Successfully reported this slideshow.
Primary funding is provided byThe SPE Foundation through member donations   and a contribution from Offshore EuropeThe Soc...
E&P Applications of                      Fiber Optic TechnologiesDennis DriaMyden Energy Consulting PLLCSociety of Petrole...
Fiber Optic Sensing in E&PWhy Fiber Optic Monitoring?Where we areHow it works – an overviewField examples                 ...
Well & Reservoir Monitoring Needs  • Well & Completion Integrity    – Casing & tubing leaks, sand control      components ...
Well & Reservoir Monitoring Needs • Well & Completion Integrity • Production Flow Monitoring  Could we see damage •onset e...
Well & Reservoir Challenges• Can’t always run Production Logs• Well intervention difficult due to well design• Need real-t...
Fiber-Optic (FO) Technologies• In the oil field since the mid 90’s.• Introduced by small, ‘high-tech’ companies  – often a...
Fiber Optics Sensing•   Single Point SensorFiber                                                           Sensing Element...
Single Point Sensing               Fabry-Perot concept                response to pressureis a function of the distance be...
Single Point Sensing (cont’d)                                            … and practical realization for downhole applicat...
Single Point Sensing (cont’d)                                            … and practical realization for downhole applicat...
12Courtesy of Baker Hughes   12
Single-Point Sensor       FiberAnalog is downhole P gaugeVarious sensing methodsDifferent gauges available  P, T, flow, se...
Discretely Distributed SensorsMultiple Sensing Elements(hundreds to thousands)Example -Strain image ofpipe deformationPipe...
Bragg Grating Multi-point Precision Sensingfor high-temperature thermal flood monitoring   Courtesy of Robert Caporuscio, ...
Distributed SensingFiberContinuously-Distributed: Sensing Elements are microscopic defects in glass   Fiber itself is the ...
Distributed SensingFiberContinuously-Distributed: Sensing Elements are microscopic defects in glass   Fiber itself is the ...
Distributed Temperature Sensing                                  18                                    18
E&P Company DTS applicationsa select list of published examples only, not meant to be comprehensive        Gas Lift monito...
E&P Company DTS applications        a select list of published examples only, not meant to be comprehensive•   Aera Energy...
Gas Lift     monitoring                                              21modified, from Smolen & van der Spek (2003)
Time-lapse monitoring of production                                                          22                       from...
Production monitoring – gas breakthrough                                                              23                  ...
Temperature Monitoring of Injector Wells• Sand-face temperature profile during injection   – Qualitative but useful   – Va...
Onshore water inj well - DTS behind casing  • stabilized temperature profile to indicate injection profile   • warm back t...
Hydraulic FractureContainment Evaluation      Fracture stayed      contained after two      months of      continuous inje...
Thermal tracer methodSimilar to how radioactive tracer is used toobtain fluid velocityUse tracer velocity ~ spinner analys...
Thermal tracer method                   s    Rahman, et al., SPE 144116 (2011)   28
Thermal Tracer Methodonshore water injector   Rahman, et al., SPE 144116 (2011)   29
Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS)                installation optionsPermanently Installed  – Cable clamped to casing,...
PermanentInstallation  Example    Cable    clamped    to casing    or tubing                     31                31
Example Installation - Horizontal Well                                                         32               32        ...
SAGD CT Installation – PDVSA (Venezuela)Optical fiber(in ¼” diastainlesssteel tube)Well head                              ...
Fiber-Optic Monitoring - Sand Screen in Gravel Pack & Frac-Pac                             Fiber/cable between outer tube ...
Installation Example – Sand Screen      Permanently      Installed          – Cable            clamped            to casin...
Distributed Acoustic Sensing• New technology – potential being  demonstrated                                             A...
Distributed Acoustic Sensing                  “Hear” sand produced                  through hole in screen                ...
Distributed Acoustic Sensing: Seismic Application                                       Zero-offset                       ...
Data Management is ImportantNear real-time data accessException-based reportingIntegrated visualization & interpretationLi...
Data Management Example                                                               40   Paterson, 2011 SPE ATW on Distr...
ConclusionsFiber optic sensors provide real-timemonitoring capability  • Pressure  • Temperature  • AcousticValue of optic...
Thank you !Society of Petroleum EngineersDistinguished Lecturer Programwww.spe.org/dl                   42
Your Feedback is Important Enter your section in the DL Evaluation Contest bycompleting the evaluation form for this prese...
This year marks the 50th      anniversary of the SPE  Distinguished Lecturer program. Please visit our site to learn more ...
Society of Petroleum EngineersDistinguished Lecturer Programwww.spe.org/dl                   45
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

