Carbon Nanotube Computer


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Carbon Nanotube Computer

  1. 1. Carbon Nanotube Computer Sparsa Roychowdhury November 11, 2013 Carbon Nanotube Computer 1 / 15
  2. 2. Outline 1 What is Carbon Nanotubes? Types of Carbon Nanotubes Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative to silicon based VLSI? 2 End of VLSI era? 3 Carbon Nanotubes comes to resque! New Implementation of computer technology Architecture 4 Architecture at Work Parts of One instruction 5 Future References References 6 7 Thank You! Carbon Nanotube Computer 2 / 15
  3. 3. What is Carbon Nanotubes? What is Carbon Nanotubes? Carbon Nanotubes? Carbon Nanotubes are hollow, cylindrical nanostructures composed of single sheet of carbon atoms. Carbon Nanotubes(CNT) have exceptional electrical, physical and thermal properties. Carbon Nanotubes are stronger than steel and 200 times lighter than steel. Carbon Nanotubes are 10,000 times thinner than human hair. Within this Single Walled Nanotube is our special interest in building Carbon Nanotube Computers. Carbon Nanotube Computer 3 / 15
  4. 4. What is Carbon Nanotubes? Types of Carbon Nanotubes Carbon Nanotubes can be categorized by their structures: 1 Single Wall Nano Tubes (SWNT): The structure of a SWNT can be visualized as a layer of graphite, a single atom thick, called graphene, which is rolled into a seamless cylinder. 2 Multi Wall Nano Tubes (MWNT): Multi-wall nanotubes can appear either in the form of a coaxial assembly of SWNT similar to a coaxial cable, or as a single sheet of graphite rolled into the shape of a scroll. 3 Double Wall Nano Tubes (DWNT): Double-wall nanotubes (DWNT) are an important sub-segment of MWNT with two walls of carbon atoms. Carbon Nanotube Computer 4 / 15
  5. 5. What is Carbon Nanotubes? Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative to Silicon based VLSI? Metal or Semiconductor? 1 Carbon Nanotubes can exibit both metal and semiconducor properties. 2 The diameter and Helicity of a defect free Single Walled Nanotubes represent the property of the nanotube, which can also be uniquly identified by the vector, Ch = na1 + ma2 ≡ (n, m) 3 Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors are promising candidate as an alternative of Si CMOS due to it’s excellent perfomance. Carbon Nanotube Computer 5 / 15
  6. 6. End of VLSI era? End of VLSI Technology End of VLSI Technology 1 Huge amount of energy leakage 2 22nm technology is achieved 3 Quantum Effects comes into action below this limit 4 cant make transistors smaller than this 5 Processor speed is limited upto 4GHz per core Carbon Nanotube Computer 6 / 15
  7. 7. Carbon Nanotubes comes to resque! New Implementation of computer technology Carbon Nanotube Computer 1 A group of scientists of Stanford University have created world’s first carbon nanotube processor. 2 The processor is basically free from energy leakage. 3 Highly energy efficient. 4 Can create 10-15 GHz processor in a single core. 5 Can be implemented in present computer architecures like MIPS. “The Carbon Nanotube computer runs an operating system that is capable of multitasking” Carbon Nanotube Computer 7 / 15
  8. 8. Carbon Nanotubes comes to resque! How the architecture works? I How the architecture works: The basic implementation of this computer is on one instruction set computer. The only instruction used in this computer is SUBNEG (SUbstract Branch if NEGetive) which is turing complete instruction in nature. Carbon Nanotube Computer 8 / 15
  9. 9. Carbon Nanotubes comes to resque! How the architecture works? II Flow Chart of SUBNEG Carbon Nanotube Computer 9 / 15
  10. 10. Carbon Nanotubes comes to resque! Basic Architecture of Carbon Nanotube Computer Architecture: Carbon Nanotube Computer 10 / 15
  11. 11. Architecture at Work Stages of the Architecture Definition The basic operation of the architecture can be divided in 4 stages 1 Instruction fetch: this stage supplies instruction memory with the address to read 2 Date fetch: This stage supplies the basic data needed for the instruction (Two operands of the SUBNEG instruction) 3 Arithmatic Operations: This stage does the necessary arithmatic operations(Substraction in this case) for the instruction 4 Write Back: This stage write backs the output of the arithmatic operation to the second arguement location Carbon Nanotube Computer 11 / 15
  12. 12. Future Future of Carbon Nanotube Computer Future 1 Continuous imporovement of computational power at low energy losses 2 This basic instruction set can be extended to more powerful processor 3 Low metal usage helps us to built environment friendly processor 4 Memory chips with Carbon Nanotubes which gives much more dense memory Carbon Nanotube Computer 12 / 15
  13. 13. Future Cons of Carbon Nanotube computer Cons of CNT Computers 1 Prepartion of Carbon Nanotube are still very expensive 2 Metalic and semiconductor nanotubes cant be prepared with high purity 3 It is very complex to build a processor using fully carbon nanotubes Carbon Nanotube Computer 13 / 15
  14. 14. References References I Carbon nanotubes. (n.d.). Retrieved from Carbon-Nanotubes First carbon nanotube computer to help extend moores law. (2013). Retrieved from 8301-17938_105-57604663-1/first-carbon-nanotube -computer-to-help-extend-moores-law/ Odom, T. W., Huang, J.-L., Kim, P., & Lieber, C. M. (1998). Atomic structure and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Nature, 391(6662), 62–64. Shulaker, M. M., Hills, G., Patil, N., Wei, H., Chen, H.-Y., Wong, H.-S. P., & Mitra, S. (2013). Carbon nanotube computer. Nature, 501(7468), 526–530. Carbon Nanotube Computer 14 / 15
  15. 15. Thank You! Thank You! Thank You! Carbon Nanotube Computer 15 / 15