Applied science research methods


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Applied science research methods

  1. 1. Finding information<br />Applied Science<br />
  2. 2. Information search<br />
  3. 3. Stage 1. Plan <br />Think of key concept.<br />Define key elements, sub-topics.<br />Identify key words, phrases, people<br />List associated/alternative words, spellings<br />Set limits: time, place<br />
  4. 4. Map your ideas<br />
  5. 5. Stage 2: Search Library Internet<br />Lending/Reference books<br />Magazines<br />DVDs<br />Online resources<br />Study space<br />Search a variety of online resources on the:<br /><ul><li>surface web
  6. 6. deep web</li></li></ul><li>Searching the web<br />Popular search engines<br />Bing<br />Google<br />The surface web may not present all the results you expect or<br />require. Often information is hidden deeper and within special<br />Databases.<br />The deep web contains information that cannot easily be <br />found or retrieved by search engines as the information is <br />stored and contained within databases.<br />
  7. 7. Access identification<br />Open Athens / MyAthens<br /><br />Apply for an account<br />Login to MyAthens<br />Enter Username<br />Enter password<br />Select resources<br />Secure/remote access<br />
  8. 8. Library catalogue Virtual Learning<br />D2L<br /><br />Visit <br />Student Pages<br />Learning Resources Centres<br />Online resources<br />Useful links<br />Heritage Online<br /><br />Find links <br /><ul><li>Search by author, title, keyword</li></ul>.<br /><ul><li>Try an Advanced Search</li></ul>Search term: *<br />Field : All fields <br />Medium: Web site<br />
  9. 9. Databases<br />Search some of the databases that follow.<br />(All these databases are listed on the library catalogue).<br />
  10. 10. Electronic Books<br />Ebrary<br /><br />Search over 3000 titles: <br /> eg. astronomy, evolution, human biology, polymers<br />Browse – all subjects <br /> select a subject: eg. Science<br /> then select a sub-category: physics<br /> select a title & read text on screen <br />***Athens account required to access Bookshelf and highlighter pen**<br />Watch the training video:<br />
  11. 11. Historic books<br />JISC Historic Books<br />Sign in as “Stevenson College Edinburgh”<br />Then OpenAthens username and password<br />View as text or image<br />pre 20th century texts eg.<br />Darwin, D (1882), Formation of vegetable mould….<br />Galilei, Galileo(1730) mathematical discourses concerning 2 new sciences<br />
  12. 12. General reference works<br />Credo Reference<br /><br />- Search, browse, topic pages, find a book,<br /> - gadgets (Conversions eg. temperature : celsius - fahrenheit<br /> - concept map <br />Oxford Reference Online<br /><br />- search, browse, timelines (scientists, inventions)<br /> - individual books, Visual English Dictionary, etc<br />KnowUK<br /><br />- search & refine, browse eg Dolly the Sheep<br /> - Social trends, Dictionary of Science & Technology, etc<br />
  13. 13. Journals and newspapers<br />Gale databases<br /><br />Articles from newspapers, magazines <br />Full-text articles available.<br />Search<br />eg. Roslin Institute<br />Browse subjects eg. radiation<br />Browse publications: <br />eg. Biochemistry & Cell Biology<br />Advanced search: <br /> renewables(keyword) +<br /> Scotsman (publication title)<br />
  14. 14. Journal archives<br />Archives give access to older articles - up until about mid 1990s<br />JISC Journal Archives<br /><br />Search eg. bunsen burner, Kelvin<br /> - summary panel offers link to download pdf<br /> - IoP, RSC, ICE, OUP, Brill, Proquest<br />*** Athens username required***<br />Periodicals Archive Online<br /><br />Search eg. atoms, chemicals, lab experiments<br /> View article text or article pdf<br />
  15. 15. Statistics<br />Fact File Online (only available in College)<br /><br />select search or browse<br />Select a category e.g. Animals<br />view pages<br />download Excel option<br />Issues Online<br /><br />Select Issues Online login<br />Select a category – Science & health<br />Select a topic – eg. genetic modification<br />Select topic articles, key facts, key statistics<br />
  16. 16. Company information<br />Datamonitor 360<br /><br /> search eg. Ineos, Pfizer<br />Or browseindustries<br />eg. biotechnology in the UK<br />News<br />Financial deals<br />Opinion<br />Companies<br /> SWOT analysis (often available)<br />
  17. 17. Images<br />Scran<br /><br /> -search for images, use image to create posters etc.<br /> - Science pathfinder packs (Fleming, Lister, Watt, Young)<br />JISC MediaHub<br /><br />-search for video, image & audio resources <br />
