Acknowledgements
Funding Agencies:
•Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología
•David and Lucile Packard Foundation
•The Uni...
MAPPING THE HUMAN DIMENSION
of Small-scale Fisheries in the
Northern Gulf of California, Mexico.

Marcia Moreno-Baez
Small-scale Fisheries are Central to the
Economic Vitality and Food Security of
Many Countries
• 38 million people are cla...
Most of the World's Fisheries Science
has been devote to Stock Assessment
• The disciplinary focus has been on biology
and...
THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA

Has a rich history in commercial
fisheries
USA
Asia
50%
Small-scale fisheries involve a
wide array of fishing gear,
methods and species
Best Available Information is Needed for
Successful Planning
Biophysical

Social

SmallEBM
scale
PANGAS
Fisheries

Politic...
Research Goal
To understand the human dimension of
small-scale fishing activities for
developing fisheries management plan...
Objectives
• Use local knowledge to characterize fishing activities
• Understand the implications and contributions to
fis...
THE NORTHERN GULF OF CALIFORNIA

MEXICO
Methods
Rapid Appraisal

Review of Existing Data

Integration of Local Knowledge

Design Semi-structured
Interview

Strati...
Semi-structure Interviews and
Participatory Mapping
1st Section
General
Information and
Social networks

Opinion about
fis...
Semi-structure Interviews and
Participatory Mapping
2nd Section
Spatial and
Temporal
distribution
Reproductive and
Nursery...
Methods
Rapid Appraisal
n(i)= 376
n(m) = 764

Integration of Local Knowledge

Internal Validation

Spatial and Temporal An...
Methods
Rapid Appraisal

Integration of Local Knowledge

Internal Validation

Spatial and Temporal Analysis
MEXICO

Puerto Peñasco:
1. Diving (5 species)
2. Gillnets (4 species)
3. Longline and Traps
(2 species)

Bahía de Kino:
1....
An Example of a Fishing Adjustment Before
and After an Internal Validation
(Moreno-Baez, et al, 2010)

Black murex (Hexapl...
Methods
Rapid Appraisal

Integration of Local Knowledge

Internal Validation

Spatial and Temporal Analysis
Spatial Analysis to Meet the
Objectives
Who, What, Where, How and, When
Characterize
Fishing Activity

Common
Seasonal Fis...
Different Vector-based Analyses
Were Used to Meet Objectives
Attribute
Queries

Species , Communities,
Fishing Method, Spa...
Spatial and Temporal Analysis to Meet
the Objectives

Characterize
Fishing Activity

Common
Seasonal Fishing
Grounds

Vect...
Different Vector-based Analyses
Were Used to Meet Objectives

Attribute
Queries

+

Euclidian
Distance

Maximum and
median...
Spatial and Temporal Analysis to Meet
the Objectives

Characterize
Fishing Activity

Common
Seasonal Fishing
Grounds

Vect...
Raster-based Analysis Was Utilized to
Understand the Importance of Fishing
Grounds
• What are your three primary
fishing z...
Results
•
•
•
•
•
•

Who is fishing?
Where are they fishing?
What are they capturing?
How are they fishing?
When are they ...
Fishing activity in 60%
Of the total area
Fishing activity in 89%
Of the coast line

Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006
Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006

Communities

Max. Dist. (km)
Med. Dist. (km)

San Luis Gonzaga

51

Santo Tomas

43

San Jorg...
Results
• Who is fishing?
• Where are they fishing?

Where is fishing activity
concentrating?
Isla Ángel de
La Guarda

Isl...
Results
•
•
•
•
•
•

Who is fishing?
Where are they fishing?
What are they capturing?
How are they fishing?
When are they ...
What are People Fishing?
• 74 species are being harvest
• 58 target species
– Based on a dedicated trip

• Spatial distrib...
Octopus hubssorum or O. bimaculatus

Epinephelus acanthistius

Isla Ángel de
La Guarda

Isla Tiburón

Rapid Appraisal 2005...
Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006

Number of Species Captured by Each
Community
Number of Communities

5
4
3
2
1
0
1-10

11-20

...
Results
•
•
•
•
•
•

Who is fishing?
Where are they fishing?
What are they capturing?
How are they fishing?
When are they ...
Photos: Cinti, A., Rojo M./COBI, Morales, O.

Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006
Results
•
•
•
•
•
•

Who is fishing?
Where are they fishing?
What are they capturing?
How are they fishing?
When are they ...
Isla Ángel de
La Guarda

Isla Tiburón
Results
•
•
•
•
•
•

Who is fishing?
Where are they fishing?
What are they capturing?
How are they fishing?
When are they ...
Implications for Management
• The spatial and temporal data may provide
support that helps managers balance the
local dema...
Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006
Conclusions
• Key local knowledge can be incorporated
into and corroborated during the datacollection process
• Data can b...
Conclusions
 Incorporating fishers’ knowledge through
participatory research can provide essential
information for the de...
Conclusions
• This process increases the opportunity for
dialogue between local fishers, natural
resource managers, and re...
The Human Dimension is Only One
Aspect to be Incorporated into
Planning for Fisheries Management
Biophysical

Social

Smal...
http://pangas.arizona.edu
QUESTIONS

Marcia Moreno-Baez
Email: mamoreno@email.arizona.edu
Mapping Small-scale Fishing Activity in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico
Mapping Small-scale Fishing Activity in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico
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  • Different spatio-temporal analyses were used to meet the objectivesMENTION ALL THE QUESTION AND SAY THAT, THOSE Q. HELPED ME TO CHARACTERIZED… FIND ABOUT ALL COMMON SEASONAL FISH… SPA..
  • Vector –base analysisIntersection: to identify common fishing grounds among communities (translated into potential areas of conflict)Binary data for fishing seasons (presence –absence)Grid creation (1.5 x 1.5 miles)By community and by speciesTo understand the number of present communities working in a site, or number of species usually fished there according to fishers knowledge
  • Different spatio-temporal analyses were used to meet the objectives
  • Different spatio-temporal analyses were used to meet the objectives
  • Mapping Small-scale Fishing Activity in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico

