Problem Solving

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Deskripsi problem solving dan ilustrasi bagaimana mengaplikasikannya dalam permasalahan sehari-hari.

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Problem Solving

  1. 1. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 1 Problem Solving Sparisoma Viridi* KK Fisika Nuklir dan Biofisika Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia *dudung@gmail.com
  2. 2. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 2 Outline • Notes • Illustration • Some definitions • Two types of approach • Stages of problem solving • Strategies • Kerja kelompok • Contoh presentasi
  3. 3. Notes • There is information about the reference(s), that can be found in the internet, at the bottom of each page of a new topic. • This information includes source of texts, images, or other types of multimedia objects. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 3 Author(s), “Title”, Organization, URI http://some-internet-resrouces.com/../.. [yearmonthday.hourminute].
  4. 4. Illustration • We all solve problems on a daily basis, in academic situations, at work, and in our day-to-day lives. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 4 “Problem Solving and Analytical Skills”, Careers and Employability Service, University of Kent, URI http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/problem-solving- skills.htm [20130719.0319].
  5. 5. Illustration (cont.) • Some of the problems that are typically faced by students include: – Putting together an argument for an essay – Debugging a computer program – Dealing with an awkward customer when working part-time in a shop or restaurant Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 5
  6. 6. Illustration (cont.) – Thinking about how you are going to manage your budget to keep you going until the end of term – Working out why your printer won’t respond – Developing a strategy to reach the next level of a computer game. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 6
  7. 7. Illustration (cont.) Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 7 Mihaela Sharkova, “Problem Solving and Analytical Skills”, 10 May 2011, URI http://mihaelasharkova.wordpress.com/2011/05/10/problem-solving/ [20130719 .0501].
  8. 8. Some definitions • Problem-solving is a mental process that involves discovering, analyzing and solving problems. The ultimate goal of problem- solving is to overcome obstacles and find a solution that best resolves the issue. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 8 Kendra Cherry, “What Is Problem-Solving?”, About.com Pyschology, URI http://psychology.about.com/od/problemsolving/f/problem-solving-steps.htm [20130719.0208].
  9. 9. Some definitions (cont.) • Problem-solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, etc. are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 9 Wikipedia contributors, “Problem solving”, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 25 June 2013, 06:19 UTC, oldid:561473281 [20130719.0212].
  10. 10. Two types of approach • There are two types of approach: – rational approach, – organic approach. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 10 Carter McNamara, “Problem Solving and Decision Making (Solving Problems and Making Decisions)”, Free Management Library, URI http:// management help.org/personalproductivity /problem-solving.htm[20130719.0227].
  11. 11. Rational approach • A person with rational approach often prefers using a comprehensive and logical approach similar to the guidelines. For example, the rational approach is often used when addressing large, complex matters in strategic planning. • There are structured guidelines in this type of approach. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 11
  12. 12. Rational approach (cont.) • A major advantage of this approach is that it gives a strong sense of order in an otherwise chaotic situation and provides a common frame of reference from which people can communicate in the situation. • A major disadvantage of this approach is that it can take a long time to finish. Some people might argue, too, that the world is much too chaotic for the rational approach to be useful. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 12
  13. 13. Organic approach • With organic approach, some people assert that the dynamics of people are not nearly so mechanistic as to be improved by solving one problem after another. Often, the quality of life comes from how one handles being “on the road” itself, rather than the “arriving at the destination.” Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 13
  14. 14. Organic approach (cont.) • The quality comes from the ongoing process of trying, rather than from having fixed a lot of problems. For many people it is an approach to organizational consulting. • The guidelines are based on people experien- ces. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 14
  15. 15. Organic approach (cont.) • A major advantage of the organic approach is that it is highly adaptable to understanding and explaining the chaotic changes that occur in everyday life. • The major disadvantage is that the approach often provides no clear frame of reference around which people can communicate, feel comfortable and measure progress toward solutions to problems. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 15
  16. 16. Organic approach (cont.) • From Jung, Carl, Psychological Types (Pantheon Books, 1923): “All the greatest and most important problems in life are fundamentally insoluble … They can never be solved, but only outgrown. This “outgrowing” proves on further investigation to require a new level of consciousness. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 16
  17. 17. Organic approach (cont.) Some higher or wider interest appeared on the horizon and through this broadening of outlook, the insoluble lost its urgency. It was not solved logically in its own terms, but faded when confronted with a new and stronger life urge.” Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 17
