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Lo3=p4, p5, m2, d2


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Unit 2 OCR ICT Cambridge Technicals
Robert Taylor

Published in: Education
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Lo3=p4, p5, m2, d2

  1. 1. Features and Functions of Information Systems By Robert Taylor
  2. 2. Features and Functions of Information Systems Types of Information Systems:  Management Information Systems (MIS)  Marketing Analysis  Human Resources  Financial  Competitor
  3. 3. Features and Functions of Information Systems Features of Information Systems:  Data  People  Hardware  Software  Communication/data flows
  4. 4. Features and Functions of Information Systems Functions of Information Systems:  Input  storage  Processing  Output  Control and feedback loops  Closed and open systems
  5. 5. Features of Information Systems Data:  Data input must be as accurate as possible.  It should be stored in the most logical way.  The data then needs to be summarised to meet the needs of the system.  The data is vital to the creation of a good information system.
  6. 6. Features of Information Systems People:  People are involved in both capturing the data and exploiting the information.  It is important to motivate those who capture the data by highlighting the importance of how the data can help the business.
  7. 7. Features of Information Systems Hardware:  In small organisations the Information System may just run on the PC of the person in charge of that system(s).  In larger businesses it usually runs on a server, either shared or dedicated, with internet access if needed.  It is unusual to require specialised hardware.
  8. 8. Features of Information Systems Software:  The simplest Information System can be built using standard software.  However, MIS and some other Information Systems can use complex software.  The developer configures this system to a set standard, allowing some customisation by the business.  Costs varies but more expensive usually means more features.
  9. 9. Features of Information Systems Telecommunications:  An MIS can be delivered across the internet but this usually brings out an issue of security of data.  Many are delivered across an intranet, protected by the businesses firewall, to safeguard information.  Telecommunications can be used to provide the utmost security.
  10. 10. Functions of Information Systems Input:  Detailed data inputted into the system, stored, processed ready for being used as an output.  Telling the system what and how they expect the outputs to look like and do. This is usually setup by the trained individual or technician.
  11. 11. Functions of Information Systems Storage:  The data should be stored at the most detailed level possible.  The IT department would take consistent backups of this data.  The IT department may also store summaries of this data for ease of use.
  12. 12. Functions of Information Systems Processing:  Processing is what turns data into information.  At its simplest this may be adding up a list of sold products and working out remaining stock levels but at its most complex this could be analysing trends and answer complex decisions on actions to take.
  13. 13. Functions of Information Systems Output:  This can be in two formats: graphical and textual.  Graphical is good for seeing the bigger picture and understanding trends. Textual is preferred for analysing the detail and making more accurate choices.  Outputs should be presented in the most suitable way for the user.
  14. 14. Functions of Information Systems Control and Feedback Loops:  This is what happens as a result of the output from the system.  An automated example would be a system checking stock levels and re-ordering stock based on the system outputting a minimum level.  Or a product automatically increasing its price based on great sales.
  15. 15. Functions of Information Systems Closed and Open Systems:  In a closed system, the user may have some choice about what to report on but they are limited to pre-defined output formats.  In an open system there is often greater flexibility. This usually means significant training is needed to make the best of the system which will be very analysis based.
  16. 16. Types of Information Systems Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS):  A LIMS will offer a scientific workplace more efficiency.  LIMS can have many different features in comparison to other types of information systems.  LIMS are often more secure than other forms of information systems as they generally contain sensitive information that requires a high level of protection.
  17. 17. Types of Information Systems Management Information System (MIS):  An MIS is a decision support information system  Input, query and response is usually already predefined  It is effective in supporting management ask the same questions over and over to track, analyse, make decisions about the day to day running of the business.  Simple systems with complexity hidden away from the users  Answers are often displayed as tables or graphs but easily exported into all office applications  An MIS is only effective if the data entered is accurate, consistent and acquired with confidence.
  18. 18. Types of Information Systems Marketing Information System:  One of the first areas of business to adopt the need for an information system.  Identifying where and why its sales go up and down.  Applying and analysing the result of a promotion in one store before applying it to all stores.  Analysing the impact of changes on product prices, profit/loss, competition
