Slide #1: Our presentation will be on the deadly Ebola Virus, which can cause Ebola type hemorrhagic fever.
What is Ebola?:According CDC, Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a deadly disease in both humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to Africa.First found in the area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, near the River Congo in 1976 mortality rate: 90%, that’s why is called deadly disease.
Highest fatality Rate is found in the Zaire sub-species. The only reported cases in the U.S., Italy and England were all part of the Reston sub-species.
Natural reservoir of Ebola Virus still unknown until now. Its Zoonoticall 4 of 5 subtypes an animal Host in Africa
The virus itself stores its nucleic acid in the form of a +mRNA genome and serves as a means of delivery of that genome into cells it targets as an obligate parasite (Cannot live independently of the Host cell), and constitutes the infection. Once in the host's cell, the RNA strands undergo reverse transcription in the cytoplasm and are integrated into the host's genome, at which point the retroviral DNA is referred to as a provirus (A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell). It is difficult to detect the virus until it has infected the host.
Presented by:Jon BrownLeonard Bagwala
WHAT IS EBOLA- Ebola hemorrhagic fever:Named after a river in the Congowhere it was first found- Often-fataldisease in humans andnonhuman primates (monkeys,gorillas, and chimpanzees)- Has appeared sporadically sinceits initial recognition in 1976- Mortality rate can reach 90%
-Family: Filoviridae -Order: MononegaviralesFamily and Order -5 distinct sub-species -Cote d’Ivorie(Ivory Coast) ebolavirus -Reston ebolavirus -Sudan ebolavirus -Zaire ebloavirus -Bundibugyo ebolavirus - Characteristics of Filoviruses: - Filamentous form with a uniform diameter of approximately 80 nm but display great variation in length. - Nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA genome containing 7 structural and regulatory genes.
Where is the Ebola virus found in nature• Natural reservoir of the Ebola virus remains unknown.• Zoonotic (animal-borne)• Four of the 5 subtypes occur in an animal host native to Africa 1 occurs in Philippine monkeys .• Origination: Africa...The virus is not known to be native to other continents, such as North America.
Early Symptoms During the incubation period, (2 to 21 days), symptoms include:• Arthritic pain• Backache (low-back pain)• Chills• Diarrhea• Fatigue• Fever• Headache• Malaise (general feeling of being unwell)• Nausea• Sore throat• Vomiting
Late SymptomsLate symptoms include:• Bleeding from eyes, ears, and nose• Bleeding from the mouth and rectum (gastrointestinal bleeding)• Depression• Eye inflammation (conjunctivitis)• Genital swelling (labia and scrotum)• Increased feeling of pain in skin• Rash over the entire body that often contains blood (hemorrhagic)• Roof of mouth looks red• Seizures, coma, deliriumAs many as 90% of patients die from the disease. Patients usuallydie from shock rather than from blood loss.
How it worksTetherin: A human cellular proteinwhich inhibits retrovirus infectionby preventing the diffusion of virusparticles after budding frominfected cells Threadlike Ebola virions bud from a cell. The Ebola virus disables a cells tetherin protein.
Hope on the Horizon? Ebola virus glycoprotein, or "spike protein,"