  18. 18. Stages of problem solving • Problem Identification • Structuring the Problem • Looking for Possible Solutions • Making a Decision • Implementation • Monitoring/Seeking Feedback Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 18 “Problem Solving”, SkillsYouNeed – Helping You Develop Life Skills, URI http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/problem-solving.html [20130719.0306].
  19. 19. Stages of problem solving (cont.) • .. or IDEAL: – Identify the problem – Define the problem – Examine the options – Act on plan – Look at the consequences Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 19 “Problem Solving and Analytical Skills”, Careers and Employability Service, University of Kent, URI http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/problem-solving- skills.htm [20130719.0319].
  20. 20. Strategies • Abstraction: solving the problem in a model of the system before applying it to the real system. • Analogy: using a solution that solves an analogous problem. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 20 Wikipedia contributors, “Problem solving”, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 25 June 2013, 06:19 UTC, oldid:561473281 [20130719.0212].
  21. 21. Strategies (cont.) • Brainstorming: (especially among groups of people) suggesting a large number of soluti- ons or ideas and combining and developing them until an optimum solution is found. • Divide and conquer: breaking down a large, complex problem into smaller, solvable problems. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 21
  22. 22. Strategies (cont.) • Hypothesis testing: assuming a possible explanation to the problem and trying to prove (or, in some contexts, disprove) the assumption. • Lateral thinking: approaching solutions indi- rectly and creatively. • Means-ends analysis: choosing an action at each step to move closer to the goal. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 22
  23. 23. Strategies (cont.) • Method of focal objects: synthesizing seem- ingly non-matching characteristics of different objects into something new. • Morphological analysis: assessing the output and interactions of an entire system. • Proof: try to prove that the problem cannot be solved. The point where the proof fails will be the starting point for solving it. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 23
  24. 24. Strategies (cont.) • Reduction: transforming the problem into an- other problem for which solutions exist. • Research: employing existing ideas or adapt- ing existing solutions to similar problems. • Root cause analysis: identifying the cause of a problem. • Trial-and-error: testing possible solutions until the right one is found. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 24
  25. 25. Kerja kelompok • Buat kelompok terdiri dari lima orang. • Pikirkan contoh-contoh permasalahan dan ajukan (waktu 5 menit). • Diskusikan contoh-contoh permasalahan yang diajukan dan telah disepakati sebagai contoh menggunakan pendekatan rasional (20 menit). • Presentasikan problem solving dari perma- salahan tersebut (10-15 menit/kelompok) Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 25
  26. 26. Kerja kelompok (cont.) • Saat presentasi (10-15 menit): – perkenalkan nama seluruh anggota (1 menit), – bacakan topik dan alasannya (1-2 menit), – sebutkan strategi yang digunakan (1-2 menit), – terangkan dengan singkat tahapan problem solving dalam IDEAL (5 menit), – dengarkan dan jawab pertanyaan (5 menit). Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 26
  27. 27. Contoh presentasi 1 • Perkenalkan kami adalah .. • Topik yang akan dibahasa adalah Konsep Gaya Sentripetal dalam Gerak Melingkar. • Bagaimana menjelaskan gerak roller-coaster merupakan alasannya. • Strategi: analogi menggunakan hukum II Newton Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 27
  28. 28. Contoh presentasi 1 (cont.) • I: Apa contoh-contoh gerak melingkar? Batasan apa yang selalu ada saat benda bergerak melingkar? Bagaimana menjelaskannya? • D: Perlu adanya suatu cara yang sama untuk membahasa semua gerak melingkar. • E: Lintasan selalu berbentuk lingkaran dan benda dibelokkan menuju pusat lingkaran. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 28
  29. 29. Contoh presentasi 1 (cont.) • A: Ungkapkan adanya gaya yang selalu berarah ke pusat lintasan berbentuk lingkaran. Gaya ini merupakan total gaya yang bekerja  gaya sentripetal. • L: Bahas contoh-contoh kasus dan uji apakah konsep yang diajukan melingkupi semua kasus tersebut. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 29
  30. 30. Contoh presentasi 2 • Perkenalkan kami adalah .. • Topik yang akan dibahasa adalah Tidak Mengerti Penjelasan Dosen. • Alasan: malas kuliah karena hampir setiap kuliah tidak jelas. • Strategi: uji hipotesis – masalah komunikasi Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 30
  31. 31. Contoh presentasi 2 (cont.) • I: Malas kuliah. • D: Tidak dapat mencatat dengan baik. Tulisan terlalu kecil. Kurang dapat mengikuti kecepatan mengajar dosen. • E: Duduk selalu di belakang. Mata cepat lelah karena terlalu jauh mengubah fokus antara catatan dan papan tulis. Tidak belajar sebelumnya. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 31
  32. 32. Contoh presentasi 2 (cont.) • A: Datang lebih pagi dan duduk di baris lebih depan atau terdepan. Belajar lebih dulu sehingga hanya perlu mencatat hal-hal yang belum diketahui. Karena telah membaca buku teks, cukup menandai bagian-bagian tersebut. • L: Kuliah jadi menyenangkan. Ingin lebih pagi datang kuliah. Merasa jam kuliah berlangsung terlalu cepat. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 32
  33. 33. Pra-Bidik Misi 2013 Bandung, 19 Juli 2013 33 Terima kasih

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