Tuberculosis

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Tuberculosis

  1. 1. TUBERCULOSIS<br />
  2. 2. Cell Wall<br />Lipoarabinomannan(LAM)<br />Inhibits macrophage activation by interferon-gamma. <br />Virulent Factors<br />
  3. 3. Pathogenesis<br />
  4. 4. Polymorphism in the NRAMP 1 gene<br />NRAMP1 <br />Transmembrane protein in lysosomes<br />Pumps Ca++ out of lysosome<br />May inihibit growth by Limiting availability of ions needed by bacteria<br />Susceptiblity Gene <br />
  5. 5. Stimulate macrophages to kill TB bacteria<br />Stimulates formation of phagolysosome in infected macrophages<br />Stimulates expression of NO synthase Nitric oxide ( destroy bacterial cell wall to DNA )<br />Differantiation of macrophages  Epitheloidhistiocytes<br />Halts infection<br />Mature TH1<br />
  6. 6. TB Granuloma<br />
  7. 7. Clinical Features<br />
  8. 8. Secondary Disseminated Tuberculosis.<br />
  9. 9. Ghon complex<br />
  10. 10. Slowly progressive infection<br />Low Communicability<br />Affecting the skin & peripheral nerves<br />Disabling deformity<br />Most are contained in the skin<br />Likely transmitted by aerosols from lesions in the Upper Respiratory Tract<br /> Hematogenous  grows only in relatively Cool Tissues of the skin & Extremities<br />Leprosy<br />
  11. 11. Virulence factor<br />
  12. 12. Leprosy<br />
  13. 13. Leprosy- immune response<br />
  14. 14. Paucibacillary Leprosy<br />Have dry , scaly, skin lesions<br />Lack sensation , Asymmetric peripheral nerve involvement<br />Have TH1 response<br />Normal immune response<br />Granuloma containing less microbe<br />Damage neurons<br />Production of IL-2 & IFN- g<br />Lepromin skin test is strongly (+)<br /> T cell response – Delayed Hypersensitivity rxn to lepromin<br />Tuberculoid Leprosy<br />
  15. 15. Lepromatous Leprosy- Multibacillary<br />

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