Apa Crash Course


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  • Examples come from Center for Writing Excellence, 2009 Apollo Group. http://my.woodbury.edu/Faculty/Writing/WPRD/Research%20Writing%20and%20APA%20Style/APA6thWritingStyleSamplePaperV8.pdf
  • Examples from the Owl at Purdue https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
  • Apa Crash Course

    1. 1. TheT. Denny Sanford School of Social & Family Dynamics
    2. 2. In this program, we will follow APA 6 formatting guidelines.  APA 6 provides guidelines for written reports (e.g., term papers, essays, master’s theses, doctoral dissertations, journal articles)  Used in a number of fields (e.g., psychology, anthropology, sociology, nursing) to help people communicate clearly with a target audience  In addition to providing format conventions, it helps individuals to correctly give credit to the original sources of ideas and information  Learning to do this correctly and consistently is essential in avoiding plagiarism.
    3. 3.  The primary source of information regarding APA formatting should be the APA Manual (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition)  A number of APA resources are also available to you in the FHD MS Blackboard Community  Some programs (software, websites) will put references in APA format for you; HOWEVER, be cautious!  Automatic formatting programs typically make errors. You might use them as a starting point, but you should have basic APA formatting knowledge so you can correct these errors.
    4. 4. APA 6 helps us format written reports consistently. It provides formatting instructions for items such as:  Running head and page numbers  Title page  Margins  Line spacing  Paragraph indentation  In-text citations  Section headings  Tables  References See the APA manual and the FHD MS Blackboard Community for specific guidelines.
    5. 5. APA formatting plays a key role in advancing academic knowledge and avoiding plagiarism  It tells the reader where ideas came from What follows is a BRIEF overview of citing sources using APA formatting. See the APA manual and FHD MS Blackboard Community for additional details and resources.  It is your responsibility to understand how to properly cite information using APA formatting.  If you have questions, just ask your instructor and/or advisor 
    6. 6.  In-text citations. Whenever you write about ideas and information from other sources, you must cite the source of that information within your paper (whether it is quoted OR in your own words).  Paraphrased materials always require ▪ Author’s last name(s) ▪ Year ▪ These two elements always stay together  Quoted materials always require ▪ Quotation marks around quoted words ▪ Author’s last name(s) ▪ Year ▪ Page number(s) where the quotation came from ▪ The page number sometimes gets separated to the end of the sentence while the author and year stay together.
    7. 7. Examples of in-text citations: (3 common in-text citation formats)  According to Venes (2001), three types of influenza are spreading through the country.  Three types of influenza are spreading throughout the country (Venes, 2001).  Venes (2001) stated that “the types of influenza doctors must prepare for fall into three categories” (p. 106). Notes: • Author name and year always remain together. • The writer does not refer to the article title or book title, but rather the author’s last name when discussing the information. • Quotation marks should never start a sentence – always lead into a quote with your own words.
    8. 8. Sources with multiple authors The number of authors who wrote a paper will influence how you cite that paper, both in the text of the paper or in the parenthetical in-text citations. [The following summary comes from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/]  A Work byTwo Authors: Name both authors in text or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand when cited in parentheses.  A Work byThree to Five Authors: List all the authors in the text or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.  Six or More Authors: In the firstAND subsequent citations, use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses. The following slide offers examples of various in-text citations based on the number/type of authors.
    9. 9. This table comes from the APA manual, sixth edition. Table 6.1. Basic Citation Styles Type of citation First citation in text Subsequent citation in text Parenthetical format, first citation I text Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text One work by one author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007) One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) One work by 3-5 authors Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006) Bradley et al. (2006) (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006). (Bradley et al., 2006) One work by six or more authors Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) Groups (readily identified through abbreviation as authors National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) NIMH (2003) (National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2003) (NIMH, 2003) Groups (no abbreviation) as authors University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)
    10. 10.  References. Any time you use an in-text citation, you must also include a full reference to the information on a Reference page at the end of your written document.  EXCEPTION: In instances where information comes from personal communication, there is no reference (just an in-text citation) since there is no original source to find (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/11/).  References include more detailed information than in-text citations, allowing the reader to find the original source of information.  References include information such as author name(s), article or book title, journal title, journal volume, publisher, publication location, and page numbers.  Your reference list should be in alphabetical order based on the first author’s last name.  Reference formatting varies based on the source of the information (e.g., book, journal article, dissertation, website).
    11. 11.  Examples of References: Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896. Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Note: • Reference formatting is very detail oriented. APA guidelines dictate what should be italicized, where periods should go, which words are capitalized, etc. Additional examples and more detailed guidelines are available in the manual, the Sanford SchoolWriting Center, or at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/05/
    12. 12.  Improper formatting for quotes  To avoid plagiarism, it is essential to include page numbers for quoted material as well as including quotation marks around the quoted words.  The ending quotation marks always go before the parenthetical citation.  Non-APA Errors Relating to Quotes:  Overuse of quotes. ROUGH rule of thumb - typically no more than one quote per page  Unneeded quotes. Quoting should be reserved for statements/phrases that are eloquently stated or unique. If there is nothing particularly special about how something is worded, paraphrase.
    13. 13.  Paraphrased Plagiarism  It is considered plagiarism if you:  Put information into your own words, but you fail to cite it  Cite the information, but change the original quote by merely substituting synonyms or moving/deleting a few words  Cite the information, put the information into your own words, but follow the exact same style/flow of the original quote  It is important that students understand how to properly paraphrase and cite (see FHD MS online community for some resources)  Including page numbers is optional and quotation marks are not used for paraphrased information,
    14. 14.  Missing/misplaced commas, periods, and spaces in in- text citations.  Notice that there is a comma after the author and another comma after the year (if a page number is included).  Notice that there is a period after “p” (abbreviation for page number) and that the ending period comes after the citation, not before it.  Notice the space after each comma and period.  Example: (Brooks, 2013). (Brooks, 2013, p. 101).
    15. 15.  Abbreviating the page number(s) incorrrectly  Examples of incorrect abbreviations ▪ PG, Pg, pg, Page, page, P  Correct abbreviation is ▪ Lowercase p with a period and space after it for a single page (Brooks, 2013, p. 101). ▪ Two lowercase p’s with a period and space after them for a range of pages (Brooks, 2013, pp. 101-102).
    16. 16.  Citing only once in a paragraph  It is not sufficient to cite the first or last sentence of a paragraph and expect your reader to know which sentences include information from one of your sources.You must clearly indicate to your reader where each piece of information came from. Without this, your reader will assume that any un-cited sentence is your own opinion. ▪ This is a form of plagiarism since you are not giving proper credit to your source for their ideas.
    17. 17.  You can view an overview of APA formatting at http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx (21 minute presentation)  “This tutorial is designed for those who have no previous knowledge of APA Style®. It shows users how to structure and format their work, recommends ways to reduce bias in language, identifies how to avoid charges of plagiarism, shows how to cite references in text, and provides selected reference examples.”  As always, if you have questions, ask 