Ahmad Bin Hanbal

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Ahmad Bin Hanbal

  1. 1. Ahmad bin Hanbal أحمد بن حنبل 164-241 H نبذة عن حياة الأئمة الأربعة Lives of The Great Four Imams
  2. 2. Abu Hanifah 80-150 H Malik 93-179 H Shafe’i 150-204 H Ahmad 164-241 H
  3. 3. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>His Birth in Baghdad </li></ul><ul><li>His upbringing and youth </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Travels </li></ul>
  4. 4. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Started teaching at the age of 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of his Halaqa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seriousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation of Hadith, not opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding argumentations and debates </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>His life style </li></ul><ul><li>His relationship with Authority (Khilafa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused donations and gifts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ordeal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Imam Ahmad </li></ul>
  6. 6. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>His Personal Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>His Teachers and Mentors </li></ul><ul><li>His Life Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>His Time </li></ul>
  7. 7. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>His Personal Attributes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Memory and understanding of Hadith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patience and Perseverance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adherence to Sunnah and Avoiding Arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sincerity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence and Character </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>His Teachers and Mentors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Teachers (among many) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hushaym bin Bashir هُشَيم بن بشير الواسطي </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imam Shafe’I محمد بن ادريس الشافعي </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influencing Teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sufian Al-Thawri سفيان بن سعيد الثوري </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak عبد الله بن المبارك </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>His Teachers and Mentors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufian bin Uyaynah سفيان بن عيينة </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waki’ bin Al-Jarrah وكيع بن الجراح </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdur-Razzaq عبد الرزاق بن همام الصنعاني </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahya Al-Qattan يحيى بن سعيد القطان </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>His Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abbasids Dominance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts within Abbasid family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of Persian and Turks (Ma’moon) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation of Fiqh and Knowledge of Hadith. Compilation of Hadith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creed Divisions (Mu’tazilah and others) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief, words, and deeds? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases and decreases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Sin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes of Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can a human being understand about the Creator? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief, words, and deeds? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases and decreases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Sin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes of Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can a human being understand about the Creator? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul>Belief only Belief, Words and Deeds Murji’ah المرجئة Imam Ahmad
  14. 14. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul>One station, does not change. Increases and Decreases Mu’tazilah المعتزلة Kawarej الخوارج Imam Ahmad
  16. 16. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul>كفر Kufr Iman إيمان Rejecter of Belief كافر Hellfire Muslim who commits capital sins. مسلم فاسق ( مرتكب الكبائر ) Obedient Muslim مسلم مؤمن Jannah Shahadah الشهادة Tawbah التوبة
  17. 17. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul>Worship Sunnah Hope الرجاء Fear الخوف Love الحب
  18. 18. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul>Worship Sunnah Hope الرجاء Fear الخوف Love الحب الإسراء
  19. 19. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul>Worship Sunnah Hope الرجاء Fear الخوف Love الحب Extreme Sufism غلاة الصوفية Murji’ah المرجئة Khawarej الخوارج
  20. 20. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief, words, and deeds? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases and decreases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Sin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes of Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can a human being understand about the Creator? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Sin </li></ul></ul>كفر Kufr Iman إيمان Rejecter of Belief كافر Hellfire Muslim who commits capital sins. مسلم فاسق ( مرتكب الكبائر ) Obedient Muslim مسلم مؤمن Jannah Shahadah الشهادة Tawbah التوبة
  22. 22. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Sin Khawarej الخوارج </li></ul></ul>كفر Kufr Iman إيمان Rejecter of Belief كافر Hellfire Muslim who commits capital sins. ” كافر“ ( مرتكب الكبائر ) Obedient Muslim مسلم مؤمن Jannah Shahadah الشهادة Tawbah التوبة
  23. 23. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Sin Mu’tazilah المعتزلة </li></ul></ul>كفر Kufr “ in-between” ” منزلة بين المنزلتين“ Iman إيمان Rejecter of Belief كافر Hellfire Muslim who commits capital sins. ” منزلة بين المنزلتين“ ( مرتكب الكبائر ) Obedient Muslim مسلم مؤمن Jannah Shahadah الشهادة Tawbah التوبة
