Vaccination Sp Class A


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Vaccination Sp Class A

  1. 1. PREVENTIVE PEDIATRICS DR. DENNIS V. S. DELLOSA Chairman Clinical Pediatrics
  2. 2. <ul><li>DTaP VACCINE </li></ul>
  3. 3. What kind of vaccine is DTaP? <ul><li>The diphtheria and tetanus components are inactivated toxins called a toxoids. </li></ul><ul><li>For the pertussis component of DTaP and Tdap vaccines, purified components of the bacterium are grown and then inactivated. </li></ul>
  4. 4. How is this vaccine given? <ul><li>The DTaP vaccine is given as an Intramuscular injection. </li></ul>
  5. 5. For children, how many doses of DTaP vaccine are required? <ul><li>Children up 2 months – 6 years: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of 4 doses given at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 months of age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 5 th shot, or booster dose, is recommended at 4-6 years of age, unless the fourth dose was given late (after the fourth birthday). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A booster dose of Td (adult tetanus and diphtheria) is recommended every ten years. The new Tdap vaccine can be substituted for one booster dose of adult Td. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Should adults who weren't immunized as children receive this vaccine as adults? <ul><ul><li>Children 7 years and older without documentation of DTaP vaccination should receive a primary series of three doses of Tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first 2 doses should be separated by 4 - 8 weeks, and the 3rd dose given 6 - 12 months after the second dose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tdap vaccine can be substituted for one of these three doses, preferably the first dose for persons 11 years and older. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How safe is this vaccine? <ul><li>The most common reactions are </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soreness, redness, and swelling at the injection site. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mild fever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tiredness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Who should NOT receive diphtheria vaccine? <ul><li>People who have had a serious allergic reaction to one dose of DTaP, DT, Td, or Tdap vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with a moderate or severe illness should postpone receiving the vaccine until their condition has improved. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What adverse side effects have been reported with this vaccine? <ul><li>Moderate to serious reactions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crying for three hours or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse or shock-like state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convulsions within three days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believed to be due to the pertussis component of the vaccine </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>HEPATITIS B VACCINE </li></ul>
  11. 11. What kind of vaccine is Hepatitis B vaccine? <ul><li>Hepatitis B vaccines are recombinant DNA vaccines. </li></ul><ul><li>They are produced by inserting the gene for HBV into common baker's yeast where it is grown, harvested, and purified. </li></ul>
  12. 12. How is this vaccine given? <ul><li>Intramuscular Injection </li></ul>
  13. 13. Who should get this vaccine? <ul><li>Recommended for all infants and children 0 -18 years of age beginning at birth in the hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be given to any person who desires protection from Hepatitis B. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What groups of adults are at increased risk of HBV infection? <ul><li>Healthcare workers and public safety workers with reasonably anticipated risk for exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Men who have sex with men </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually active people who are not in long-term, mutually monogamous relationships </li></ul><ul><li>People seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease </li></ul><ul><li>Current or recent injection drug users </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Inmates of long-term correctional facilities </li></ul><ul><li>People with end-stage kidney disease, including predialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and home dialysis patients </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and residents of institutions or group homes for the developmentally challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Household members and sex partners of people with chronic HBV infection </li></ul>
  16. 16. Why is this vaccine recommended for all babies? <ul><li>First , babies and young children have a very high risk for developing chronic HBV infection if they become infected at a young age. </li></ul><ul><li>Second , early childhood infection occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Third , long-term protection following infant vaccination is expected to last for decades. Moreover, hepatitis B vaccine is the first vaccine to prevent cancer--HBV-related liver cancer. </li></ul>
  17. 17. What is the recommended schedule for HBV? <ul><li>HBV should be given an birth. </li></ul><ul><li>The minimum recommended dosing intervals are 4 weeks between the 1 st and 2 nd doses and 8 weeks between the 2 nd and 3 rd doses. </li></ul><ul><li>The minimum interval between the 1 st and 3 rd doses is 16 weeks. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Who should NOT receive hepatitis B vaccine? <ul><li>Serious allergic reaction to one dose of hepatitis B vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersensitivity to common backer’s yeast </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>POLIO VACCINE </li></ul>
  20. 20. What kind of vaccine is IPV? <ul><li>Inactivated virus vaccine </li></ul>
  21. 21. How is the vaccine administered? <ul><li>IPV is given as an IM injection. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Who should get this vaccine? <ul><li>All infants should get this vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>A primary series of IPV consists of 3 properly spaced doses, usually given at 2, 4, and 6 - 18 months. </li></ul><ul><li>A booster dose is given at 4 - 6 years (before or at school entry). </li></ul>
  23. 23. What side effects have been reported with this vaccine? <ul><li>Possible side effects include minor local reactions at the site of injection (e.g., pain, redness). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Who should not receive the polio vaccine? <ul><li>Those with life-threatening allergic reaction to neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone who had a severe allergic reaction to a dose of polio vaccine should not get another one. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone who is moderately or severely ill at the scheduled time. </li></ul>