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CHAPTER 2 WARM UP & LEARN THE LINGO
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES <ul><li>Atom </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac Asimov </li></ul><ul><li>ISBN:0613033884  </li></ul><ul><li>Any ...
WARNING <ul><li>The material from this point on may start out sounding like high school chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>The hi...
ATOMIC THEORY <ul><li>Has been around for over 2,000 years, the word ATOM is from the Greek word  atomos  meaning uncuttab...
ATOMIC THEORY <ul><li>Four “postulates” (rules): </li></ul><ul><li>Each element is composed of very small particles called...
ATOMIC THEORY <ul><li>Explained two laws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Composition – Compounds always have the same rati...
ATOMIC THEORY <ul><li>A new law was discovered at this time, the Law of Multiple Proportions: </li></ul><ul><li>If two ele...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE <ul><li>Please forget the “Pool Ball” “Planets Around the Sun” image of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Elect...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE <ul><li>Read the text book if you want a pitch – by – pitch description of who did what when (this is che...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS <ul><li>Two particles in the nucleus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS <ul><li>Protons </li></ul><ul><li>Have an atomic mass of just under 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Have ...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS <ul><li>Protons </li></ul><ul><li>1 proton is Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>8 protons Oxygen </l...
<ul><li>Protons </li></ul><ul><li>We call the NUMBER of protons in an atom the ATOMIC NUMBER since it determines what elem...
<ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Have an atomic mass of 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Have a charge of 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ...
<ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons are call isotopes </li></u...
<ul><li>If an atom of carbon (atomic number 6) has 12 neutrons what is it’s atomic weight? </li></ul><ul><li>6 protons (we...
<ul><li>On the periodic table, carbon weight is listed as 12.0107, the extra 0.0107 is from the carbon 14.  What fraction ...
<ul><li>Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>To write atomic isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the atomic symbol  C </li></ul...
<ul><li>Don’t think of electrons as moons orbiting a planet </li></ul><ul><li>Think of them as making concentric shells ar...
<ul><li>Electrons are most probably in the shell </li></ul><ul><li>Each shell level has a certain number of electrons it c...
THE PERIODIC TABLE <ul><li>Some elements have very similar chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>When Nobel listed the ele...
<ul><li>He also noticed that the elements in between also repeated in a pattern </li></ul><ul><li>So he arranged the eleme...
THE PERIODIC TABLE
THE PERIODIC TABLE <ul><li>Columns are called  Groups  and have similar properties </li></ul><ul><li>Rows are called  Fami...
THE PERIODIC TABLE <ul><li>Some Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali Rare Halogens Nobel </li></ul><ul><li>Earth   Gasses  Meta...
<ul><li>How to read the table </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Wei...
MOLECULES <ul><li>Diatomic Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Are made of two atoms of the same element  O 2 , H 2 </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Formulas - Three Main Types </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular – Types and actual number of atoms involved (H 2 O, CS 2 ,...
<ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>All atoms want to have a full outer shell of electrons (either 2, 8, 10 o...
<ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>On the periodic table, elements on the left (metals) loose electrons and ...
<ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>“Opposites attract” Paula Abdul 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic reactions ha...
<ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium Chloride </li></ul>MOLECULES Mg - Cl - - - - - - - - Cl - - - -...
<ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium Chloride </li></ul>MOLECULES Mg  +2 - Cl -1 - - - - - - - - Cl ...
<ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds - Magnesium Chloride </li></ul><ul><li>We now have Mg +2  and 2Cl -1 </li></ul><ul><li>We s...
<ul><li>Cross Method of Empirical Formulas </li></ul><ul><li>Mg +2   Cl -1 </li></ul>MOLECULES 2 1 Full shells are happy s...
<ul><li>Anticipating Ionic Charge </li></ul><ul><li>Mg formed a +2 ion and is in the second family from the left </li></ul...
<ul><li>Anticipating Ionic Charge </li></ul><ul><li>Cations – If not in the center “short rows”, count from the left.  Tha...
<ul><li>Anticipating Ionic Charge </li></ul><ul><li>Elements in the middle (transition metals) form cations, but can vary ...
<ul><li>Elements on the immediate right of the transition metals are called metalloids and usually do not form ions. </li>...
<ul><li>Covalent Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic bonds transfer electrons from one atom to another setting up an electrical ...
<ul><li>Covalent Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Organic molecules use  covalent  bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon and silicone can ...
<ul><li>Covalent Bonds – Alkanes – Single C – to- C Bonds </li></ul>MOLECULES methane ethane propane
<ul><li>Covalent Bonds – Alkenes – Double C – to- C Bonds </li></ul>MOLECULES ethene propene
<ul><li>Organic Molecules & the Covalent Bond </li></ul><ul><li>One final note – unlike ionic molecules, you can not antic...
