A firm mobile organ lying within the scrotum, with
the left usually lying at a lower level than the right.
Surrounded by a tough fibrous capsule, the tunica
From the inner surface of the capsule is a series of
fibrous septa that divides the interior of the organ
Lying within each lobule are one to three coiled
seminiferous tubules. The tubules open into a
network of channels called the rete testis. Small
efferent ductules connect the rete testis to the
upper end of the epididymis. Normal
A firm structure lying posterior to the testis, with
the vas deferens lying on its medial side. It has an
expanded pper end, the head, a body, and a
pointed tail inferiorly laterally.
The epididymis is much-coiled tube nearly 20 feet
(6cm) long, embedded in connective tissue.
A tube called the vas deferens emerges from the tail
of the epididymis and enters the spermatic cord.
The long length of the duct of the epididymis
provides storage space for the spermatozoa and
allows them to mature.
One of the main functions of the epididymis is the
Blood supply of the testis and epididymis
Supplied by a branch of the abdominal aorta,
the testicular artery.
The testicular veins emerge from the testis
and the epididymis as a venous network, the
pampinifrom plexus. This becomes a single
vein as it ascends through the inguinal canal.
The right testicular vein drains into the
inferior vena cava, while the left drains in the
left renal vein.
Lymphatic drainage of the testis and
The lymph vessels ascend in the spermatic
A thick-walled tube about 18 inches (45cm) long
that conveys mature sperm from the epididymis
to the ejaculatory duct and urethra.
Arises from the lower end or tail of the
epididymis and passes through the inguinal
Emerges from the deep inguinal ring and passes
around the lateral margin of the inferior
epigastric artery. It then passes downward and
backward on the lateral wall of the pelvis and
crosses the ureter in the region of the ischial
The vas deferens then runs medially and
downward on the posterior surface of the
The seminal vesicle are two lobulated organs
about 2 inches (5cm) long, lying on the posterior
surface of the bladder.
Their upper ends are widely separated, and their
lower ends are close together.
On the medial side of each vesicle lies the
terminal part of the vas deferens.
Posteriorly, the seminal vesicle are related to the
Inferiorly, each seminal vesicle narrows and joins
the vas deferens of the same side to form the
Each seminal vesicle consists of much-coiled
tube embedded in connective tissue. The
There are two
ejaculatory ducts; each
formed by union of the
vas deferens and the
duct of the seminal
The ducts pierces the
posterior surface of
the prostate and open
into the prostatic part
of the urethra, close to
the margins of the
Function is to drain
A fibro muscular glandular organ shaped like an
inverted cone that surrounds the prostatic urethra.
It is about 1 ¼ inches (3cm) long and lies between
the neck of the bladder above and the urogenital
A fibrous capsule surrounds the prostate.
Outside the capsule is a fibrous sheath, which is
part of the visceral layer of pelvic fascia.
The prostate has a base, which superiorly lies
against the bladder neck, and an apex, which lies
inferiorly against the urogenital diaphragm.
The two ejaculatory ducts pierce the upper part of
the posterior surface of the prostate, to open into
The prostate is incompletely divided into five
Anterior lobe- lies in front of the urethra and is
devoid of glandular tissue.
Median, middle lobe- is the wedge-shaped and
situated between the urethra and the ejaculatory
ducts. Its upper surface is related to the trigone
of the baldder; it is rich in glands.
Posterior lobe- is situated behind the urethra and
below the ejaculatory ducts and also contains
Right and left lateral lobes- lie on either side of
the urethra and are separated from one another
by a shallow vertical groove on the posterior
surface of the prostate. The lateral lobes contain
Superiorly- the base of the prostate is
continuous with the neck of the bladder, the
smooth muscle passing without interruption
from one organ to the other. The urethra enters
the center of the base of the prostate.
Inferiorly- the apex of the prostate lies on the
upper surface of the urogenital diaphragm. The
urethra leaves the prostate just above the apex
on the anterior surface.
Anteriorly- the anterior surface of the prostate
is related to the symphysis pubis, separated
The fibrous sheath of the prostate is connected
to the posterior aspect of the pubic bones by
the puboprostatic ligaments.
These ligaments lay one on either side of the
midline and are condensations of pelvic fascia.
Posteriorly- the posterior surface of the prostate
is closely related to the anterior surface of the
rectal ampulla and is separated from it by the
rectovesical septum (fascia of Denonvillier).
Blood supply: the arterial supply to the prostate
is from branches of the inferior vesical and
middle rectal arteries. The veins is from the
prostatic venous plexus the prostatic plexus
Lymphatic drainage- lymph vessels from the
prostate drain into the internal iliac nodes.
Nerve supply- nerve supply to the prostate is
from the inferior hypogastric plexuses. The
sympathetic nerves stimulate the smooth
muscle of the prostate during ejaculation.
Is about 1 ½ inches (3cm) long and begins at
the neck of the bladder.
It passes through the prostate from the base
to the apex, where it becomes continuous
with the membranous part of the urethra.
On the posterior wall
is a longitudinal ridge
called urethral crest.
On each side of this
ridge is a groove the
prostatic glands open
into this sinus.
On the summit of the
urethral crest is a