Design for Behavior Change
Think about:
What behaviors would you like to see
changed?
Julie Dirksen, Usable Learning
There’s a question I’ve been
thinking about most of my
professional life…
Why do people do the wrong*
things?
It’s a simple question, but it has
a complicated answer.
*By wrong, I don’t mean moral...
Why do people do the wrong*
things?
It’s a simple question, but it has
a
complicated answer .
*By wrong, I don’t mean mora...
Answer 1: They don’t know any
better
I can’t buy printer
paper from my
brother-in-law?

It has to go
through
purchasing?

...
Answer 1: They don’t know any
better
Texting
while
driving

Fast Food

Smoking

People don’t still smoke because nobody ha...
I know, but…
Texting
while
driving

“I know it’s a bad idea, and I never do it (except when I
do, and then I feel guilty)....
So, why?
Answer 2: Logical decisionmaking isn’t logical

From Jonathan Haidt’s The Happiness Hypothesis
The Rider
The Elephant
So, when there’s a
conflict…

Who do you think wins?
The Rider can hold out for a
while…
… but it gets tired quickly.

Shiv, B. and A. Fedorikhin. 1999
Answer 3: We learn from
experience
How many of you know
that it’s bad to text while
driving?

How many of you learned
this...
What do we really mean
when we say “We learn
from experience?”

Let me tell you a story about a friend of mine…
Here’s the thing..
…the elephant isn’t stupid.

This sucks…I
am not doing
this again…
So let’s go back to our texting
example…
What are
each of these
drivers
learning from
their
experiences?
Answer 4: Urgency
matters
We are creatures of urgency:

Maybe I should
consider
retirement
planning…
Which do you think works
better:
I guess I’ll be
glad I know
this
someday…
I’m really glad
I know this
now…
And the future is sooooo far
away…
Visceral Matters
Remember the fruit salad vs cake?

The effect was much more pronounced if people were looking at the cake...
But, Visceral Matters Too…

http://vhil.stanford.edu/pubs/2011/VHIL-technical-report.pdf
We have trouble with this…
We make decisions differently for
our future selves

Future self

Current self

Pronin et al 2008
Answer 5: Change is slow
We develop unconscious
competence
•
•
•
•
•
•

Familiarization
Comprehension
Conscious Effort
Conscious Action
Proficiency...
We develop unconscious
competence

Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice

Haier et al, 1992
Change is hard
If you are used to this:

Then this feels bad:
The elephant is a creature of
habit
Repeat after me:

Change is a
process, not an event.
Answer 6: Sometimes the changes are
downright fraught
Characteristics of a fraught decision:
• Benefits Now – Costs Later ...
Answer 7: We lack self-efficacy
How do your learners feel?
Things just
happen to me
No control
Fixed mindset

Mindset, by ...
Answer 8: Social Matters
We pay more attention when
people are involved

Okita et al 2009
We use other people as cues for how to act
We listen to authority
figures, but… figure.
…you have to have the right authority
If you are talking to kids about drug a...
Answer 9: Environment Matters
Design changes behavior

Johnson and Goldstein, 2003
Make it easy for people to
succeed

Don Norman, The Design of Everyday Things
Create an
environment that
supports them

The Freedom Trail, Boston
So what do we do about it?
Make things immediate
• How can we create a sense of urgency?
Create opportunities to practice
Have people learn
from experience
•
•
•
•

Role plays
Simulations
Trials
Observations
Avoid cycles of failure
Design for the elephant
Leaders, Testimonials, Success
Stories
Use good models - TAM
Technology Acceptance Model
Perceived
Usefulness

Perceived
Ease of Use

Technology
Acceptance
Use good models – Diffusion of
Innovation
•
•
•
•
•

Relative Advantage
Compatibility
Complexity
Trialability
Observabilit...
Help them make less fraught decisions
(but don’t decide for them)

The benefits of
paper are…
Fix the
environment
Now you try
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Make it immediate
Create opportunities to practice
Meet people where they are
Have people l...
Questions?

Julie Dirksen
julie@usablelearning.com
Twitter: usablelearning
Design For How People Learn
References
•
•
•
•

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Shiv, B. and A. Fedorikhin. 1999. Heart and Mind in Conflict: Interplay of Affect and...
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15 ноября центр Digital October провел телемост с Джули Дирксен, исследователем и автором современных подходов к обучению, дающих результат.