  24. 24. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief, words, and deeds? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases and decreases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Sin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes of Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can a human being understand about the Creator? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Discussions and Arguments about trying to reach a universal and complete understanding regarding matters pertaining to Allah’s Wisdom and Determination for His Creation . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge about Deviated Sects are only important to avoid Deviation in Creed . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STOP at the Text of the Quran and Sunnah! السنة التوقيفية </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Text does not have to conform with Philosophy and Study of Human Logic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We cannot understand many details that are related to Allah Himself, His Decree, His Wisdom and His Knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of Sunnah: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in the Eternal and Unlimited Knowledge of Allah. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in the Pre-Recording of All Events and Deeds in The Book of Allah. (Al-Lawh اللوح المحفوظ ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in the Absolute Will and Determination of Allah. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that Allah has Created Everything, The Servants and Their Deeds . Allah has given His Servants the Free Choice, by which they are taken to Accountability. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of Sunnah: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in the Eternal and Unlimited Knowledge of Allah. </li></ul></ul></ul>الأحزاب الأنعام
  29. 29. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of Sunnah: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in the Pre-Recording of All Events and Deeds in The Book of Allah. (Al-Lawh اللوح المحفوظ ) </li></ul></ul></ul>الحديد
  30. 30. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of Sunnah: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in the Absolute Will and Determination of Allah. </li></ul></ul></ul>طه البقره
  31. 31. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of Sunnah: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that Allah has Created everything , The Servants and Their Deeds . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allah has given His Servants the Free Choice, by which they are taken to Accountability. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Servants’ will cannot be independent and higher that Allah’s Will </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of Sunnah: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that Allah has Created everything , The Servants and Their Deeds . </li></ul></ul></ul>الصافات
  33. 33. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of Sunnah: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allah has given His Servants the Free Choice, by which they are taken to Accountability. </li></ul></ul></ul>الكهف
  34. 34. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of Sunnah: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Servants’ will cannot be independent and higher that Allah’s Will </li></ul></ul></ul>التكوير
  35. 35. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah’s Universal Will الإرادة الكونية </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allah’s undeniable power and will over everything and being in Heaven and Earth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All events, good or bad, occur due to the Will and Permission of Allah’s alone. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah’s Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allah’s commands and instructions to His Creation regarding His Will in regards to what they should do to please Him. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية البقره النحل
  37. 37. Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية البقره النحل Allah Allowed The Choice and Accountability for His Servants
  38. 38. Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية
  39. 39. Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Choice Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience السنة التوقيفية Sunnah of Acceptance
  40. 40. Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية Sunnah Belief in Qadar الإيمان بالقدر Qadaryah القدرية Denial of the Universal Will of creating Good and Evil and claiming Servants “create” their own Deeds and Evil Denial of the Legislative Will and denying Servants the choice to follow Good vs. Evil. “Compulsion to do Evil” Jabryah الجبرية
  41. 41. Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Choice Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience السنة التوقيفية Sunnah of Acceptance
  42. 42. Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية Allah’s Will “ Independent Will” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience Qadaryah/Mu’tazilah القدرية المعتزلة “ Created” by Servants Absolute Free Will
  43. 43. Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية Allah’s Will “ Independent Will” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience Qadaryah/Mu’tazilah القدرية المعتزلة “ Created” by Servants الصافات Absolute Free Will Negates: القدير الخالق لكل شيء Absolute Will of Allah
  44. 44. Universal Will الإرادة الكونية “ No Choice” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience No Choice for servants in their own deeds Jabryah/Jahmyah الجبرية الجهمية Negates justice and fairness in regards to accountability before Allah Determinism
  45. 45. Universal Will الإرادة الكونية “ No Choice” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience No Choice for servants in their own deeds Jabryah/Jahmyah الجبرية الجهمية Negates justice and fairness in regards to accountability before Allah العدل الكهف Determinism
  46. 46. Universal Will الإرادة الكونية “ No Choice” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience No Choice for servants in their own deeds Jabryah/Jahmyah الجبرية الجهمية Negates justice and fairness in regards to accountability before Allah الأعراف Determinism