    1. 1. Acknowledgements Funding Agencies: •Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología •David and Lucile Packard Foundation •The University of Arizona •Wallace Research Foundation Committee Members: •Dr. William Shaw •Dr. Barron Orr •Dr. Philip Guertin •Dr. Tom McGuire To my family: James Collins Jorge, Alba, Raquel, Jorge y Marcos Dr. Luz Vázquez Dr. Jaime Nubiola Art Lab: Mickey Reed, Andrew Honaman, Craig Weisler SNR: Kathi, Samia, Taryn, Sonya •Dr. Richard Cudney-Bueno and PANGUEROS: Ana Cinti and Dr. Jennie Duberstein, Nabor Encinas, Erika Koltenuk, Alejandro Castillo, Dr. Miguel Lavín, Rene Loaiza, Cesar Moreno, Adrián Munguía, Tad Pfister, Dr. Pete Raimondi, Mario Rojo, Alyssa Rosemartin, Ángeles Sánchez, Gaspar Soria, Dr. Jorge Torre, Peggy Turk Tucsonian Friends: Mariano, Anne, Hugo, Adriana, Mari, Nadia, Alma, Maite, Pablo, Pat, Mike, Patricia, Laura, Jeremiah, Dan, Alison, Zack, Mattie, Monica, Don Carlos, Forest, Michele, Gillian, Emiliano.
    2. 2. MAPPING THE HUMAN DIMENSION of Small-scale Fisheries in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Marcia Moreno-Baez
    3. 3. Small-scale Fisheries are Central to the Economic Vitality and Food Security of Many Countries • 38 million people are classified as fishers (Béné, Macfadyen and Allison, 2007) • ~90 percent are considered small-scale • An additional 100+ million people involved in the post-harvest sector
    4. 4. Most of the World's Fisheries Science has been devote to Stock Assessment • The disciplinary focus has been on biology and, to some extent, economics • Conventional approaches have not adequately addressed the socio economic needs of fisheries (Berkes et al. 2001)
    5. 5. THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA Has a rich history in commercial fisheries
    6. 6. USA Asia 50%
    7. 7. Small-scale fisheries involve a wide array of fishing gear, methods and species
    8. 8. Best Available Information is Needed for Successful Planning Biophysical Social SmallEBM scale PANGAS Fisheries Political Economic
    9. 9. Research Goal To understand the human dimension of small-scale fishing activities for developing fisheries management plans in the NGC Biophysical Social Political Economic Smallscale Fisheries
    10. 10. Objectives • Use local knowledge to characterize fishing activities • Understand the implications and contributions to fisheries management – – – – – – Who is fishing? Where are they fishing? What are they capturing? How are they fishing? When are they fishing? Where are the spawning and reproductive sites?
    11. 11. THE NORTHERN GULF OF CALIFORNIA MEXICO
    12. 12. Methods Rapid Appraisal Review of Existing Data Integration of Local Knowledge Design Semi-structured Interview Stratify Random Sampling Internal Validation Spatial and Temporal Analysis Photo: Pérez, S./CEDO n = 376 15% of total number of panga captains Conducting Interviews in 17 Fishing Communities
    13. 13. Semi-structure Interviews and Participatory Mapping 1st Section General Information and Social networks Opinion about fisheries Target species 2nd Section Spatial and Temporal distribution Reproductive and •Nursery grounds do What species And life history you make a dedicated trip to capture? • What other species do you target? Problems and • Of all of these, what are the three Additional Information most important?
    14. 14. Semi-structure Interviews and Participatory Mapping 2nd Section Spatial and Temporal distribution Reproductive and Nursery grounds And life history Problems and Additional Information • What are your three primary fishing zones for this species? • What are your three secondary fishing zones for this species?
    15. 15. Methods Rapid Appraisal n(i)= 376 n(m) = 764 Integration of Local Knowledge Internal Validation Spatial and Temporal Analysis Compilation Digital Integration ArcGIS™ 9.2 Preliminary Analysis ArcGIS™ 9.2
    16. 16. Methods Rapid Appraisal Integration of Local Knowledge Internal Validation Spatial and Temporal Analysis
    17. 17. MEXICO Puerto Peñasco: 1. Diving (5 species) 2. Gillnets (4 species) 3. Longline and Traps (2 species) Bahía de Kino: 1. Diving (4 species) 2. Gillnets (4 species) 3. Traps (1 specie)
    18. 18. An Example of a Fishing Adjustment Before and After an Internal Validation (Moreno-Baez, et al, 2010) Black murex (Hexaplex nigritus)
    19. 19. Methods Rapid Appraisal Integration of Local Knowledge Internal Validation Spatial and Temporal Analysis
    20. 20. Spatial Analysis to Meet the Objectives Who, What, Where, How and, When Characterize Fishing Activity Common Seasonal Fishing Grounds Vector-based Analysis Spawning and Juvenile areas + Relative Importance of Fishing Grounds Raster-based Analysis
    21. 21. Different Vector-based Analyses Were Used to Meet Objectives Attribute Queries Species , Communities, Fishing Method, Spawning and juvenile areas Relational Algebra Operators Intersection = communities overlap, Union = temporal analysis
