Lincoln: we shall proceed ‘with malice towards none, with charity for all.’ – wanted to heal wounds of War. Radicals felt that this position would make a ‘mockery of democracy’
Re 13 th amendment: women especially organised petitions to govn; led to long and vigorous debates: property rights (can govn degree over this; is it sacrosanct?) & right of federal government to interfere in private affairs?
The Armed Slave, William Sprang, oil on canvas, ca. 1865. This remarkable painting depicts an African American veteran soldier, musket with fixed bayonet leaning against the wall, cigar in hand indicating a new life of safety and leisure, reading a book to demonstrate his embrace of education and freedom. The man ’ s visage leaves the impression of satisfaction and dignity.
Ex slave: “We is free – no more whipping & beatings”; search for family members (separated thru sales pre War due to expansion; and War). Wanted to avoid white interference in family life, e.g. through punishments.
African Americans of all ages eagerly pursued the opportunity to gain an education in freedom. This young woman in Mt. Meigs, Alabama, is helping her mother learn to read.
Churches became a center of African American life, both social and political, during and after Reconstruction. Churches large and small, like this one, Faith Memorial Church in Hagley Landing, South Carolina, became the first black-owned institutions for the postfreedom generation.
Sharecropping: use land and implements in exchange for part of harvest.
Combative and inflexible, President Andrew Johnson contributed greatly to the failure of his own Reconstruction program.
Johnson’s slogan: ‘The constitution as it IS, and the Union as it WAS’ (i.e. not more federal power) Was white supremacist: ‘Blacks have less capacity for govn than any other race of people’ Was not a planter himself, disliked their elitism.
Black codes entailed i.a.: carry passes; curfews; restrict occupations, limit to where blacks could live
J insisted that Reconstruction was over; was essentially racist (Act would favour ‘negro’ over ‘white race’.
The Memphis race riots during Reconstruction. Unarmed blacks are gunned down by well-armed whites in this scene, reinforced by a Congressional investigation. 40 Blacks died and 12 schools destroyed during this riot. In New Orleans 34 died and 200 wounded.
Map 16.1: The Reconstruction . This map shows the five military districts established when Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867. As the dates within each state indicate, conservative Democratic forces quickly regained control of government in four southern states. So-called Radical Reconstruction was curtailed in most of the others as factions within the weakened Republican Party began to cooperate with conservative Democrats.
Thomas Waterman Wood, who had painted portraits of society figures in Nashville before the war, sensed the importance of Congress ’ s decision in 1867 to enfranchise the freedmen. This oil painting, one in a series on suffrage, emphasizes the significance of the ballot for the black voter.
Radical plan rejected because of ‘sanctity of private property’ & limited interference by federal govn. ToO Act: Senate must approve changes to cabinet.
Impeached by House; tried by Senate (technically for contravening the Tenure of office Act)
A Republican Party brass band in action during the 1868 election campaign in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The Union regimental colors and soldiers ’ caps demonstrate the strong federal presence in the South at this pivotal moment in radical Reconstruction.
Note wording: “The rights of citizens of the US to vote shall not be denied … on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude’. I.e. it can be denied on OTHER grounds (e.g. gender; property qualification, education/literacy, nationality etc). Suffrage can be restricted.
Southern blacks attempting to vote are halted by White Leaguers in this engraving by J. H. Wares. The black man doffing his cap holds a “ Republican ticket ” but it will not get him to the ballot box, guarded by the election judge with a loaded pistol.
The Carpetbagger , American lithograph song sheet music cover, ca. 1869. Emanating from the heyday of anti-carpetbagger propaganda, the figure seems to be part Uncle Sam and part scheming scoundrel with his bag full of Yankee notions, both religious and secular.
Cartoon, depicting a freedman, John Campbell, vainly begging for mercy in Moore County, North Carolina, August 10, 1871. The image evokes the power, fear, and mystery of the Klan without actually showing its bloody deeds.
Map 16.2: Presidential Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 . In 1876, a combination of solid southern support and Democratic gains in the North gave Samuel Tilden the majority of popular votes, but Rutherford B. Hayes won the disputed election in the electoral college, after a deal satisfied Democratic wishes for an end to Reconstruction.
2 reconstruction (15 18 feb)
2. Reconstruction, 1865-1877
Admin matters Tutorials start this week Study first two maps in Study Guide (pp.41-42) for test during tutorials (esp. maincities, states, rivers and mountains) Have you done the following? 1. signed up for a tutorial, 2. filled in white registration card, 3. collected Study Guide & Tutorial Pack.
