Brand personality


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Brand personality

  1. 1. Brand Personality
  2. 2. What is brand personality? • Brand Personality is a set of human characteristics associated with a brand • Personality is how the brand behaves • Gender, age, socio-economic class, psychographic, emotional characteristics
  3. 3. Some examples… • Marlboro is ‘masculine’ while Virginia Slims is ‘feminine’ • IBM is ‘older’ while Apple is ‘younger’ • India Today is ‘old-fashioned’ while Outlook is ‘trendier’ • Coke is ‘conforming’ while Pepsi is ‘irreverent’
  4. 4. About brand personality • Brand Personality, like human personality, is both distinctive and enduring – Both are built over a period of time • Refers to the outcome of all the consumer’s experiences with the brand • In other words, the brand’s personality is the weighted average of previous impressions • In consumer’s mind, these impressions merge to form an overall concept of what to expect from brand
  5. 5. More about it… • Brand Personality is eagerly searched by brand strategists and researchers • Differences in responses by different consumers provide useful insights • For example, users of a product will perceive a brand different from non-users
  6. 6. In essence… ‘Personality traits are what the brand will live and die for’
  7. 7. Examples… Axe • Seduction, masculinity, inviduality, unconventionality Marlboro • Masculinity, freedom, adventure Levi’s • Rebellion, sensuality, being cool
  8. 8. Example: Spinz Young Modern Active Outdoor Cheerful Friendly ‘Life of the Party’
  9. 9. Why use brand personality? Enriches understanding • Helps gain an in-depth understanding of consumer perceptions of and attitudes towards the brand • Can provide more insight than is gained by asking about attribute perceptions • For ex., Microsoft, IBM etc.,
  10. 10. Why use brand personality? Contributes to a differentiating identity • Can differentiate brands especially where brands are similar in product attributes • In fact, it can define not only the brand but the product class context and experience • Mercedes Vs BMW; Clinic Plus Vs Pantene
  11. 11. Why use brand personality? Guides the communication effort • Communicates the brand identity with richness and texture • If the brand is specified only in terms of attribute associations, very little meaningful guidance is provided – Is Nike shoes or sports, performance and attitude?
  12. 12. Why use brand personality? Creates brand equity • Builds long-term brand equity • Differentiates the brand and makes it distinct from other competitive offerings • Serves as a powerful relationship device
  13. 13. How to create brand personality? • Personality of a person is affected by everything associated with him – friends, neighbourhood, activities, clothes etc., • So too is a brand personality
  14. 14. Product-related characteristics • Product-related characteristics can be primary drivers of a brand personality – Even the product class can affect personality • Banks, Insurance etc., tend to be Competent, Serious, Masculine, Older and Upper-class • Athletic shoes tend to be Young, Lively, Rugged, Outdoorsy, Adventurous etc.,
  15. 15. Product-related characteristics • Product attributes can often affect brand personality • A ‘light’ beer would largely be classy, sophisticated etc., • A high-priced brand will be considered wealthy, stylish and perhaps snobbish!
  16. 16. User imagery • Can be powerful driver of personality because user is already a person and so conceptualizing the personality is reduced • User Imagery can be people who use the brand or those portrayed in advertising
  17. 17. Sponsorships • Activities such as events sponsored by the brand will influence its personality • Pond’s sponsoring Femina’s ‘Miss India’ contest • Budweiser sponsoring the blimp in American sporting events
  18. 18. Age • How long a brand has been on the market can affect its personality • New entrants like Apple, Outlook etc., tend to have younger brand personalities than IBM, India Today etc.,
  19. 19. Symbol • A symbol can be a powerful influence on brand personality since it can be controlled and can have extremely strong associations • Some examples… – Apple’s bitten apple – Nike’s swoosh – MetLife’s Peanuts character
  20. 20. How it creates brand equity? The ways brand personality can create brand equity are summarized by 3 models: 1. The Self-Expression Model 2. The Relationship Basis Model 3. The Functional Benefit Representation Model
  21. 21. The self-expression model • The basic premise is that for some customers, some brands become vehicles to express a part of their self-identity • This self-identity can be their actual identity or an ideal self to which they might aspire • Apple is perceived as friendly, unpretentious, irreverent and willing to go against the grain – This is because Mac is easy-to-use and also due to its symbol, advertising, user groups etc., – The use of Apple expresses a personal identity of being non-corporate and creative
  22. 22. How brand helps express personality? Feelings engendered by brand personality • There can be a set of feelings and emotions attached to a brand personality, just as there are to a person – The use of such brands can cause feelings and emotions to emerge • Feelings, when using a Harley-Davidson or Apple would not emerge when using a Honda or Compaq
  23. 23. How brand helps express personality? The brand as a badge • A brand could serve as a consumer’s personal statement • Cars, cosmetics, apparels lend themselves to personality expression because their use occurs in a social context with relatively high involvement
  24. 24. How brand helps express personality? The brand becomes part of the self • The ultimate personality expression occurs when a brand becomes an extension or an integral part of the self • The executive who wears Allen Solly on a Friday feels semi-casual and waiting to welcoming the weekend! • The potential to create this oneness with some people can represent a significant opportunity for a brand
  25. 25. The relationship basis model • Some people may never aspire to have a certain personality trait but would like to have a relationship with one who has that • A trustworthy, dependable, conservative personality might be seen boring but sought nevertheless, from banks or financial products • The concept of a relationship between a brand and a person provides a different perspective on how brand personality might work
  26. 26. The Relationship Basis Model • To see how this model works, consider personality types of people with whom we have relationships and the nature of those relationships • Spirited, young, up-to-date, outgoing – Pepsi – On a weekend evening, it might be enjoyable to have a friend who has these personality features
  27. 27. The Relationship Basis Model • Two elements affect individual’s relationship with a brand 1. Relationship between the brand-as-person and the customer – Which is analogous to the relationship between two people 2. The brand personality – The type of person the brand represents
  28. 28. Functional benefit representation model • The previous two models provide contexts in which brand personality can be the basis for a brand strategy and a link to the customer • A brand personality can also play a more indirect role by being a vehicle for representing and cueing functional benefits and brand attributes
  29. 29. Functional benefit representation model • Marlboro’s personality of a macho, freedom-loving, adventurous person suggests that the product is strong • Harley Davidson’s personality of a rugged, macho, I-am-different-kind suggests that the product is a powerful, liberating vehicle
  30. 30. Functional benefit representation model • When a visual symbol or image exists that can create and cue personality… – …the ability of the personality to reinforce brand attributes will be greater • The Energizer rabbit is an upbeat, indefatigable personality who never runs out of energy – Just as the battery it symbolizes runs longer than others
  31. 31. Functional benefit representation model • A brand personality that represents a functional benefit or attribute may be relatively ineffective if it lacks a visual image established in the customer’s mind • A country or region of origin can add credibility to an identity – It can generate a strong personality that provides a quality cue and a key point of differentiation
  32. 32. To sum up… • A brand personality can help a brand in several ways: – It can provide a vehicle for customers to express their own identity – A brand personality metaphor helps suggests the kind of relationship that customer has with brand – Brand personalities serve to represent and cue functional benefits and product attributes well • Importantly, brand personality is often a sustainable point of differentiation – Sustainable because it is very difficult to copy a personality