    22. 22. Spatial and Temporal Analysis to Meet the Objectives Characterize Fishing Activity Common Seasonal Fishing Grounds Vector-based Analysis Spawning and Juvenile areas + Raster-based Analysis
    23. 23. Different Vector-based Analyses Were Used to Meet Objectives Attribute Queries + Euclidian Distance Maximum and median distance from communities
    24. 24. Spatial and Temporal Analysis to Meet the Objectives Characterize Fishing Activity Common Seasonal Fishing Grounds Vector-based Analysis Spawning and Juvenile areas Relative Importance of Fishing Grounds Raster-based Analysis
    25. 25. Raster-based Analysis Was Utilized to Understand the Importance of Fishing Grounds • What are your three primary fishing zones for this species? • What are your three secondary fishing zones for this species? Grid Creation (1.5 x 1.5 miles pixel size) Level of Importance = Value assigned to pixel Geostatistics + Fuzzy Logic Fishing Ground Relative Importance Primary Fishing zones = 1.0 Secondary Fishing zones = 0.5
    26. 26. Results • • • • • • Who is fishing? Where are they fishing? What are they capturing? How are they fishing? When are they fishing? Where are the spawning and reproductive sites?
    27. 27. Fishing activity in 60% Of the total area Fishing activity in 89% Of the coast line Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006
    28. 28. Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006 Communities Max. Dist. (km) Med. Dist. (km) San Luis Gonzaga 51 Santo Tomas 43 San Jorge 177 San Felipe Puerto Peñasco 94 Puerto Lobos 200 Puerto Libertad 18 Punta Jaguey 50 Punta Chueca Los Dorados de Villa 108 Las Ánimas 95 Golfo de Santa Clara 100 El Barril 99 Desemboque Seri 150 Desemboque de Caborca Bahia de los Ángeles Bahia de Kino Distance (km) Traveled Distances from Community to Fishing Grounds 250 207 181 162 145 125 94 77 61 21 0
    29. 29. Results • Who is fishing? • Where are they fishing? Where is fishing activity concentrating? Isla Ángel de La Guarda Isla Tiburón Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006
    30. 30. Results • • • • • • Who is fishing? Where are they fishing? What are they capturing? How are they fishing? When are they fishing? Where are the spawning and reproductive sites?
    31. 31. What are People Fishing? • 74 species are being harvest • 58 target species – Based on a dedicated trip • Spatial distribution of harvest location of 52 species (Moreno-Baez et al, In press)
    32. 32. Octopus hubssorum or O. bimaculatus Epinephelus acanthistius Isla Ángel de La Guarda Isla Tiburón Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006
    33. 33. Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006 Number of Species Captured by Each Community Number of Communities 5 4 3 2 1 0 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 Number of Species Captured 51-60 61-70
    34. 34. Results • • • • • • Who is fishing? Where are they fishing? What are they capturing? How are they fishing? When are they fishing? Where are the spawning and reproductive sites?
    35. 35. Photos: Cinti, A., Rojo M./COBI, Morales, O. Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006
    36. 36. Results • • • • • • Who is fishing? Where are they fishing? What are they capturing? How are they fishing? When are they fishing? Where are the spawning and reproductive sites?
    37. 37. Isla Ángel de La Guarda Isla Tiburón
    38. 38. Results • • • • • • Who is fishing? Where are they fishing? What are they capturing? How are they fishing? When are they fishing? Where are the spawning and reproductive sites? Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006
    39. 39. Implications for Management • The spatial and temporal data may provide support that helps managers balance the local demand for the resource and the ecological integrity of the system
    40. 40. Rapid Appraisal 2005 - 2006
    41. 41. Conclusions • Key local knowledge can be incorporated into and corroborated during the datacollection process • Data can be used within large, regional scales with multiple fishing communities and highly diverse fishing activities
    42. 42. Conclusions  Incorporating fishers’ knowledge through participatory research can provide essential information for the development of any future management schemes in the NGC
    43. 43. Conclusions • This process increases the opportunity for dialogue between local fishers, natural resource managers, and researchers • Engagement of local fishers can bring transparency to integration of local knowledge
    44. 44. The Human Dimension is Only One Aspect to be Incorporated into Planning for Fisheries Management Biophysical Social Smallscale Fisheries Political Economic
    45. 45. http://pangas.arizona.edu
    46. 46. QUESTIONS Marcia Moreno-Baez Email: mamoreno@email.arizona.edu

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