Collectivisation In Russia

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Collectivisation In Russia

  1. 1. Collectivisation in Russia
  2. 2. Objectives • How to implement collectivisation • Forced collectivisation • Impact of collectivisation Riots and resistance Getting rid of people who opposed collectivisation Famine • Achievement of Stalin’s aims
  3. 3. What is Collectivisation? • Definition: Grouping of farms into a unit (collective farm). • Collective farm (kolkhoz): A farm whereby farmers in a particular area would combine their land together to form a single large unit.
  4. 4. Stalin’s Objectives for Collectivisation • To increase agricultural output from large scale mechanized farms, to bring the peasantry under more direct political control. • Make food production efficient. • Tax collection more efficient. • Lesser farmers needed for agricultural, the rest can work in the cities.
  5. 5. However Collectivisation was met with… • Resistance from the kulaks (rich land owning farmers). - Refusal to hand in crops - Kulaks would rather be killed and destroy farm produce than give them to Communist officials
  6. 6. Stalin’s reaction to collectivisation • Serious measures were taken. • The NKVD was especially harsh to the kulaks – thousands were either killed or sent to labour camps.
  7. 7. Impact of Collectivisation • Riots and resistance • Getting rid of people who opposed collectivisation • Famine
  8. 8. Riots and resistance • Farmers rioted and engaged in armed resistance. • Stalin ordered 17 million horses used in farming to be killed and • Replaced by tractors. • However, there were not enough tractors.
  9. 9. Getting rid of people who opposed collectivisation • Villagers who did not co-operate were sent to the gulags (labour camps) north of the Soviet Union and made to work on Stalin’s ambitious construction projects.
  10. 10. Famine • Farmers burnt their crops and grew less food, causing severe food shortages. • Made worse by natural disasters such as droughts and floods. • Worst of famines in Soviet Republic of Ukraine in 1931. • More than 10 million peasants and their families died in the famine.
  11. 11. Achievement of Stalin’s aims • Stalin had a cheap and regular supply of crops. • Estimated 25 million farmers were forced to join huge collective farms. • Five-Year Plans allowed rapid expansion of heavy industries which are protected by the Ural Mountains.

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