBR) per municipality<br />
  97. 97. Source of Farm Labor<br />The potential source of labor from the municipalities.<br />
  98. 98. Gender and Climate Change<br />
  99. 99. Gender Differentials<br />Gender differentials of farming activities for Tuba and Sablan showing that women have added weeding, fertilizer application, harvesting and selling farm produce to their role. <br />Gender differentials refer to the roles women assume. Positive “ +” GD means all males are performing the tasks, Negative “ – “ GD means more women are engaged in this activity. <br />
  100. 100. Agri-based Livelihood and Climate Change<br />
  101. 101. Major Crops<br />Major crops in the project sites<br />
  102. 102. Major Crops<br />Major crops by municipality<br />
  103. 103. Cropping Patterns<br />Cropping patterns used in the project sites.<br />
  104. 104. Production Inputs<br />Some production inputs for Atok, Buguias, Sablan and Tuba<br />
  105. 105. Marketing Strategies<br />Crop production objective for each site showing that crop production is mostly for commercial purpose except for Sablan<br />
  106. 106. Farm Size<br />Farm size in the four municipalities<br />
  107. 107. Livestock Production<br />Survey of Livestock/poultry in Atok, Buguias, Sablan and Tuba <br />
  108. 108. Climate Change Perception and Adaptation<br />
  109. 109. Local Terms<br />The local terms used in relation to climate change were <br />“Dallalo” refers to hailstone which is observed in Atok and Buguias but mostly in Atok.<br />“Andap” refers to FROST which is observed in both Atok and Buguias but mostly in Atok<br />“Puwek” refers to TYPHOON and is used in the province of Benguet <br />
  110. 110. Local Terms<br />“Kalgaw” refers to DROUGHT, which was reported to be longer as observed by the communities<br />“Tog-in or teg-in” refers to COLD TEMPERATURE<br />“Man-atong” refers to HOT TEMPERATURE or VERY WARM temperature <br />
  111. 111. Climate Change Awareness and Effects<br />Observed changed in the climate. The top 4 observations were (1) increase in temperature, (2) warmer noons and colder afternoons, (3) longer droughts and (4) irregular rainfall<br />
  112. 112. Common Farming Problems<br />. Common farming problems described as characteristics as reported from different representative barangays of selected municipalities<br />
  113. 113. Perceived Effects of Climate Change<br />Percived effects of climate change based on identified atttibutes for the identified representative barangays of the selected municipalities<br />
  114. 114. Adaptation<br />Use of pesticides<br />Growing other crops<br />Frequent watering<br />Crop rotation and other practices<br />Changes in work schedule<br />Seeking other sources of income<br />
  115. 115. Adaptation Strategies – Organic Farming<br />Farming practices involving practice of organic agriculture , use of pesticides and fertilizers<br />
  116. 116. Mitigating Measures-Pest Management<br />Mitigating measures employed by farmers against fungi-caused diseases<br />
  117. 117. Issues, Gaps and Constraints<br />
  118. 118. Issues <br />Coordination<br />With LGU’s, Barangay, DA-CAR, DA-MLA , BSWM,DENR,PAGASA,MGB<br />Implementation<br />8 month incubation period <br />Concept – September 2009<br />Implementation - April 2009<br />Budget Allocation/Release<br />Pre-Financing <br />How to liquidate fund which are not released <br />
  119. 119. Issues <br />Access to Secondary Data (CLUP , NRMP,BNRMP,ADSDPP,DRRM<br />Incomplete data<br />Provincial Level<br />Municipal Level<br />Land Ownership<br />
  120. 120. Gaps<br />Hydrologic Data<br />Climatic Data<br />Crop yield (monthly and annual)<br />Cropping Calendar Records<br />Updated soil data ( fertility, characterization, etc)<br />Health and Wellbeing of Women in the Household<br />Indigenous Knowledge on Climate Change<br />Information on Basis of Crop selection<br />
  121. 121. Constraints<br />Terrain<br />Undulating to steep<br />Long and tiring hikes to households and farms during field visits<br />Project sites have combination of low and mid or mid and high)<br />Weather<br />Strong rains affected data collection and field visits<br />Change in Leadership<br />Repeating IEC to newly elected officials and reiteration commitments<br />
  122. 122. Key Messages<br />Soil Characterization<br />Soils are important nutrient sinks, by knowing its chemical and physical properties appropriate soil management practices can be prescribed to adapt to changes caused by climate change<br />Biodiversity<br />Biodiversity is important because this has a significant influence on the resilience of an ecosystem<br />
