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2 reconstruction (15 18 feb)


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historical development of the united states

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2 reconstruction (15 18 feb)

  1. 1. 2. Reconstruction, 1865-1877
  2. 2. Admin matters Tutorials start this week Study first two maps in Study Guide (pp.41-42) for test during tutorials (esp. maincities, states, rivers and mountains) Have you done the following? 1. signed up for a tutorial, 2. filled in white registration card, 3. collected Study Guide & Tutorial Pack.
  3. 3. 1. Lincoln’s 10% Plan (1863) Debate reunion during war Fearing guerrilla war, Lincoln favoured: lenient, swift process pardons for most rejoin once 10% swear loyalty Radical Republicans (Congress) wanted: longer, harsher process to transform South secession make South “unorganizedterritories” deny vote & citizenship to leaders Lincoln vetoed 1864 Wade-Davis Bill
  4. 4. 2. 13thAmendment andFreedmen’s Bureau (1865) Many petition govn. Lincoln and Congress cooperate on 13th: abolish slavery Agree on Bureau: help/protect ex-slaves & whites First US govn. aid to individuals Tremendous southern enmity for North
  5. 5. p. 432
  6. 6. 3. Meanings of Freedom Ex-slaves celebrate freedom Cautious because of white hostility/power Most work for former masters, but: relocate homes try to control labor Efforts to reunite families avoid white interference some all-black settlements
  7. 7. 4. Desire forLand and Education For ex-slaves, land = independence Sherman set aside some land Johnson return land to planters government sell some land (SC and GA): lots too big for ex-slaves to afford Ex-slaves devote time and money toeducation Bureau and northerners help start 4000+schools
  8. 8. p. 433
  9. 9. 5. Religion Secret churches go public Centre of black communities Most either Methodist or Baptist
  10. 10. p. 434
  11. 11. 6. Sharecropping Lack of land plus white refusal to rent: push freed people to sharecropping ex-slaves provide labour split crop with land owner Freedmen’s debt kept rising ex-slave’s share not enough to repay loans cotton prices decline (late 1800s) 1877: 1/3 of South’s farms worked bysharecroppers
  12. 12. p. 436
  13. 13. 7. Andrew Johnson Champion small farmers, not typicalSoutherner Reject secession, but adamant on: limited government states’ rights white supremacy Control Reconstruction at first
  14. 14. 8. Johnson’s Leniencyand Pardons (1865) Initially bar wealthy planters from politics But planters control state conventions Johnson accept Pardon planters and restore land: Seek support for 1866 elections Want to block more radical change Declare Reconstruction over (Dec.) Many former rebels elected to Congress
  15. 15. 9. Black Codes North upset by planter control anddefiance: Anger grow when southern governmentsrevise (not repeal) slave laws: many restrictions on ex-slaves To North, South unrepentant Congress: refuse to recognize southern governments challenge Johnson’s leniency > committee
  16. 16. 10. CongressionalReconstruction Plan Despite divisions, Congress assertauthority to shape Reconstruction Northern Democrats back Johnson Conservative Republicans favor action: but not extensive activism of Radicals Radicals (a minority) want to: help ex-slaves (vote/land) democratize South Moderate Republicans in between
  17. 17. 11. Congress v. Johnson (1866) Moderates and conservatives ally withRadicals because: Johnson refuses to compromise anti-black violence (Memphis, New Orleans) Congress drafted bill to: continue Bureau pass first civil rights act Johnson veto, Congress override Draft new amendment
  18. 18. p. 438
  19. 19. 12. The 14thAmendment(Ratified, 1868) Citizenship to all “Due process of law” “Equal protection of laws” Bar Confederate leaders from state &federal office (punishment) Encourage (not require) vote for blackmen (North disagree): for full representation in House, must letblack men vote (if not, less representation) ignore women
  20. 20. 13. Johnson (1866);Reconstruction Act of 1867 Tour North to argue against 14thAmend. Northerners reject him: re-elect moderates and radicals Election victory of Republicans (1866) =mandate to continue Reconstruction 1867 Act replace “Johnson governments” South under military supervision (Map): black men can vote for new state govn’s Confederate leaders not allowed to vote South must accept 14thamendm. 1868-70: South re-admitted to Union
  21. 21. Map 16-1, p. 441
  22. 22. p. 442
  23. 23. 14. Land Redistribution;Constitutional Crisis To Radicals, land for ex-slaves vital andjust North reject redistributing planter land: limit ex-slave independence (work for whites) Congress pass laws to limit Johnson’sinterference: restrict power over army Tenure of Office Act (to protect Stanton)
  24. 24. 15. Johnson’s Impeachment;1868 Election Johnson: uses vetoes; removes militaryofficers who support Congress For first time, try to remove president for“high crimes”/abuses of power Most vote to remove J, but missed 2/3majority by 1 vote; J remained in office Genl. Grant (Rep.) won election Democrats’ campaign racist
  25. 25. p. 443
  26. 26. 16. President Grant;15thAmendment (1869–70) Vacillated with South: some efforts to stop white violence demobilization left few troops Radicals push 15thamendment to protectblack male suffrage But did not guarantee right to vote North wanted ability to deny vote Northerners thought Reconstructioncompleted
  27. 27. 17. White Resistance;Black Voters and Republicans Whites, esp. planters, resist: refuse to let slaves go block blacks from getting land violence Black communities celebrate suffrage Help create Republican party in South South’s Republicans combine: northerners who move south native whites, esp. small farmers freedmen
  28. 28. p. 444
  29. 29. 18. Triumph ofRepublican Governments State constitutions (1868–70) moredemocratic with reforms Rep., incl. some blacks, win state office Lenient to ex-Confederates: realize whites = majority planters own best land not disfranchise planters or take their land
  30. 30. 19. Republican Policies Promote industry with loans, taxexemptions Little help for impoverished farmers Public schools established, but notintegrated No land distribution (not supported byCongress) Blacks domination = myth
  31. 31. p. 448
  32. 32. 20. Carpetbaggers, Scalawags,Corruption Southerners criticize migrants from North Ignore: most migrants want to help South Discredit southern white Republicans: Most = small-scale farmers pursuingclass interests, not racial equality Both parties engage in corruption, butRepublicans tarred with it
  33. 33. 21. Ku Klux Klan(started 1866) Rapid spread of terrorist organization Deathblow to Reconstruction in South: attack Rep. leaders (white & black) harassment, beatings, rape, arson, murder Planters organize KKK units: regain power thru Democratic control
  34. 34. p. 447
  35. 35. 22. Retreat from Reconstruction North lose interest (1870s) More interest in suppressing rebellionthan helping blacks Democrats: “redeem” southern governments from black“domination” thru KKK violence Congress pass KKK laws; little enforced Northerners reject: US government protect civil rights (a statematter?)
  36. 36. 23. Liberal Republican Revolt Oppose continued action in South;nominates a different candidate in 1872 Grant re-elected, but: Reconstruction declines, little interference inSouth, poor appointments Amnesty Act, 1872: pardon most ex-confederates Corruption scandals weaken Republicans Democrats take House (1874) Increasingly North’s attention shifts fromSouth and Reconstruction
  37. 37. Map 16-2, p. 453
  38. 38. 24. Disputed Election of 1876;Compromise of 1877 Tilden (Dem) win popular vote Need 1 more electoral vote 19 votes in dispute because of fraud Voting by party, commission ruled infavour of Hayes (Rep) Democrats accept if South received: federal aid troop removal