QUESTIONS
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Ch 2

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Ch 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 WARM UP & LEARN THE LINGO
  2. 2. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES <ul><li>Atom </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac Asimov </li></ul><ul><li>ISBN:0613033884 </li></ul><ul><li>Any chemistry by Asimov is good </li></ul>
  3. 3. WARNING <ul><li>The material from this point on may start out sounding like high school chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>The high school sounding material is like a runway, we use it to take off from </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get board or over-confident with the runway, or you WILL miss the flight </li></ul>
  4. 4. ATOMIC THEORY <ul><li>Has been around for over 2,000 years, the word ATOM is from the Greek word atomos meaning uncuttable </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1800s, atomic theory was dusted off and formed the basis of modern chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>From here forward, we are talking about the 1800s flavor of atomic theory </li></ul>
  5. 5. ATOMIC THEORY <ul><li>Four “postulates” (rules): </li></ul><ul><li>Each element is composed of very small particles called atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of a given element are identical to each other in mass and properties, but are different from atoms of other elements </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of one element can not be changed into atoms of a different element </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds are formed when atoms of two or more elements combine </li></ul>
  6. 6. ATOMIC THEORY <ul><li>Explained two laws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Composition – Compounds always have the same ratio of elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation of Matter – The total mass of material after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass before the reaction (this is the basis for everything that will follow in this class) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ATOMIC THEORY <ul><li>A new law was discovered at this time, the Law of Multiple Proportions: </li></ul><ul><li>If two elements A and B combine to form more the one compounds, the ratio A to B will be different for each compound. </li></ul><ul><li>NO 2 , NO 3 (NOx, they cause smog) </li></ul><ul><li>SO 2 , SO 3 (SOx, they cause acid rain) </li></ul>
  8. 8. ATOMIC STRUCTURE <ul><li>Please forget the “Pool Ball” “Planets Around the Sun” image of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons act very strangely </li></ul><ul><li>For accounting purposes, if we need to, electrons will be drawn as dots or minus signs next to the atomic symbol </li></ul>
  9. 9. ATOMIC STRUCTURE <ul><li>Read the text book if you want a pitch – by – pitch description of who did what when (this is chemistry, not history) </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms have two regions – the nucleus and the electron cloud </li></ul><ul><li>If this dot ● were a nucleus, the electron cloud would be on the third floor </li></ul>
  10. 10. ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS <ul><li>Two particles in the nucleus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS <ul><li>Protons </li></ul><ul><li>Have an atomic mass of just under 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Have a charge of +1 </li></ul><ul><li>Do not participate in chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what element the atom is </li></ul>
  12. 12. ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS <ul><li>Protons </li></ul><ul><li>1 proton is Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>8 protons Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>92 protons is Uranium </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Protons </li></ul><ul><li>We call the NUMBER of protons in an atom the ATOMIC NUMBER since it determines what element it is </li></ul>ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS
  14. 14. <ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Have an atomic mass of 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Have a charge of 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Do not participate in chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element can have DIFFERENT numbers of neutrons </li></ul>ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS
  15. 15. <ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons are call isotopes </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes of an element have different weights, but they have identical chemical properties (which is why it’s so hard to separate them) </li></ul>ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS
  16. 16. <ul><li>If an atom of carbon (atomic number 6) has 12 neutrons what is it’s atomic weight? </li></ul><ul><li>6 protons (weight ≈1) </li></ul><ul><li>12 neutrons (weight = 1) </li></ul><ul><li>18 AMUs (Atomic Mass Units) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon has an isotope with 14 neutrons it’s weight is 20 AMUs </li></ul><ul><li>1 AMU = 1.66054 * 10 -24 grams </li></ul>ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS
  17. 17. <ul><li>On the periodic table, carbon weight is listed as 12.0107, the extra 0.0107 is from the carbon 14. What fraction of carbon is C14? </li></ul><ul><li>X*12+y*14 = 12.0107 x+y=1 </li></ul><ul><li>(1-y)12+14y=12.0107 x=1-y </li></ul><ul><li>12-12y+14y=12.0107 </li></ul><ul><li>2y=0.0107, y=0.0054 or 54 of 10,000 </li></ul>ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS
  18. 18. <ul><li>Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>To write atomic isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the atomic symbol C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the mass number as a superscript to the LEFT of the symbol 12 C or 14 C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no need to write the atomic number since it is constant for the element (carbon is 6) </li></ul></ul>ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE NUCLEUS
  19. 19. <ul><li>Don’t think of electrons as moons orbiting a planet </li></ul><ul><li>Think of them as making concentric shells around the nucleus </li></ul>ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE ELECTRON CLOUD