  123. 123. Land-use and Topography<br />Land-use can serve as a mitigation strategy while topography will affect the adaptation strategies to climate change<br />Observed Hazards<br />Community perceived hazards are proofs of vulnerabilities experienced in the local level showing their resilience and ability to adapt to these hazards<br />
  124. 124. Agribased Livelihood<br />Agriculture is the main source of livelihood in Benguet, the potential impact of climate change to agriculture is important to assess the appropriate adaptation strategies can be developed<br />
  125. 125. Perceptions<br />Community perceptions of climate change are based on actual experiences and not necessarily supported by science, it is important to explain these observations in relation to the science of climate change to the community so that they will make informed decisions on appropriate strategies<br />
  126. 126. Adaptation<br />Response to climate change to sustain agribased livelihood depends on the farmers financial flexibility and common sense in adapting and developing their own adaptation strategies<br />
  127. 127. Recommendations<br />Adoption and practice of “protected” agriculture through the use of crop shelters (rain shelters, net shades, etc.);<br />To use modern irrigation equipment and improved water management techniques to improve efficiency of use of water;<br />To study specific crop requirements (climatic, agronomic, etc.) so that the more appropriate ones are identified and selected;<br />
  128. 128. To develop water resources to provide irrigation water during the dry season and supplemental irrigation during short drought periods in the rainy season;<br />To shift the cropping calendar or change in cropping patterns;<br />To practice “modern” agriculture;<br />
  129. 129. Recommendations<br />To explore the potential use of crop shelters ( net sheds, plastic sheds etc) to serve as protection from strong rains<br />Information on forest fire prevention should be disseminated to the community during their barangay meetings. This can be done through formal invitations sent by the barangay to the DENR or the college of forestry at Benguet State University.<br />
  130. 130. Recommendations<br />Tree planting should be done on the designated watershed areas in Paoay, Loo, Bayabas and Taloy Sur. Native species is recommended to be used in the tree planting of the community<br />Farmlots should be identified and registered with the barangay so that, they can ensure that no expansion or encroachment is made into the remaining forest areas.<br />
  131. 131. Recommendations<br />Barangay officials closely work with the municipal agriculturist and request an analysis of the soil fertility levels on a regular basis so that they will decide whether the use inorganic or organic fertilizers is necessar<br />An ecosystem-based adaptation approach be considered in the strategic planning for sustainable agriculture at the barangay level.<br />
  132. 132. Recommendations<br />The cultivation of unknown and new edible plants and herbal medicines should be studied and propagated, this will enrich the local food sources and household remedies<br />Propagate indigenous or endemic trees to sustain the remaining forest in the area.<br />Look for drought resistant leaf and root vegetables specially in Bayabas and Taloy Sur<br />
  133. 133. Recommendations<br />Develop small water impounding systems to store water for irrigation purposes<br />Closely study the cropping calendar for each crop and correlate this with climate data <br />Develop community managed irrigation system using efficient systems such as drip irrigation, water storage infrastructures or small water impounding systems<br />
  134. 134. Recommendations<br />Capacity building to reduce effects of climate vulnerabilities on individual’s source of livelihood e.g. training on how to use information from the AWS. <br />
  135. 135. Recommendations<br />Strengthen organizational capability in responding to the needs of the community; establish mechanisms of ensuring info dissemination ; capacity building to farmers to guide them on farm decisions; capacity building in leadership and management capabilities to improve transparency and efficiency of organizations <br />
  136. 136. Recommendations<br />To provide avenues for affordable credit facilities to support crop production<br />To provide skills development training to communities so that they will have additional alternative livelihood income <br />

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