Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Staphylococcus (2)


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Staphylococcus (2)

  1. 1. Staphylococcus Eva L. Dizon, M.D.,FPPS,FPIDSP
  2. 2. Staphylococcus Staphyle- Bunch of grapes 0.5 to 1 um Non motile Aerobic or Facultative Anaerobic Catalase positive Grow in media containing 10% NaCl at temp 18 to 40 C Present on the skin and mucuos membrane
  3. 3. Species <ul><li>S. aureus </li></ul><ul><li>S. epidermidis </li></ul><ul><li>S. saphrophyticus </li></ul><ul><li>S. capitis </li></ul><ul><li>S. haemolyticus </li></ul><ul><li>Micrococcus sp </li></ul><ul><li>Stomatococcus mucilaginosus </li></ul><ul><li>Alloiococcus otitidis </li></ul>
  4. 4. Physiology and Structure
  5. 5. Structure
  6. 7. Structure CAPSULE - loose fitting polysaccharide layer (slime layer) - protects bacteria by inhibiting chemotaxis and phagocytosis - facilitates adherence of bacteria to catheters and synthetic materials PEPTIDOGLYCAN - half of the cell wall - consist of layers of glycan chains with alternating subunits of N –acetylmuramic acid and N- acetylglucosamine - has endotoxin like activity
  7. 8. Structure TEICHOIC ACID- phosphate containing polymers bound to peptidoglycan layer or to cytplasmic membrane - mediates the attachment of staphylococcus to mucosal surfaces S. aureus Ribitol teichoic acid with N-acetylglucosamine ( Polysaccharide A) S. epidermidis glycerol teichoic acid with glucosyl residues (polysaccharide B)-
  8. 9. PROTEIN A- covalentlylinked to peptidoglycan - has affinity to Fc receptor of Ig - blocks opsonization and phagocytosis
  9. 10. Structure CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE- osmotic barrier for the cell and provides an anchorage for the biosynthetic and respiratory enzyme COAGULASE and other SURFACE PROTEIN -Clumping factor or Bound coagulase binds fibrinogen convert to insoluble fibrin causing staphylococcus to clump - collagen , elastin and fibronectin binding protein
  10. 11. Toxins <ul><li>A. 5 Cytolytic or membrane damage toxin </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha </li></ul><ul><li>Beta </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma </li></ul><ul><li>Delta </li></ul><ul><li>Panton Valentine </li></ul><ul><li>B. 2 Exfoliative toxin </li></ul><ul><li>C. 8 Enterotoxin </li></ul><ul><li>D. Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin(TSST 1) </li></ul>
  11. 12. Cytotoxins Lyse neutrophils  release of lysosomal enzymes  damage sorrounding tissues Alpha toxin – disrupts the smooth muscle in blood vessels - toxic to erythrocytes, hepatocytes, platelets, cultivated cells - integrates to host cell membrane  pores  efflux of K and influx of Na,Ca  osmotic swelling  cell lysis - septic shock
  12. 13. Cytotoxin Beta Toxin - Sphingomyelinase C - specific for sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine - toxic to RBC, WBC,Macrophage and fibroblast - catalyze hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids in susceptible cells - tissue destruction and abscess formation Delta toxin- disrupts cell membrane - toxic to variety of cells
  13. 14. Cytotoxin <ul><li>Gamma toxin and Panton Valentine </li></ul><ul><li>-both damage membrane of susceptible cells </li></ul><ul><li>- lyze nuetrophils and macrophages </li></ul><ul><li>- cell lysis is mediated by pore formation </li></ul><ul><li>Cause necrotizing skin infection </li></ul><ul><li>-PVL -potent leukotoxicity </li></ul>
  14. 15. Exfoliative toxin <ul><li>ETA - heat stable </li></ul><ul><li>ETB – heat labile </li></ul><ul><li>Serine protease </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure  splitting of desmosomes or intercellular bridges in the stratum granulosum epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Common in neonates – ETA and ETB binds to GM4 like glycolipids present in neonates </li></ul>
  15. 16. Enterotoxin <ul><li>A-E, G-I </li></ul><ul><li>Stable to heating , resistant to hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Enterotoxin A – most commonly associated with disease </li></ul><ul><li>Enterotoxin C and D- contaminated milk products </li></ul><ul><li>Enterotoxin B- Pseudomembranous colitis </li></ul><ul><li>Superantigens </li></ul>
  16. 18. TSST-1 <ul><li>Formerly pyrogenic exotoxin C and entertoxin F </li></ul><ul><li>Induce cytokine release from macrophage and T lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Increase sensitivity to endotoxin </li></ul><ul><li>Produce leakage of endothelial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrate mucosal barrier </li></ul>