  19. 19. Types of Information Systems Marketing Information System:  Marketing systems is when the network of buyers, sellers and other actors that come together to trade in d given product or service. There are many participants in a market system and they include:  Direct market players - producers, buyers and consumers who drive economic activity in the market  Suppliers of supporting goods and services and services such as finance, equipment and business consulting  Entitles that influence the business environment such as regulatory agencies, infrastructure providers and business associations.
  20. 20. Types of Information Systems Human Resources Information System:  Human resources have a great need for an information system due to the amount of analyses they have to perform.  Information systems support HR in deciding how many staff they need at key times in their days. The system will help identify skill shortages, training needs and staff turnover.  Analysis of staff skills can support the business in decisions over promotions, training and career development opportunities.
  21. 21. Types of Information Systems Human Resources Information System:  Advantages of using a HRIS  Higher Speed of retrieval and process data  Reduction in duplication of efforts leading to reduced cost.  Better analysis leading to more effective decision making.  Higher accuracy of information/report generated.  Disadvantages of a HRIS:  It can be expensive in terms of finance and manpower  It can be threatening and inconvenient  Thorough understanding of what constitutes quality information for the user  Computer cannot substitute human beings
  22. 22. Types of Information Systems Financial Information System:  Simply it is needed to manage income or revenue. However, once setup it can focus on expenditure and costs to make it more effective.  Able to identify trends and unusual patterns to support the running and actions of the business.  Helps identify the financial impact of an investment, large purchase, new revenue or expenditure. Keeping the business in the black.
  23. 23. Types of Information Systems Financial Information System:  Financial data analysis may be conducted through trend evaluations, ratio analyses and financial planning modelling. Data outputs that are produced by financial information system can include:  Operating and capital budgets  Working capital reports  Accounting reports  Cash flow forecasts
  24. 24. Types of Information Systems School Information Management System (SIMS):  School use this type of information system to manage and archive information, the heads of departments and the ICT department generally have access to the SIMS.  The SIMS is provided so that the teachers are able to access information about their students whenever necessary.  This form of information system can be access from many computers across the school as they run from a computer system, this allows quick access for the teachers.
  25. 25. Purposes of Information systems  There are many different types of information systems, each with their own purposes.  The different forms of information systems have their own set of functions and features.  Generally an information system supports the operations and decisions within an organisation.  The allow a company to be maintained and focus on other forms of work instead of being distracted by organising.
  26. 26. Examples of Information Systems in a Business Environment  A wide variety of businesses use information systems.  Private organisations like Cytec use an information system known as LIMS.  Laboratory information management systems are used in scientific workplaces.
  27. 27. Examples of Information Systems in a Business Environment  Public organisations such as the Maelor school penley use the information system SIMS.  A school information management system is used within a school and allows teachers to access specific information.  Information systems will help a business to become more efficient when performing everyday tasks.
  28. 28. Student Registration Form Application Verification and Availability 1 Accepted/ Rejected Results Course Information Registration Conformation 3 Enrolling Student 2 Course Enrolment Student Information Update Information Registration Course Files Student Files Maelor School SIMS Data Flow Diagram
  29. 29. Legal and Ethical Implications of Input Legal implications of Input data in an SIMS:  The students don’t have to give certain details about themselves Ethical implications of Input data in an SIMS:  Only relevant data should be input
  30. 30. Legal and Ethical Implications of Output Legal implications of Output data in an SIMS:  Data protection act Ethical implications of Output data in an SIMS:  Data outputted must be used ethically
  31. 31. Maelor School Library Booking system Data Flow Diagram Customer ID Customer Details 1 Customer Information Loan Information Order 3 Student DVD details 2 Customer Record Payment Loan File Administration Personal Details Error Details Quantity of Items Booking Receipt Book Details Stock Availability Book Inventory
  32. 32. Legal and Ethical Implications of Input Legal implications of Input data in an library booking system:  Sales of Books to the library Ethical implications of Input data in an library booking system :  Privacy details concerning people’s book history
  33. 33. Legal and Ethical Implications of Output Legal implications of Output data in a library booking system :  Recovery of stolen/damaged books Ethical implications of Output data in a library booking system :  Leaking of potentially sensitive details
  34. 34. Other forms of Data flow diagrams
  35. 35. Other forms of Data flow diagrams