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Vax 2 A


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Vax 2 A

  1. 1. MMR VACCINE (Mumps – Measles – Rubella)
  2. 2. What kind of vaccine is the MMR vaccine? <ul><li>Live, attenuated (or weakened) virus </li></ul><ul><li>Grown in chick embryo tissue culture </li></ul>
  3. 3. How is this vaccine given? <ul><li>Subcutaneously (in the fatty layer of tissue under the skin) </li></ul>
  4. 4. At what age should the 1st MMR shot be given? <ul><li>1 st dose of MMR - 12 to 15 months. </li></ul>
  5. 5. When should children get the 2nd MMR shot? <ul><li>2 nd Dose - 4 to 6 years old </li></ul><ul><li>However, the 2 nd dose can be given anytime as long as it is at least four weeks after the first dose. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What side effects have been reported with this vaccine? <ul><li>Fever - most common side effect (5%-15% of vaccine recipients) </li></ul><ul><li>Mild rash (about 5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Fever and rash - appear 7-10 days after vaccination. </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis – related to the rubella component; seen in 25% of adult women receiving MMR vaccine </li></ul>
  7. 7. Who should NOT receive measles vaccine? <ul><li>Those who experience a severe allergic reaction following the first dose of MMR. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who are gelatin and neomycin. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women - pregnancy should be avoided for four weeks following vaccination with MMR. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Severely immunocompromised persons; includes those with congenital immunodeficiency, AIDS, leukemia, lymphoma, generalized malignancy, and those receiving treatment for cancer with drugs, radiation, or large doses of corticosteroids. </li></ul><ul><li>Household contacts of immunocompromised people should be vaccinated according to the recommended schedule. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Persons with HIV infection without symptoms can and should be vaccinated against measles. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Can individuals with egg allergy receive MMR vaccine? <ul><li>Yes, MMR may be given to egg-allergic individuals without prior testing or use of special precautions. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? <ul><li>There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, or any other vaccine causes autism. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>VARICELLA VACCINE </li></ul>
  13. 13. What kind of vaccine is it? <ul><li>Live attenuated (weakened) vaccine </li></ul>
  14. 14. How is this vaccine administered? <ul><li>Subcutaneously. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Who should get this vaccine? <ul><li>All children younger than age 13 years (one dose at 12-15 months and a second dose at age 4-6 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone age 13 years and older who has never had chickenpox (two doses, given 4-8 weeks apart); </li></ul>
  16. 16. What side effects have been reported with this vaccine? <ul><li>Redness, stiffness, and soreness at the injection site. </li></ul><ul><li>A small percentage of persons develop a mild rash, usually around the spot where the shot was given. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Can the vaccine protect you if you've already been exposed to chickenpox? <ul><li>Yes, it is 70-100% effective if given within 72 hours of exposure. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Who should NOT receive the chickenpox vaccine? <ul><li>Immunocompromised persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Those with life-threatening allergies to gelatin or neomycin. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Can the vaccine cause chickenpox? <ul><li>About 1% of recipients develop a mild form of the disease, consisting of a limited rash, most often with only 5-6 blisters. Usually there is no fever. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>H. INFLUENZA TYPE B </li></ul><ul><li> (HiB Vaccine) </li></ul>
  21. 21. What type of vaccine is it? <ul><li>It is a conjugate vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>Made by chemically bonding a polysaccharide to a protein. The polysaccharide is one that makes up the surface capsule of the bacterium. This is an inactivated vaccine. </li></ul>
  22. 22. How is this vaccine given? <ul><li>By IM injection. </li></ul>
  23. 23. How many doses of Hib vaccine are required for the childhood series? <ul><li>Recommended schedule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2, 4, 6 months and 12–15 months of age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hib vaccine should never be given to a child younger than six weeks of age, as this might reduce his/her response to subsequent doses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Hib disease is rare in children older than age five years, Hib vaccine is not routinely recommended for people age five years or older. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. How safe is this vaccine? <ul><li>Adverse events uncommon. </li></ul><ul><li>Common reactions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>warmth, redness, and swelling at the injection site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>HEPATITIS A VACCINE </li></ul>
  26. 26. What kind of vaccine is hepatitis A vaccine? <ul><li>Inactivated virus vaccine. </li></ul>
  27. 27. How is hepatitis A vaccine given? <ul><li>By Intramuscular injection. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Who should get this vaccine? <ul><li>All children at age 1 year and older </li></ul><ul><li>Men who have sex with men </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal drug users, both oral and injecting </li></ul><ul><li>People who have blood clotting disorders </li></ul><ul><li>People with chronic liver disease </li></ul><ul><li>Any person who wishes to be immune to hepatitis A </li></ul>
  29. 29. How many doses of hepatitis A vaccine are recommended for fullest protection? <ul><li>Two doses are recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 nd dose is given no sooner than 6 months after the 1st dose. </li></ul>
  30. 30. What side effects have been reported with this vaccine? <ul><li>Sore arm - the most common side effect </li></ul><ul><li>Less common side effects include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-grade fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiredness. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Who should not receive hepatitis A vaccine? <ul><li>Those who had a serious allergic reaction to hepatitis A vaccine in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>People with moderate or severe acute illness. </li></ul>