1. Lincoln’s 10% Plan (1863) Debate reunion during war Fearing guerrilla war, Lincoln favoured: lenient, swift process pardons for most rejoin once 10% swear loyalty Radical Republicans (Congress) wanted: longer, harsher process to transform South secession make South “unorganizedterritories” deny vote & citizenship to leaders Lincoln vetoed 1864 Wade-Davis Bill
2. 13thAmendment andFreedmen’s Bureau (1865) Many petition govn. Lincoln and Congress cooperate on 13th: abolish slavery Agree on Bureau: help/protect ex-slaves & whites First US govn. aid to individuals Tremendous southern enmity for North
3. Meanings of Freedom Ex-slaves celebrate freedom Cautious because of white hostility/power Most work for former masters, but: relocate homes try to control labor Efforts to reunite families avoid white interference some all-black settlements
4. Desire forLand and Education For ex-slaves, land = independence Sherman set aside some land Johnson return land to planters government sell some land (SC and GA): lots too big for ex-slaves to afford Ex-slaves devote time and money toeducation Bureau and northerners help start 4000+schools
6. Sharecropping Lack of land plus white refusal to rent: push freed people to sharecropping ex-slaves provide labour split crop with land owner Freedmen’s debt kept rising ex-slave’s share not enough to repay loans cotton prices decline (late 1800s) 1877: 1/3 of South’s farms worked bysharecroppers
7. Andrew Johnson Champion small farmers, not typicalSoutherner Reject secession, but adamant on: limited government states’ rights white supremacy Control Reconstruction at first
8. Johnson’s Leniencyand Pardons (1865) Initially bar wealthy planters from politics But planters control state conventions Johnson accept Pardon planters and restore land: Seek support for 1866 elections Want to block more radical change Declare Reconstruction over (Dec.) Many former rebels elected to Congress
9. Black Codes North upset by planter control anddefiance: Anger grow when southern governmentsrevise (not repeal) slave laws: many restrictions on ex-slaves To North, South unrepentant Congress: refuse to recognize southern governments challenge Johnson’s leniency > committee
10. CongressionalReconstruction Plan Despite divisions, Congress assertauthority to shape Reconstruction Northern Democrats back Johnson Conservative Republicans favor action: but not extensive activism of Radicals Radicals (a minority) want to: help ex-slaves (vote/land) democratize South Moderate Republicans in between
11. Congress v. Johnson (1866) Moderates and conservatives ally withRadicals because: Johnson refuses to compromise anti-black violence (Memphis, New Orleans) Congress drafted bill to: continue Bureau pass first civil rights act Johnson veto, Congress override Draft new amendment
12. The 14thAmendment(Ratified, 1868) Citizenship to all “Due process of law” “Equal protection of laws” Bar Confederate leaders from state &federal office (punishment) Encourage (not require) vote for blackmen (North disagree): for full representation in House, must letblack men vote (if not, less representation) ignore women
13. Johnson (1866);Reconstruction Act of 1867 Tour North to argue against 14thAmend. Northerners reject him: re-elect moderates and radicals Election victory of Republicans (1866) =mandate to continue Reconstruction 1867 Act replace “Johnson governments” South under military supervision (Map): black men can vote for new state govn’s Confederate leaders not allowed to vote South must accept 14thamendm. 1868-70: South re-admitted to Union
14. Land Redistribution;Constitutional Crisis To Radicals, land for ex-slaves vital andjust North reject redistributing planter land: limit ex-slave independence (work for whites) Congress pass laws to limit Johnson’sinterference: restrict power over army Tenure of Office Act (to protect Stanton)
15. Johnson’s Impeachment;1868 Election Johnson: uses vetoes; removes militaryofficers who support Congress For first time, try to remove president for“high crimes”/abuses of power Most vote to remove J, but missed 2/3majority by 1 vote; J remained in office Genl. Grant (Rep.) won election Democrats’ campaign racist
16. President Grant;15thAmendment (1869–70) Vacillated with South: some efforts to stop white violence demobilization left few troops Radicals push 15thamendment to protectblack male suffrage But did not guarantee right to vote North wanted ability to deny vote Northerners thought Reconstructioncompleted
17. White Resistance;Black Voters and Republicans Whites, esp. planters, resist: refuse to let slaves go block blacks from getting land violence Black communities celebrate suffrage Help create Republican party in South South’s Republicans combine: northerners who move south native whites, esp. small farmers freedmen
18. Triumph ofRepublican Governments State constitutions (1868–70) moredemocratic with reforms Rep., incl. some blacks, win state office Lenient to ex-Confederates: realize whites = majority planters own best land not disfranchise planters or take their land
19. Republican Policies Promote industry with loans, taxexemptions Little help for impoverished farmers Public schools established, but notintegrated No land distribution (not supported byCongress) Blacks domination = myth
20. Carpetbaggers, Scalawags,Corruption Southerners criticize migrants from North Ignore: most migrants want to help South Discredit southern white Republicans: Most = small-scale farmers pursuingclass interests, not racial equality Both parties engage in corruption, butRepublicans tarred with it
21. Ku Klux Klan(started 1866) Rapid spread of terrorist organization Deathblow to Reconstruction in South: attack Rep. leaders (white & black) harassment, beatings, rape, arson, murder Planters organize KKK units: regain power thru Democratic control
22. Retreat from Reconstruction North lose interest (1870s) More interest in suppressing rebellionthan helping blacks Democrats: “redeem” southern governments from black“domination” thru KKK violence Congress pass KKK laws; little enforced Northerners reject: US government protect civil rights (a statematter?)
23. Liberal Republican Revolt Oppose continued action in South;nominates a different candidate in 1872 Grant re-elected, but: Reconstruction declines, little interference inSouth, poor appointments Amnesty Act, 1872: pardon most ex-confederates Corruption scandals weaken Republicans Democrats take House (1874) Increasingly North’s attention shifts fromSouth and Reconstruction
24. Disputed Election of 1876;Compromise of 1877 Tilden (Dem) win popular vote Need 1 more electoral vote 19 votes in dispute because of fraud Voting by party, commission ruled infavour of Hayes (Rep) Democrats accept if South received: federal aid troop removal