  20. 20. <ul><li>Electrons are most probably in the shell </li></ul><ul><li>Each shell level has a certain number of electrons it can hold (remember this in a few slides when we get to the periodic table) </li></ul><ul><li>How electrons behave in these shells determine the elements chemical and sometimes physical properties </li></ul>ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE ELECTRON CLOUD
  21. 21. THE PERIODIC TABLE <ul><li>Some elements have very similar chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>When Nobel listed the elements in increasing order of atomic number, he noticed that the every so often, he came to a non-reactive gas that was followed by a soft, reactive metal </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>He also noticed that the elements in between also repeated in a pattern </li></ul><ul><li>So he arranged the elements with similar properties in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>He listed the groups as columns going from light on top to heavy on the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>The groups were arranged next to each other left to right by increasing atomic number of the first element </li></ul>THE PERIODIC TABLE
  23. 23. THE PERIODIC TABLE
  24. 24. THE PERIODIC TABLE <ul><li>Columns are called Groups and have similar properties </li></ul><ul><li>Rows are called Families and are filling the same “levels” of electron shells </li></ul>
  25. 25. THE PERIODIC TABLE <ul><li>Some Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali Rare Halogens Nobel </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Gasses Metals </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>How to read the table </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Some fancy tables will also have the electron configuration on the bottom. </li></ul>THE PERIODIC TABLE 47 Ag 107.8682
  27. 27. MOLECULES <ul><li>Diatomic Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Are made of two atoms of the same element O 2 , H 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the name BrINClOHF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Br – Bromine ●I - Iodine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N – Nitrogen ●Cl – Chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O – Oxygen ●H – Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F - Fluorine </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Formulas - Three Main Types </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular – Types and actual number of atoms involved (H 2 O, CS 2 , MgCl 2 H 2 O 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical – Types and ratio of atoms involved ( HO ) </li></ul><ul><li>Structural – Types, amounts, & how they are put together </li></ul>MOLECULES
  29. 29. <ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>All atoms want to have a full outer shell of electrons (either 2, 8, 10 or 14) </li></ul>MOLECULES
  30. 30. <ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>On the periodic table, elements on the left (metals) loose electrons and become positively charged. They are called CATIONS (Plus cats) </li></ul><ul><li>Elements on the right gain electrons and become negatively charged. They are called ANIONS (minus onions) </li></ul>MOLECULES
  31. 31. <ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>“Opposites attract” Paula Abdul 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic reactions happen when a metal looses electrons with a non-metal. </li></ul><ul><li>The metal becomes positive, the non-metal negative and form the ionic compound </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic compounds are usually soluble in water </li></ul>MOLECULES
  32. 32. <ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium Chloride </li></ul>MOLECULES Mg - Cl - - - - - - - - Cl - - - - - - -
  33. 33. <ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium Chloride </li></ul>MOLECULES Mg +2 - Cl -1 - - - - - - - - Cl -1 - - - - - - -
  34. 34. <ul><li>Ions & Ionic Compounds - Magnesium Chloride </li></ul><ul><li>We now have Mg +2 and 2Cl -1 </li></ul><ul><li>We started with zero net charge, and we ended with zero net charge + 2+2( - 1) = 0 </li></ul><ul><li>The formula is MgCl 2 </li></ul>MOLECULES
  35. 35. <ul><li>Cross Method of Empirical Formulas </li></ul><ul><li>Mg +2 Cl -1 </li></ul>MOLECULES 2 1 Full shells are happy shells!!!! Why don’t noble gasses participate in reactions?
  36. 36. <ul><li>Anticipating Ionic Charge </li></ul><ul><li>Mg formed a +2 ion and is in the second family from the left </li></ul><ul><li>Cl formed a -1 ion and is in the second family on the right </li></ul><ul><li>The family all the way on the right are the noble gasses. They are stuck up and don’t count! </li></ul>MOLECULES
  37. 37. <ul><li>Anticipating Ionic Charge </li></ul><ul><li>Cations – If not in the center “short rows”, count from the left. That’s the charge the element will usually form </li></ul><ul><li>Anions – Skip the noble gas column and count to the left </li></ul><ul><li>At 4, charges switch </li></ul>MOLECULES
  38. 38. <ul><li>Anticipating Ionic Charge </li></ul><ul><li>Elements in the middle (transition metals) form cations, but can vary in charge from 1 to 7 </li></ul>MOLECULES
  39. 39. <ul><li>Elements on the immediate right of the transition metals are called metalloids and usually do not form ions. </li></ul>MOLECULES
  40. 40. <ul><li>Covalent Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic bonds transfer electrons from one atom to another setting up an electrical attraction </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds occur when two atoms share electrons </li></ul><ul><li>At any given instant the electron could be with atom 1 or atom 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent – Cumby a </li></ul>MOLECULES
  41. 41. <ul><li>Covalent Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Organic molecules use covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon and silicone can both bond with itself </li></ul><ul><li>Chains of carbon atoms make organic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>The magic number is 4 each carbon forms 4 covalent bonds </li></ul>MOLECULES
  42. 42. <ul><li>Covalent Bonds – Alkanes – Single C – to- C Bonds </li></ul>MOLECULES methane ethane propane
  43. 43. <ul><li>Covalent Bonds – Alkenes – Double C – to- C Bonds </li></ul>MOLECULES ethene propene
  44. 44. <ul><li>Organic Molecules & the Covalent Bond </li></ul><ul><li>One final note – unlike ionic molecules, you can not anticipate how many bonds will form just by position on the table </li></ul>MOLECULES
  45. 45. QUESTIONS

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