  32. 32. How soon are people protected after receiving hepatitis A vaccine? <ul><li>Optimal protection against HAV infection begins 4 weeks after the first dose of hepatitis A vaccine. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>INFLUENZA </li></ul>
  34. 34. What kind of vaccine is it? <ul><li>2 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inactivated virus vaccine - IM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live influenza vaccine – Nasal spray </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influenza vaccine contains 3 viruses — </li></ul><ul><li>2 type A and 1 type B. The viruses selected for the vaccine are grown in chicken eggs. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Who should get influenza vaccine? <ul><li>Everyone age 50 years or older </li></ul><ul><li>All children age 6-59 months </li></ul><ul><li>Residents of long-term care facilities, nursing homes, and other chronic-care facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Adults and children who have chronic pulmonary (including asthma), cardiovascular (except hypertension), renal, hepatic, hematological or metabolic disorders (including diabetes mellitus) </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Anyone who has a condition (e.g., spinal cord injury or seizure disorder) that can affect their ability to cough out their respiratory secretions or that can increase the risk for aspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Immunocompromised persons: HIV/AIDS, long-term treatment with steroids, or cancer treatment with x-rays or drugs </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Children and adolescents age 6 months-18 years on long-term aspirin treatment (who could develop Reye's syndrome if they catch influenza) </li></ul><ul><li>Women who will be pregnant during the influenza season </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare personnel </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Live nasal spray vaccine - may only be used in healthy, nonpregnant persons age 2 through 49 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Inactivated influenza vaccine – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children younger than 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons age 50 and older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with a chronic medical condition </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. What are the unique features of giving influenza vaccine to children compared with adults? <ul><li>Children age 6 months through 8 years - 2 doses of influenza vaccine the first time they receive this vaccine, separated by at least 4 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child age 6 months through 8 years received only one dose in their first year of vaccination, he/she should receive two doses the subsequent vaccination season. </li></ul>
  40. 40. How often should this vaccine be given? <ul><li>Once a year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity decreases after a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each year's vaccine is formulated to prevent only that year's anticipated influenza viruses </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. What side effects have been reported with this vaccine? <ul><li>Soreness, redness, or swelling at the site of the injection. </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, chills, and muscle aches </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Intranasal influenza vaccine among adults: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Runny nose or nasal congestion (28%–78%), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache (16%–44%), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sore throat (15%–25%). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Among children, side effects included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Runny nose or nasal congestion (20%–75%), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache (2%–46%), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever (0%–26%). </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Who should NOT receive influenza vaccine? <ul><li>Children younger than age 6 months, </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with a history of a serious allergic reaction to eggs or </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with a history of a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of influenza vaccine </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE </li></ul>
  45. 45. What kind of vaccines are they? <ul><li>Inactivated bacteria. </li></ul>
  46. 46. PPV <ul><li>Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) - contains long chains of polysaccharide molecules that make up the surface capsule of the bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>The 23 types of pneumococci included cause 88% of invasive pneumococcal disease. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Who should get the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV)? <ul><li>All adults age 65 years or older </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone age 2 years or older with a long-term health problem such as cardiovascular disease, sickle cell anemia, alcoholism, lung disease, diabetes, cirrhosis, or leaks of cerebrospinal fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone who has or is getting a cochlear implant. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Anyone age 2 years or older who has Hodgkin's disease, kidney failure, nephrotic syndrome, lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, HIV infection or AIDS, damaged spleen or no spleen, or organ transplant. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone age 2 years or older on long-term steroids, certain cancer drugs, or radiation therapy. </li></ul>
  49. 49. PCV <ul><li>Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) includes purified capsular polysaccharide of 7 types of the bacteria &quot;conjugated“ to diphtheria toxin. </li></ul><ul><li>The seven types of purified bacteria included account for 86% of bacteremia, 83% of meningitis, and 65% of acute otitis media among children younger than age six years in the United States. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Who should get the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)? <ul><li>All infants beginning at 2 months of age should receive a 4-dose series of vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Usually given at ages 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months. </li></ul>
  51. 51. How are these vaccines given? <ul><li>PPV - by IM or subcutaneous injection. </li></ul><ul><li>PCV – by IM injection. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>ROTAVIRUS </li></ul>
