T H E C R A N I A L N E R V E S

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Cranial Nerves

T H E C R A N I A L N E R V E S

  1. 1. E. Hilario, MD THE TWELVE PAIRS OF CRANIAL NERVES <ul><li>PERIPHERAL NERVES ARISING FROM THE BRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORY, MOTOR OR MIXED NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>AUTONOMIC NERVES </li></ul>
  2. 2. CRANIAL NERVES
  3. 3. CRANIAL NERVES <ul><li>I OLFACTORY </li></ul><ul><li>II OPTIC </li></ul><ul><li>III OCULOMOTOR </li></ul><ul><li>IV TROCHLEAR </li></ul><ul><li>V TRIGEMINAL </li></ul><ul><li>VI ABDUCENS </li></ul><ul><li>VII FACIAL </li></ul><ul><li>VIII VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR </li></ul><ul><li>IX GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL </li></ul><ul><li>X VAGUS </li></ul><ul><li>XI ACCESSORY </li></ul><ul><li>XII HYPOGLOSSAL </li></ul>
  4. 4. CRANIAL NERVES: CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>PURELY SENSORY (AFFERENT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CN I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN VIII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PURELY MOTOR (EFFERENT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CN III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN VI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN XI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN XII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MIXED (BOTH) SENSORY & MOTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CN V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN VII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN IX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN X </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. CRANIAL NERVE I: OLFACTORY <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLFACTORY BULB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TO NASAL MUCOSA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: SMELL </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CRANIAL NERVE I: OLFACTORY CRIBRIFORM PLATE OF ETHMOID
  7. 7. CRANIAL NERVE I: OLFACTORY CRIBRIFORM PLATE OF ETHMOID
  8. 8. CRANIAL NERVE I: OLFACTORY CRIBRIFORM PLATE OF ETHMOID
  9. 9. CRANIAL NERVE I: OLFACTORY
  10. 10. CRANIAL NERVE II: OPTIC <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OPTIC CHIASM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TO RETINA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: VISION </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. CRANIAL NERVE II: OPTIC <ul><li>OPTIC CANAL </li></ul><ul><li>WITH OPHTHALMIC ARTERY </li></ul>
  12. 12. CRANIAL NERVE II: OPTIC <ul><li>OPTIC CANAL </li></ul><ul><li>WITH OPHTHALMIC ARTERY </li></ul>
  13. 13. CRANIAL NERVE II: OPTIC RETINA: RODS & CONES
  14. 14. CRANIAL NERVE II: OPTIC SNELLEN’S CHART
  15. 15. OPHTHALMOSCOPY
  16. 16. CRANIAL NERVE III: OCULOMOTOR <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIDBRAIN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: EYE MOVEMENTS USING EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES EXCEPT FOR LATERAL RECTUS & SUPERIOR OBLIQUE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARASYMPATHETIC: PUPILLARY SPHINCTER & CILIARY MUSCLES OF THE LENS </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. CRANIAL NERVE III: OCULOMOTOR
  18. 18. CRANIAL NERVE III: OCULOMOTOR <ul><li>OCULOMOTOR NERVE PARALYSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PTOSIS OF THE UPPER EYELID </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. CRANIAL NERVE III: OCULOMOTOR <ul><li>AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PARASYMPATHETIC: PUPILLARY SPHINCTER & CILIARY MUSCLES OF THE LENS </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. CRANIAL NERVE IV: TROCHLEAR <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIDBRAIN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: EYE MOVEMENTS USING SUPERIOR OBLIQUE </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. CRANIAL NERVE IV: TROCHLEAR <ul><li>SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WITH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPHTHALMIC NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPHTHALMIC VEIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OCULOMOTOR NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABDUCENS NERVE </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. CRANIAL NERVE IV: TROCHLEAR <ul><li>SUPERIOR OBLIQUE MUSCLE </li></ul>
  23. 23. CRANIAL NERVE V: TRIGEMINAL <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(VENTRAL SURFACE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V1- OPHTHALMIC: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: UPPER FACE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V2- MAXILLARY: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: MIDFACE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V3- MANDIBULAR: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: MUSCLES OF MASTICATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: LOWER FACE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. CRANIAL NERVE V: TRIGEMINAL <ul><li>FORAMINAE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V1- OPHTHALMIC: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V2- MAXILLARY: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORAMEN ROTUNDUM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V3- MANDIBULAR: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORAMEN OVALE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. CRANIAL NERVE V: TRIGEMINAL
  26. 26. CRANIAL NERVE V: TRIGEMINAL
  27. 27. CRANIAL NERVE V: TRIGEMINAL
  28. 28. CRANIAL NERVE V3: MANDIBULAR <ul><li>MUSCLES OF MASTICATION: </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPORALIS </li></ul><ul><li>MASSETER </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIAL PTERYGOID </li></ul><ul><li>LATERAL PTERYGOID </li></ul>
  29. 29. CRANIAL NERVE VI: ABDUCENS <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOWER MARGIN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: EYE MOVEMENTS USING LATERAL RECTUS </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. CRANIAL NERVE VI: ABDUCENS <ul><li>PARALYSIS OF LATERAL RECTUS </li></ul>
  31. 31. EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES
  32. 32. NERVE SUPPLY TO THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES: OCULOMOTOR N TROCHLEAR N ABDUCENS N