  47. 47. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arguments in Qadar are disliked , it is better to be occupied with achieving Good and avoiding Evil rather that engaging in endless, fruitless, and misguiding discussions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions of Servants cannot be independent of Allah's Will and Knowledge. العليم القدير </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah is All-Just, no injustice or unfairness can come from His Wisdom. العدل الحكيم </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah takes us to accountability only on actions that we choose to do or not do. لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use Philosophy premises and Human Logic in trying to understand Devine Wisdom and Will. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam is about submission to Allah . Submitting to Allah’s will does not always have to conform with human wisdom and logic. (e.g. Drinking Alcohol in moderation) </li></ul></ul>آل عمران محمد
  49. 49. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam encourages thinking and intellectual methodology. Allah encourages us to think about His Creation and His Signs , not about matters that are beyond our human ability. Matters that are related to Allah’s Attributes. </li></ul></ul>آل عمران
  50. 50. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith (Iman) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief, words, and deeds? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases and decreases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Sin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destiny and Free Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes of Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can a human being understand about the Creator? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Attributes of Allah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunnah’s Principles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affirm and believe in all Attributes of Allah as confirmed in Quran and Sunnah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respect the Names and Attributes without concluding any changes or modifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid drawing similarities and common traits between Allah’s Attributes and any other by the same name in the language. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in the impossibility of knowing or understanding the full meaning of these Attributes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never ask “How?” about Attributes of Allah </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) <ul><li>Matters of Division and Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes of Allah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STOP at the Text of the Quran and Sunnah! السنة التوقيفية </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Attributes of Allah الشورى الأعراف الأعراف
  54. 54. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) آل عمران <ul><li>Attributes of Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Allah warned against unwarranted and pointless arguments that lead to deviation. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Attributes of Allah الشورى الأعراف الأعراف السنة التوقيفية Sunnah of Acceptance المعطلة Deniers Interpreters المشبهة Figurative- Understanding Mu’tazilah
  56. 56. Principles of Al-Mu’tazilah <ul><li>Tawheed التوحيد </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denying and Interpreting Attributes of Allah. (Rejecting Speech and Seeing Allah in Hereafter) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Justice العدل </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qadaryah: Humans “create” their own deeds and responsible for that creation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promise and Warning الوعد و الوعيد </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Committer of Enormity or Capital Sin is condemned to Eternity in Hellfire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Station In-Between المنزلة بين المنزلتين </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Committer of Enormities is not a Believer nor a Kafir. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ordering Good/Prohibiting Vice الأمر بالمعروف و النهي عن المنكر </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive methods: Torture, Jailing, and Executions. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Opinions of Imam Ahmad: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepting Attributes of Allah “as is” from Quran and Sunnah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Hearing, The Vision, The Hand, The Face, The Elevation, The Speech, and The Knowledge, The Will, The Anger, and The Pleasure of Allah. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iman is Faith, Words, and Deeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah is seen in the Hereafter by the believers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid discussions about conflicts among the Sahaba </li></ul></ul>Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)
  58. 58. <ul><li>The Tribulation regarding Quran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Position of Imams and Predecessors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Beginning: Al-Ma’mun المأمون </li></ul>Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)
  59. 59. <ul><li>The Tribulation regarding Quran (218-234 H) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Ma’mun’s Phase (218 H) المأمون مرحلة </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Inquisition: Coercion and Arrest. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Mu’tasem’s Phase (218-227H) مرحلة المعتصم </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prison and Torture. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Watheq’s Phase (227-232 H) الواثق مرحلة </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House Arrest. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Mutawakel’s Phase (232-234 H) المتوكل مرحلة </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End of Tribulation. Trial by wealth and position. </li></ul></ul></ul>Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)