  17. 19. Staphylococcal enzymes convert fibrinogen react with globulin plasma factor insoluble fibrin to form staphylothrombin Clumping Cause formation of fibrin layer around abscess protecting staphylococcus from phagocytosis Coagulase Bound Free
  18. 20. Staphylococcal enzymes <ul><li>Catalase - catalyze the conversion of toxic hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Hyalurodinase - hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid in acellular matrix of connective tissue  spread </li></ul>
  19. 21. Staphylococcal enzymes <ul><li>Fibrinolysin- staphylokinase . Dissolve fibrin clot- aid in bacterial spreading </li></ul><ul><li>Lipases hydrolyse lipid to ensure survival in sebaceous areas of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclease </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillinase- plasmid </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acid modifying enzyme (FAME)- antibacterial lipid- prolonged bacterial survival </li></ul>
  20. 22. Epidemiology <ul><li>Transient colonizer of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal carriage – anterior nasopharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent carrier – hospital personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Killed by high temperature and disinfectant </li></ul><ul><li>Direct contact, fomites </li></ul><ul><li>Handwashing </li></ul>
  21. 23. Sites of infection
  22. 24. Ritters disease or SSSS <ul><li>Perioral erythema  spread  body  bullous  desquamation </li></ul><ul><li>Nikolsky sign </li></ul><ul><li>Bullous impetigo – localized form of SSSS - localized blister - culture positive </li></ul>
  23. 25. SSSS most commonly in children and neonates. Starts abruptly with perioral (around the mouth) erythema with sunburn-like rash rapidly turning bright red spreading to bullae (large vesicle appearing as a circumscribed area) in 2-3 days and desquamating (peeling) within 5 days.
  24. 26. Staphylococcal food poisoning <ul><li>Ham , salted pork, custard, potato sald, ice cream </li></ul><ul><li>Hands, Nasal carriage </li></ul><ul><li>I.P. – 4 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting, diarrhea, abd. pain </li></ul>
  25. 27. Toxic shock syndrome <ul><li>Growth of organism in vagina or wound  release of TSST-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, macular erythematous rashes, hypotension, multiorgan involvement, desquamation of palm and sole </li></ul>
  26. 28. TSS
  27. 29. Cutaneous infection <ul><li>Impetigo </li></ul><ul><li>Folliculitis </li></ul><ul><li>Furuncle </li></ul><ul><li>Carbuncle </li></ul><ul><li>Wound infection </li></ul>
  28. 30. Folliculitis - superficial folliculitis is essentially a staphylococcal impetigo in which a small area of erythema develops around a hair follicle and subsequently becomes a dome-shaped pustule. Carbuncle - a deep-seated pyogenic infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues.
  29. 31. Impetigo - a contagious superficial pyoderma, caused by S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, that begins with a superficial flaccid vesicle which ruptures and forms a thick yellowish crust, most commonly occurring in the face.
  30. 32. Others <ul><li>Bacteremia </li></ul><ul><li>Endocarditis </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Empyema </li></ul><ul><li>Osteomyelitis </li></ul><ul><li>Septic arthritis </li></ul>
  31. 33. Pneumonia
  32. 34. S.Epidermidis and CNS <ul><li>Endocarditis- native or artificial valves </li></ul><ul><li>Catheter and shunt infection </li></ul><ul><li>Prosthetic joint infection </li></ul><ul><li>UTI </li></ul>
  33. 35. Laboratory diagnosis Microscopy Culture Grow rapidly within 24 hours Large, golden, smooth colonies Blood Agar- hemolysis Selective media- add NaCl 7.5% Mannitol – fermented by S. aureus Serology Insensitive Antibody against teichoic acid Bacteremia. Endocarditis After 2 weeks
  34. 36. Culture – S. aureus
  35. 37. S. epidermidis S. saphrophyticus
  36. 38. Coagulase test Showing positive (upper tube) and negative (lower tube) coagulase tests.
  37. 39. Mannitol Salt Agar test
  38. 40. Identification <ul><li>Biochemical testing Coagulase Heat stable nuclease Alkaline phospatase </li></ul><ul><li>Mannitol fermentation test </li></ul>
  39. 41. Treatment and Prevention <ul><li>Semisynthetic penicillinase resistant penicillin </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance ( mecgene A –codes for PBP 2’) </li></ul>
  40. 44. Thank You