  33. 33. CRANIAL NERVE VII: FACIAL <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PONS (LOWER MARGIN) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: TASTE IN THE ANTERIOR 2/3 OF THE TONGUE (CHORDAE TYMPANI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARASYMPATHETIC: LACRIMAL & SALIVARY (SUBMANDIBULAR & SUBLINGUAL) GLANDS </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. CRANIAL NERVE VII: FACIAL <ul><li>TERMINAL BRANCHES </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPORAL </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATIC </li></ul><ul><li>BUCCAL </li></ul><ul><li>MANDIBULAR </li></ul><ul><li>CERVICAL </li></ul>
  35. 35. CRANIAL NERVE VII: FACIAL MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  36. 36. CRANIAL NERVE VII: FACIAL MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  37. 37. CRANIAL NERVE VII: FACIAL FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS
  38. 38. CRANIAL NERVE VII: FACIAL <ul><li>CHORDA TYMPANI BRANCH </li></ul><ul><li>TASTE TO THE ANTERIOR TONGUE </li></ul>
  39. 39. CRANIAL NERVE I: FACIAL CHORDA TYMPANI
  40. 40. CRANIAL NERVE VII: FACIAL TASTE SENSATION TO THE ANTERIOR 2/3 OF THE TONGUE
  41. 41. NERVE SUPPLY TO THE SUBMANDIBULAR AND SUBLINGUAL GLANDS
  42. 42. DISTRIBUTION OF FACIAL NERVE
  43. 43. CRANIAL NERVE VIII: VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GROOVE BETWEEN PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VESTIBULAR (SENSORY): EQUILIBRIUM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COCHLEAR (SENSORY): HEARING </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. CRANIAL NERVE VIII: VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR <ul><li>INTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WITH FACIAL NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DIVISIONS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VESTIBULAR: EQUILIBRIUM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COCHLEAR: HEARING </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. VESTIBULO-COCHLEAR NERVE
  46. 46. VESTIBULAR NERVE: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM
  47. 47. VESTIBULAR NERVE: DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
  48. 48. CRANIAL NERVE IX: GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDULLA OBLONGATA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: STYLOPHARYNGEUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TASTE & ORDINARY SENSATION OF POSTERIOR 1/3 OF TONGUE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORDINARY SENSATION OF PHARYNX, CAROTID SINUS & CAROTID BODY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARASYMPATHETIC: PAROTID GLAND </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. CRANIAL NERVE IX: GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDULLA OBLONGATA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: STYLOPHARYNGEUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TASTE & ORDINARY SENSATION OF POSTERIOR 1/3 OF TONGUE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORDINARY SENSATION OF PHARYNX, CAROTID SINUS & CAROTID BODY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARASYMPATHETIC: PAROTID GLAND </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. CRANIAL NERVE IX: GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDULLA OBLONGATA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: STYLOPHARYNGEUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TASTE & ORDINARY SENSATION OF POSTERIOR 1/3 OF TONGUE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORDINARY SENSATION OF PHARYNX, CAROTID SINUS & CAROTID BODY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARASYMPATHETIC: PAROTID GLAND </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. CRANIAL NERVE X: VAGUS <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDULLA OBLONGATA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: PHARYNX & LARYNX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHARYNX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LARYNX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AORTIC SINUS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THORACIC VISCERAE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ABDOMINAL VISCERAE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARASYMPATHETIC: THORACIC & ABDOMINAL VISCERAE </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. CRANIAL NERVE X: VAGUS
  53. 53. CRANIAL NERVE X: VAGUS <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDULLA OBLONGATA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: PHARYNX & LARYNX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSORY: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHARYNX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LARYNX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AORTIC SINUS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THORACIC VISCERAE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ABDOMINAL VISCERAE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARASYMPATHETIC: THORACIC & ABDOMINAL VISCERAE </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. CRANIAL NERVE XI: ACCESSORY <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDULLA OBLONGATA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPPER 5 CERVICAL SPINAL NERVES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRAPEZIUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUSCLES OF PHARYNX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUSCLES OF LARYNX </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. ROOTS OF THE SPINAL ACCESSORY NERVE
  56. 56. SPINAL ACCESSORY NERVE
  57. 57. SPINAL ACCESSORY NERVE
  58. 58. CRANIAL NERVES IN THE JUGULAR FORAMEN <ul><li>CN IX: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CN X: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VAGUS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CN XI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPINAL ACCESSORY </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. CRANIAL NERVES IN THE JUGULAR FORAMEN <ul><li>CN IX: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CN X: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VAGUS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CN XI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPINAL ACCESSORY </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. CRANIAL NERVE XII: HYPOGLOSSAL <ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDULLA OBLONGATA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANTERIOR LATERAL SULCUS BETWEEN OLIVE & PYRAMID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTOR: MUSCLES OF THE TONGUE </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. CRANIAL NERVE XII: HYPOGLOSSAL <ul><li>HYPOGLOSSAL CANAL </li></ul>
  62. 62. CRANIAL NERVE XII: HYPOGLOSSAL
  63. 63. THE TWELVE CRANIAL NERVES
  64. 64. CRANIAL NERVES <ul><li>CRANIAL FOSSAE </li></ul><ul><li>FORAMINAE </li></ul>
  65. 65. CRANIAL NERVES
  66. 66. CRANIAL NERVES
  67. 67. CRANIAL NERVES
  68. 68. CRANIAL NERVES

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