CHAPTER 1 :  Byzantine and Muslim Civilizations SECTION 2 :  The Beginnings of Islam
VOCABULARY <ul><li>Nomads :  People who have no permanent home but move from place to place </li></ul><ul><li>Oasis :  Gre...
VOCABULARY <ul><li>Mosque :  Muslim house of worship </li></ul><ul><li>Quran :  The holy book of Islam </li></ul>Continued
THE ARABIAN PENINSULA <ul><li>Covered by desert </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic  Bedouins  make their home here </li></ul><ul><l...
THE ARABIAN PENINSULA <ul><li>Knowledge of desert allows Bedouins to become guides for  caravans  on trading routes </li><...
Maps of  Saudi Arabia
THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD <ul><li>Born in Mecca around 570 AD to a poor family </li></ul><ul><li>610 AD he goes into a cave in ...
THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD Continued <ul><li>Muhammad tells his story and becomes a  prophet </li></ul><ul><li>People who accept...
THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD Continued <ul><li>622 AD Muhammad is invited to the city of  Yathrib </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad and h...
Maps of  Saudi Arabia Hijra
Maps of  Saudi Arabia
THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD Continued <ul><li>630 AD Muhammad returns to Mecca in triumph – Everyone in Arabia becomes a Muslim <...
MUSLIM BELIEF <ul><li>Muslims worship in a  mosque </li></ul><ul><li>The holy book of Islam is called the  Quran </li></ul>
MUSLIM BELIEF Continued <ul><li>The  5 Pillars  (Duties)  of Islam </li></ul>PILLAR DESCRIPTION Declaration of Faith Decla...
 
A SPLIT AMONG MUSLIMS <ul><li>632 AD Muhammad dies </li></ul><ul><li>A new ruler is elected to lead the Muslim people </li...
A SPLIT AMONG MUSLIMS Continued <ul><li>The Muslims schism into  Shiites  and  Sunnis </li></ul>REPLACEMENT OF LEADER LEAD...
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1 2 the beginnings of islam

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1 2 the beginnings of islam

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 : Byzantine and Muslim Civilizations SECTION 2 : The Beginnings of Islam
  2. 2. VOCABULARY <ul><li>Nomads : People who have no permanent home but move from place to place </li></ul><ul><li>Oasis : Green area within a desert fed by underground water </li></ul><ul><li>Caravan : Large groups of traders traveling across the desert </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet : A person who is regarded as speaking for god </li></ul>
  3. 3. VOCABULARY <ul><li>Mosque : Muslim house of worship </li></ul><ul><li>Quran : The holy book of Islam </li></ul>Continued
  4. 4. THE ARABIAN PENINSULA <ul><li>Covered by desert </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic Bedouins make their home here </li></ul><ul><li>Bedouins travel from oasis to oasis </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE ARABIAN PENINSULA <ul><li>Knowledge of desert allows Bedouins to become guides for caravans on trading routes </li></ul><ul><li>Caravans depend upon camels </li></ul><ul><li>City of Mecca becomes most important in Arabia </li></ul>Continued
  6. 6. Maps of Saudi Arabia
  7. 7. THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD <ul><li>Born in Mecca around 570 AD to a poor family </li></ul><ul><li>610 AD he goes into a cave in the mountains to pray </li></ul><ul><li>An angel visits Muhammad in the cave </li></ul><ul><li>Tells him people must stop worshipping many false gods </li></ul><ul><li>They must worship the one true god, Allah </li></ul>
  8. 8. THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD Continued <ul><li>Muhammad tells his story and becomes a prophet </li></ul><ul><li>People who accepted the teaching of Muhammad were called Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>The religion of the Muslims is called Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Many people converted to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders of Mecca were afraid and kicked Muhammad out </li></ul>
  9. 9. THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD Continued <ul><li>622 AD Muhammad is invited to the city of Yathrib </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad and his followers move north to Yathrib </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as the Hijra or “great migration” </li></ul><ul><li>Yathrib is renamed Medina , “The City of the Prophet” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Maps of Saudi Arabia Hijra
  11. 11. Maps of Saudi Arabia
  12. 12. THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD Continued <ul><li>630 AD Muhammad returns to Mecca in triumph – Everyone in Arabia becomes a Muslim </li></ul>
  13. 13. MUSLIM BELIEF <ul><li>Muslims worship in a mosque </li></ul><ul><li>The holy book of Islam is called the Quran </li></ul>
  14. 14. MUSLIM BELIEF Continued <ul><li>The 5 Pillars (Duties) of Islam </li></ul>PILLAR DESCRIPTION Declaration of Faith Declare the one and only God is Allah Prayer Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca Almsgiving Give money to the needy Fasting Fast during daylight on the month of Ramadan Pilgrimage Make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca
  15. 16. A SPLIT AMONG MUSLIMS <ul><li>632 AD Muhammad dies </li></ul><ul><li>A new ruler is elected to lead the Muslim people </li></ul><ul><li>The third leader is assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Two different ideas on how to replace this leader </li></ul>
  16. 17. A SPLIT AMONG MUSLIMS Continued <ul><li>The Muslims schism into Shiites and Sunnis </li></ul>REPLACEMENT OF LEADER LEADERSHIP FOLLOWING SHIITES Direct descendant of Muhammad One person 15% of Muslims SUNNIS Anyone from Muhammad’s tribe Group of scholars help leader 85% of Muslims

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