http://digitaloctober.ru/ru/events/knowledge_stream_kak_uchitsya_vzroslomu

Published in: Education, Technology

Julie Dirksen for Knowledge Stream

  1. 1. Design for Behavior Change Think about: What behaviors would you like to see changed? Julie Dirksen, Usable Learning
  2. 2. There’s a question I’ve been thinking about most of my professional life…
  3. 3. Why do people do the wrong* things? It’s a simple question, but it has a complicated answer. *By wrong, I don’t mean morally wrong…
  4. 4. Why do people do the wrong* things? It’s a simple question, but it has a complicated answer . *By wrong, I don’t mean morally wrong…
  5. 5. Answer 1: They don’t know any better I can’t buy printer paper from my brother-in-law? It has to go through purchasing? 1800 Calories? Seriously??? How do you figure sales tax, again?
  6. 6. Answer 1: They don’t know any better Texting while driving Fast Food Smoking People don’t still smoke because nobody happened to mention it was a bad idea, so why does it still happen?
  7. 7. I know, but… Texting while driving “I know it’s a bad idea, and I never do it (except when I do, and then I feel guilty).” “I know it’s a bad idea, but I only do it once in a while, and I’m very careful.” “I know it’s a bad idea for other people, but I can do it because I’m really good at it.” “Huh? What’s the big deal?” Except for the last, none of these are knowledge problems, so adding more information probably won’t change things.
  8. 8. So, why?
  9. 9. Answer 2: Logical decisionmaking isn’t logical From Jonathan Haidt’s The Happiness Hypothesis
  10. 10. The Rider
  11. 11. The Elephant
  12. 12. So, when there’s a conflict… Who do you think wins?
  13. 13. The Rider can hold out for a while… … but it gets tired quickly. Shiv, B. and A. Fedorikhin. 1999
  14. 14. Answer 3: We learn from experience How many of you know that it’s bad to text while driving? How many of you learned this through personal experience?
  15. 15. What do we really mean when we say “We learn from experience?” Let me tell you a story about a friend of mine…
  16. 16. Here’s the thing.. …the elephant isn’t stupid. This sucks…I am not doing this again…
  17. 17. So let’s go back to our texting example… What are each of these drivers learning from their experiences?
  18. 18. Answer 4: Urgency matters We are creatures of urgency: Maybe I should consider retirement planning…
  19. 19. Which do you think works better: I guess I’ll be glad I know this someday… I’m really glad I know this now…
  20. 20. And the future is sooooo far away…
  21. 21. Visceral Matters Remember the fruit salad vs cake? The effect was much more pronounced if people were looking at the cake and fruit salad when they made their choice.
  22. 22. But, Visceral Matters Too… http://vhil.stanford.edu/pubs/2011/VHIL-technical-report.pdf
  23. 23. We have trouble with this…
  24. 24. We make decisions differently for our future selves Future self Current self Pronin et al 2008
  25. 25. Answer 5: Change is slow
  26. 26. We develop unconscious competence • • • • • • Familiarization Comprehension Conscious Effort Conscious Action Proficiency Unconscious Competence Gloria Gery, Electronic Performance Support Systems
  27. 27. We develop unconscious competence Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice Haier et al, 1992
  28. 28. Change is hard If you are used to this: Then this feels bad:
  29. 29. The elephant is a creature of habit
  30. 30. Repeat after me: Change is a process, not an event.
  31. 31. Answer 6: Sometimes the changes are downright fraught Characteristics of a fraught decision: • Benefits Now – Costs Later (or Costs Now – Benefits Later) • Degree of Difficulty • Frequency • Feedback • Knowing What You Like
  32. 32. Answer 7: We lack self-efficacy How do your learners feel? Things just happen to me No control Fixed mindset Mindset, by Carol Dweck I do In control Growth mindset
  33. 33. Answer 8: Social Matters
  34. 34. We pay more attention when people are involved Okita et al 2009
  35. 35. We use other people as cues for how to act
  36. 36. We listen to authority figures, but… figure. …you have to have the right authority If you are talking to kids about drug and alcohol use, who is the real authority figure? http://www.projectalert.com
  37. 37. Answer 9: Environment Matters
  38. 38. Design changes behavior Johnson and Goldstein, 2003
  39. 39. Make it easy for people to succeed Don Norman, The Design of Everyday Things
  40. 40. Create an environment that supports them The Freedom Trail, Boston
  41. 41. So what do we do about it?
  42. 42. Make things immediate • How can we create a sense of urgency?
  43. 43. Create opportunities to practice
  44. 44. Have people learn from experience • • • • Role plays Simulations Trials Observations
  45. 45. Avoid cycles of failure
  46. 46. Design for the elephant
  47. 47. Leaders, Testimonials, Success Stories
  48. 48. Use good models - TAM Technology Acceptance Model Perceived Usefulness Perceived Ease of Use Technology Acceptance
  49. 49. Use good models – Diffusion of Innovation • • • • • Relative Advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Observability Everett Rogers , Diffusion of Innovations
  50. 50. Help them make less fraught decisions (but don’t decide for them) The benefits of paper are…
  51. 51. Fix the environment
  52. 52. Now you try • • • • • • • • • Make it immediate Create opportunities to practice Meet people where they are Have people learn from experience Avoid cycles of failure Design for the elephant Opinion leaders, testimonials, success stories Use good models Fix the environment How can you use some or all to address the behavior you want to change?
  53. 53. Questions? Julie Dirksen julie@usablelearning.com Twitter: usablelearning Design For How People Learn
  54. 54. References • • • • • • • • • • • • Shiv, B. and A. Fedorikhin. 1999. Heart and Mind in Conflict: Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making. Journal of Consumer Research 26 (December): 278–282. Haidt, Jonathan, The Happiness Hypothesis (book) Gery, Gloria, Electronic Performance Support Systems (book) Haier, R.J., B.V. Siegel Jr., A. MacLachlan, E. Soderling, S. Lottenberg, and M.S. Buchsbaum. 1992 Regional glucose metabolic changes after learning a complex visuospatial/motor task: a positron emission tomographic study. Brain Research 570: 134–14. Thaler, Richard and Sustein, Cass. Nudge (book) Okita, S.Y., J. Bailenson, and D.L. Schwartz. 2008. Mere Belief of Social Action Improves Complex Learning. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference for the Learning Sciences. Johnson, Eric J. and Goldstein, Daniel G., Do Defaults Save Lives? (Nov 21, 2003). Science, Vol. 302, pp. 1338-1339, 2003. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1324774 Norman, Donald, The Design of Everyday Things (book) Greene and Paxton, Patterns of Neural Activity Associated with Honest and Dishonest Moral Decisions, PNAS 106:12506-12511 (July 28, 2009). Prochaska, JO; Norcross, JC; DiClemente, CC. Changing for good: the revolutionary program that explains the six stages of change and teaches you how to free yourself from bad habits. New York: W. Morrow; 1994 Rogers, Everett Diffusion of Innovations (book) Pronin E, Olivola CY, & Kennedy KA. (2008) Doing unto future selves as you would do unto others: psychological distance and decision making. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 34(2), 224-36.

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