  53. 53. What kind of vaccine is it? <ul><li>A live vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a combination between a cow rotavirus and human rotavirus. The vaccine contains five different rotavirus strains. </li></ul>
  54. 54. How is this vaccine given? <ul><li>The vaccine is a liquid given by mouth. </li></ul>
  55. 55. What is the recommended schedule for getting this vaccine? <ul><li>3 doses - age 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>The first dose should be given between age 6-12 weeks and the two additional doses are given at 4-10 week intervals. Children should get all three doses by age 32 weeks. </li></ul>
  56. 56. What side effects have been reported with this vaccine? <ul><li>Mild, temporary diarrhea or vomiting within 7 days after getting a dose of vaccine </li></ul>
  57. 57. Who should NOT receive rotavirus vaccine? <ul><li>Any child who has had a severe (life-threatening) allergic reaction to a dose of rotavirus vaccine should not get another dose. </li></ul><ul><li>A child with a severe (life-threatening) allergy to any component of rotavirus vaccine should not get the vaccine. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Although this vaccine has not been associated with intussusception, as a precaution it is suggested that children who have had intussusception should not get rotavirus vaccine as they are at a higher risk for getting intussusception again. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who are moderately or severely ill at the time the vaccination is scheduled should probably wait until they recover. This includes children who have diarrhea or vomiting. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS </li></ul>
  60. 60. What kind of vaccine is it? <ul><li>HPV vaccine is an inactivated vaccine. </li></ul>
  61. 61. How is this vaccine given? <ul><li>By Intramuscular injection. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Who should get this vaccine? <ul><li>Recommended for girls age 11-12 years, but can be administered to girls as young as age 9 years. The vaccine also is recommended for females age 13-26 years who have not yet received or completed the vaccine series. </li></ul><ul><li>The vaccine should be given as a series of three injections over a six-month period. The second and third doses should be given two and six months after the first dose. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Why is the HPV vaccine only recommended for girls/women age 9–26 years? <ul><li>The vaccine has been widely tested in females age 9-to-26 years. Research on the vaccine’s safety and efficacy has only recently begun with older women. </li></ul><ul><li>The FDA will consider licensing the vaccine for these women when there is research to show that it is safe and effective for them. </li></ul>
  64. 64. What about vaccinating males? <ul><li>Studies are now being done to find out if the vaccine works to prevent HPV infection and disease in males. When more information is available, this vaccine may be licensed and recommended for them as well. </li></ul><ul><li>HPV vaccine could protect men directly by preventing penis and anus cancer and also women indirectly, by preventing HPV infection being passed along to them during sexual contact. </li></ul>
  65. 65. How long does vaccine protection last? <ul><li>So far, studies have shown women to still be protected after five years. </li></ul>
  66. 66. What side effects have been reported with this vaccine? <ul><li>Pain at the injection site (8 people in 10) </li></ul><ul><li>Redness or swelling at injection site (1 person in 4) </li></ul><ul><li>Mild fever (1 person in 10) </li></ul><ul><li>Itching at the injection site (1 person in 30) </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate fever (102°F) (1 person in 65). </li></ul>
  67. 67. Do women still need to get a Pap test if they’ve been vaccinated against HPV? <ul><li>Yes! for three reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>First, the vaccine does not provide protection against all types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, women may not receive the full benefits of the vaccine if they do not complete the vaccine series. </li></ul><ul><li>Third, women may not receive the full benefits of the vaccine if they receive the vaccine after they have already acquired HPV infection from one of the four types for which the vaccine is preventive. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Does the vaccine protect against all types of HPV? <ul><li>No, although there are more than 100 types of human papillomaviruses, only four are covered in the vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>These four viruses, however, are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>MENINGOCOCCAL VACCINE </li></ul>
  70. 70. What kind of vaccines are they? <ul><li>The MPSV vaccine is made from the outer polysaccharide capsule of the meningococcal bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>The MCV vaccine contains Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, C, Y and W-135 capsular polysaccharide antigens individually conjugated to diphtheria toxoid protein. </li></ul>
  71. 71. How is this vaccine given? <ul><li>The MPSV vaccine is given by subcutaneous injection. </li></ul><ul><li>The MCV vaccine is given by IM injection. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Who should get the meningococcal vaccine? <ul><li>MCV is licensed for use in persons 11-55 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Is recommended for all children at their routine preadolescent check-up at 11-12 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Is expected to give better, longer-lasting protection than the polysaccharide vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>Any other adolescent or teen who wants to decrease their risk of meningococcal disease can also get the vaccine. </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>Vaccination is recommended for other people at increased risk of meningococcal disease; this includes: </li></ul><ul><li>College freshmen living in dormitories. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who have a damaged or missing spleen. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with terminal complement component deficiency (an immune system disorder). </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone who might have been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak. </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>&quot;MPSV&quot; - for persons ages 2 years and older. It protects against four subtypes of meningococcus - A, C, Y, and W-135. </li></ul><ul><li>MCV should be used for children 2-10 years old and adults over 55 </li></ul>