2012 01 26 DRIA SPEGCS Reservoir - Fiber Optic Tech

2,288 views

Published on

SPEGCS Distinguished Lecturer Program, Reservoir Fiber Optic Technology

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

2012 01 26 DRIA SPEGCS Reservoir - Fiber Optic Tech

  1. 1. Primary funding is provided byThe SPE Foundation through member donations and a contribution from Offshore EuropeThe Society is grateful to those companies that allow their professionals to serve as lecturers Additional support provided by AIME Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program www.spe.org/dl 1
  2. 2. E&P Applications of Fiber Optic TechnologiesDennis DriaMyden Energy Consulting PLLCSociety of Petroleum EngineersDistinguished Lecturer Programwww.spe.org/dl 2
  3. 3. Fiber Optic Sensing in E&PWhy Fiber Optic Monitoring?Where we areHow it works – an overviewField examples 3
  4. 4. Well & Reservoir Monitoring Needs • Well & Completion Integrity – Casing & tubing leaks, sand control components • Production Flow Monitoring – Zonal allocation, gas/water breakthrough • Injection Monitoring – Injection profile, fracture growth • Thermal Flood Monitoring 4 4
  5. 5. Well & Reservoir Monitoring Needs • Well & Completion Integrity • Production Flow Monitoring Could we see damage •onset early enough to Injection Profiling •prevent failure? Thermal Flood Monitoring 5 5
  6. 6. Well & Reservoir Challenges• Can’t always run Production Logs• Well intervention difficult due to well design• Need real-time data for control• “Smart well” operation 6 6
  7. 7. Fiber-Optic (FO) Technologies• In the oil field since the mid 90’s.• Introduced by small, ‘high-tech’ companies – often absorbed by the major service companies• Developed and successfully deployed – temperature, pressure, strain and acoustics• Acceptable reliability has been established 7 7
  8. 8. Fiber Optics Sensing• Single Point SensorFiber Sensing Element• Multi-point (quasi-distributed) SensorFiber Multiple Sensing Elements• Distributed SensorFiber Fiber itself is Continuous Sensing Element 8 8
  9. 9. Single Point Sensing Fabry-Perot concept response to pressureis a function of the distance between two reflectors Externally pressured cavity (e.g. well pressure) Applied pressure Applied pressure applied perssure causes change in cavity length, measured optically 9
  10. 10. Single Point Sensing (cont’d) … and practical realization for downhole applications Externally pressured cavity (e.g. well pressure) Applied pressure Applied pressure applied perssure causes change in cavity length, measured opticallyFO Single Sensor example: Fabry-Perot fiber-optic pressure sensing element (courtesy of Baker Hughes) 10
  11. 11. Single Point Sensing (cont’d) … and practical realization for downhole applications Externally pressured cavity (e.g. well pressure) Applied pressure Applied pressure applied perssure causes change in cavity length, measured opticallyFO Single Sensor example: Fabry-Perot fiber-optic pressure sensing element (courtesy of Baker Hughes) EFPI (External Fabry-Perot) Pressure- Temperature gauge sensors (courtesy of Baker Hughes) 11
  12. 12. 12Courtesy of Baker Hughes 12
  13. 13. Single-Point Sensor FiberAnalog is downhole P gaugeVarious sensing methodsDifferent gauges available P, T, flow, seismicInstallation similarto conventional gauges 13 13
  14. 14. Discretely Distributed SensorsMultiple Sensing Elements(hundreds to thousands)Example -Strain image ofpipe deformationPipe bent in testShapedetermined bystrain imaging Courtesy of Pearce, et al., SPWLA 2009 14 14
  15. 15. Bragg Grating Multi-point Precision Sensingfor high-temperature thermal flood monitoring Courtesy of Robert Caporuscio, 2011 SPE workshop on Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing 15
  16. 16. Distributed SensingFiberContinuously-Distributed: Sensing Elements are microscopic defects in glass Fiber itself is the sensor Back-scattered light carries information 16 16
  17. 17. Distributed SensingFiberContinuously-Distributed: Sensing Elements are microscopic defects in glass Fiber itself is the sensor Back-scattered light carries information Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) 17 17
  18. 18. Distributed Temperature Sensing 18 18
  19. 19. E&P Company DTS applicationsa select list of published examples only, not meant to be comprehensive Gas Lift monitoring/optimization SPE 67729, SPE 92962, SPE 95798 Production/inflow monitoring SPE 84324, SPE 87631, SPE 92962, SPE 102678 Injection profiling, water management SPE 90248, SPE 95419, SPE 94989, SPE 71676 Enhanced Recovery (CO2, Thermal) SPE 90248, SPE 54599 Well integrity and monitoring SPE 62952, SPE 107070, SPE 103014 ESP optimization SPE 103069 Fracture Height Monitoring SPE 103069 Real-time stimulation monitoring SPE 100617, SPE 84379 19 19