  60. 60. <ul><li>Works of Imam Ahmad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Musnad: المسند </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 Hadith </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique categorization: according to narrator of Hadith. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A book of Hadith, not Fiqh, with emphasis on critical examination of narration (Isnad). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles of Fiqh and Aqeedah </li></ul></ul>Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)
  61. 61. <ul><li>Students of Imam Ahmad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saleh ibn Imam Ahmad صالح بن أحمد بن حنبل </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdullah ibn Imam Ahmad عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdul-Malik Al-Maymuni عبد الملك الميموني </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr Al-Maruzi أبو بكر المروزي </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harb Al-Karmani حرب الكرماني </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ibraheem Al-Harbi ابراهيم الحربي </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr Al-Khalal أبو بكر الخلال </li></ul></ul>Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)
  62. 62. Sources of Hanbali School الأدلة الفقهية في المذهب الحنبلي Sahaba قول الصحابي Preserving Status Quo الاستصحاب Quran القرآن Sunnah السنة Comparison القياس General Benefit المصالح المرسلة Prevention of Vice سد الذرائع
  63. 63. Sources of Hanbali School الأدلة الفقهية في المذهب الحنبلي Sahaba قول الصحابي Preserving Status Quo الاستصحاب Quran القرآن Sunnah السنة Comparison القياس General Benefit المصالح المرسلة Prevention of Vice سد الذرائع Text النص Opinion الرأي
  64. 64. Sources of Hanbali School <ul><li>The Quran: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of Quran is dependent on the Sunnah , not according to later understanding of apparent meanings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahaba’s understanding of Quran is second to Sunnah. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No interpretation of Quran is acceptable without textual reference (Sunnah or Athar). </li></ul></ul>Quran القرآن
  65. 65. <ul><li>The Sunnah: </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted solitary-narrated Hadith as source of Jurisprudence. </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted interrupted (Mursal) Hadith, but only in the absence of Sahabi ruling. </li></ul><ul><li>A “weak” Hadith to Imam Ahmad is considered “good” حسن in the later definition of Imam Termithi. (questionable link in the chain, but not a known liar. The Hadith does not have aberrancy شواذ or problem علة ) </li></ul>Sunnah السنة Sources of Hanbali School
  66. 66. <ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatedly Connected المتواتر </li></ul></ul></ul>Sources of Hanbali School رسول الله ( ص ) The Prophet PBUH راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator
  67. 67. <ul><ul><ul><li>Famous المشهور </li></ul></ul></ul>Sources of Hanbali School رسول الله ( ص ) The Prophet PBUH راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator
  68. 68. <ul><ul><ul><li>Single Narration الآحاد </li></ul></ul></ul>Sources of Hanbali School رسول الله ( ص ) The Prophet PBUH راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator Accepted by Imam Ahmad in matters of Jurisprudence and Creed Accepted by other Imams after examination in matters of Jurisprudence but not Creed.
  69. 69. <ul><ul><ul><li>Loose-end Chain المرسل </li></ul></ul></ul>Sources of Hanbali School رسول الله ( ص ) The Prophet PBUH راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator Accepted by Imam Ahmad in absence of Sahabi’s ruling. (considered it “weak”) Accepted by other Imams with strict conditions.
  70. 70. <ul><li>Accepted as a ruling based on textual evidence. أثر </li></ul><ul><li>When there is disagreement among Sahaba: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes more than one opinion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chooses the opinion of the Guided Khulafa over others. </li></ul></ul>Sources of Hanbali School Sahaba’s Rulings قول الصحابي
  71. 71. <ul><li>Accepted the principle, but argued that it is a virtual impossibility to achieve true “Unanimity” after the age of Sahaba. </li></ul>Sources of Hanbali School Agreement الإجماع
  72. 72. <ul><li>Accepted in the absence of a clear text, only as a necessity. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to matters that pause an actual problem, not as an exercise or precaution. </li></ul>Sources of Hanbali School Comparison القياس
  73. 73. Sources of Hanbali School <ul><li>Preserving Status Quo : Keeping the ruling or the status on an issue as is, if not proven otherwise. </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted widely in the Hanbali school. </li></ul>Preserving Status Quo الإستصحاب
  74. 74. Sources of Hanbali School <ul><li>Accepted with conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True necessity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real needs related to goals of Shari’a. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No contradiction with textual evidence. </li></ul></ul>General Benefit المصالح المرسلة
  75. 75. Sources of Hanbali School <ul><li>Preventing deeds, that are allowed otherwise, for fear of leading to forbidden or harmful results. </li></ul>Prevention of Vice سد الذرائع <ul><li>Widely used in Hanbali school. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibiting sales of arms in times of Civil war or internal conflicts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selling weapons to crimonals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selling or renting property to be used in unlawful cause. </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>The Spread of Hanbali School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabian peninsula. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levant and Egypt (limited) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons for limited spread of Hanbali School: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last of the major schools in time order. Most schools already established by then. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanbalis generally distanced themselves from government and position of influence. </li></ul></ul>Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)

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