  20. 20. E&P Company DTS applications a select list of published examples only, not meant to be comprehensive• Aera Energy Gas Lift monitoring/optimization• AGIP SPE 67729, SPE 92962, SPE 95798• Anadarko• BHP Petroleum Production/inflow monitoring SPE 84324, SPE 87631, SPE 92962, SPE 102678• BP• BSP (Brunei) Injection profiling, water management SPE 90248, SPE 95419, SPE 94989, SPE 71676• Centrica Energy• Chevron/Texaco Enhanced Recovery (CO2, Thermal)• ConocoPhilips SPE 90248, SPE 54599• EnCana Well integrity and monitoring• Husky Energy SPE 62952, SPE 107070, SPE 103014• Oxy/Occidental ESP optimization• PDO (Oman) SPE 103069• PDVSA Fracture Height Monitoring• Petrobras SPE 103069• Pemex• Saudi Aramco Real-time stimulation monitoring SPE 100617, SPE 84379• Shell 20• Suncor 20
  21. 21. Gas Lift monitoring 21modified, from Smolen & van der Spek (2003)
  22. 22. Time-lapse monitoring of production 22 from Pinzon, et al (2007), SPE 110064.
  23. 23. Production monitoring – gas breakthrough 23 23 from Pinzon, et al (2007), SPE 110064.
  24. 24. Temperature Monitoring of Injector Wells• Sand-face temperature profile during injection – Qualitative but useful – Value in time-lapse measurement• Warm back during shut in – Slower warm back to geothermal = high local inj rate – Faster warm back to geothermal = low local injection rate• Thermal tracer – Similar in principle to radioactive tracer method – Yields water velocity ~ spinner 24
  25. 25. Onshore water inj well - DTS behind casing • stabilized temperature profile to indicate injection profile  • warm back to watch for out‐of‐zone frac Fracture above   Packer   perfs? (3) 24 hr shut in (1) Lower rate (2) Higher  rate from Huckabee, SPE 118831 (2009) 25
  26. 26. Hydraulic FractureContainment Evaluation Fracture stayed contained after two months of continuous injections 5860’-6160’
  27. 27. Thermal tracer methodSimilar to how radioactive tracer is used toobtain fluid velocityUse tracer velocity ~ spinner analysis• Track a temperature “anomaly” with DTS• Calculate the velocity of the temperature anomaly• Temperature velocity = water velocity• In-situ water flow rate = velocity/pipe cross-sectional area• Change in in-situ rate indicates water injection 27
  28. 28. Thermal tracer method s Rahman, et al., SPE 144116 (2011) 28
  29. 29. Thermal Tracer Methodonshore water injector Rahman, et al., SPE 144116 (2011) 29
  30. 30. Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) installation optionsPermanently Installed – Cable clamped to casing, tubing or sand screen – Pump fiber down control lineIntervention – similar to logging – Coiled tubing with fiber – “Mini-coil” – fiber in capillary tube – Slick line with integral fiber 30 30
  31. 31. PermanentInstallation Example Cable clamped to casing or tubing 31 31
  32. 32. Example Installation - Horizontal Well 32 32 (courtesy of Dean Brown and Paul Huckabee, 2007)
  33. 33. SAGD CT Installation – PDVSA (Venezuela)Optical fiber(in ¼” diastainlesssteel tube)Well head 33 from Saputelli, et al (1999), SPE 54104.
  34. 34. Fiber-Optic Monitoring - Sand Screen in Gravel Pack & Frac-Pac Fiber/cable between outer tube and sand screen Fiber-Optic Enabled Multiple Completion Components • Sand Screen • Multi-fiber Wet Connect • Expansion joint • GP/FP ports Courtesy of Jeremy Pearce, 2010 SPE workshop on Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing 34
  35. 35. Installation Example – Sand Screen Permanently Installed – Cable clamped to casing or tubing Courtesy of Tor Kragas, presented at 2009 SPE Workshop on DTS 35 35
  36. 36. Distributed Acoustic Sensing• New technology – potential being demonstrated Applications include• Originally taken from perimeter Flow intrusion detection Well diagnostics/leaks• Acoustic signal every 1 to 10 m Completion integrity• Up to 100 km coverage monitoring Distance Distanc Amplitude e Initial Acoustic Distance Noise event Difference 36 36
  37. 37. Distributed Acoustic Sensing “Hear” sand produced through hole in screen 37 OTC 20429 37
  38. 38. Distributed Acoustic Sensing: Seismic Application Zero-offset VSP 38 38
  39. 39. Data Management is ImportantNear real-time data accessException-based reportingIntegrated visualization & interpretationLife-of-well data storage and access 39 39
  40. 40. Data Management Example 40 Paterson, 2011 SPE ATW on Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing 40 40
  41. 41. ConclusionsFiber optic sensors provide real-timemonitoring capability • Pressure • Temperature • AcousticValue of optical sensors demonstrated • When needed to make decisions • Production & Injection flow • Mechanical integrity 41
  42. 42. Thank you !Society of Petroleum EngineersDistinguished Lecturer Programwww.spe.org/dl 42
  43. 43. Your Feedback is Important Enter your section in the DL Evaluation Contest bycompleting the evaluation form for this presentation : Click on: Section Evaluation Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program www.spe.org/dl 43
  44. 44. This year marks the 50th anniversary of the SPE  Distinguished Lecturer program. Please visit our site to learn more  about this amazing program. www.spe.org/go/DL50
  45. 45. Society of Petroleum EngineersDistinguished Lecturer Programwww.spe.org/dl 45

×