  18. 18. Ephemera<br />The John Johnson Collection<br /><br /> an archive of 18th, 19th and early 20th century printed ephemera.<br />Search, browse, login to Lightbox to store<br /> images, read responses (essays)<br />Advertising:<br /> - dentistry<br /> - fuel<br /> - gas appliances<br /> - patent instruments<br /> - scientific instruments<br />Document images in pdf<br />Citation guide<br />
  19. 19. Cartoons<br />British Cartoon Archive<br /><br />Artwork, files, related documents<br />Biographies of cartoonists<br />Special collection for Carl Giles<br />View cartoon groups – <br /> set up as teaching aids<br />Read copyright info<br />Search eg. chemical giles<br /><br />
  20. 20. Sound recordings<br />BL Archival Sound recordings<br /><br />(***Athens login required***)<br />Browse: oral history<br /> then History of common cold unit<br /> then A-Z by interviewee<br />Browse: environment & nature<br /> then amphibians, wildlife or soundscapes<br />
  21. 21. Other<br />Creative Commons<br /> information on cc licences and search option.<br />
  22. 22. Stage 3. Evaluate <br />Think carefully about the information retrieved:<br />Is information up-to-date, relevant, objective?<br />Who supplied the information?<br />Apply the PROMPT framework to assess information retrieved from your search.<br />Presentation<br />Relevance<br />Objectivity<br />Method<br />Provenance<br />Timeliness<br />
  23. 23. Part 2Academic writing issues<br />
  24. 24. Problems often arise from:<br />Poor organisation of notes during research stage<br />Excessive use of copy and paste (Ctrl-C, Ctrl-V) <br />Non- acknowledgment, non attribution of sources<br />Lack of understanding of referencing systems<br />As a result:<br />Academic integrity weakened<br />Academic misconduct occurs<br />Disciplinary procedures may be applied<br />Research & academic writing<br />
  25. 25. 1. Copyright <br />Legislation<br />protects the owner of the original creative work<br />Permissions<br />check or seek permission to re-use content in projects<br />Reasons for copying<br />Commercial use<br />Non commercial use<br />Educational licence<br />Some materials are licensed especially for use in education<br />.<br />
  26. 26. 2. Plagiarism<br />What does plagiarism mean to you?<br />Watch the following video to discover what some other students think.<br /><ul><li>Plagiarism: student views [video & transcript]</li></ul> Running time: approx. 5 min.<br /><br />Or at:<br />
  27. 27. Doing the right thing<br />There are several ways to avoid plagiarising the work of others.<br />Quote<br />useful to highlight main points, support arguments made in your work<br />place exact quote word for word in quotation marks and list source eg.<br />“plagiarism is a notion specific to a particular culture and epoch” (Ashworth, Freewood and Macdonald, 2003)<br />But - don’t use too many quotes in one piece of work<br />Paraphrase<br /> read quote and rephrase into your own words to give an overview<br />it is not enough to just change one word in the quote<br />Remember to attribute the broad ideas to the original author.<br />Summarize<br />Instead of using multi quotes, take the main background ideas from each and present an overview of them all.<br />
  28. 28. More information on plagiarism is available from:<br />PLATO: Plagiarism teaching online<br /> available on D2L<br /> Student pages – Learning & Study Skills – Avoiding plagiarism/how to reference<br /> Student pages – Preparing for University - Study skills for university – Plagiarism<br />Little book of plagiarism (Leeds Metropolitan University)<br /><br />Turnitin<br />Plagiarism – additional advice<br />
  29. 29. 3. Citations<br />Why list citations?<br /><ul><li>a record of the information you researched and consulted</li></ul>Citation styles<br /><ul><li>Various styles including: APA, Harvard, MLA, Turabian</li></ul>Adding citations to academic writing<br /><ul><li>In-text citations
  30. 30. End of text – list of references
  31. 31. Footnotes (but these not always used with Harvard system)</li></ul>Type of resource cited include<br /><ul><li> book, journal article, online resources</li></ul>Elements recorded in citations may include<br /><ul><li> author, year published, title, title of article/journal, page number
  32. 32. type of electronic resource, web address, date/place accessed</li></ul>Guidelines<br /><ul><li>Some faculties may issue specific guidelines
  33. 33. Whatever system used, use consistently</li></li></ul><li>How to make citations<br />Harvard Reference system tutorial<br /><ul><li>PLATO: Plagiarism teaching online</li></ul> available on D2L<br /><br /> Student pages <br /> Learning & Study Skills<br /> Avoiding plagiarism/how to reference<br />
  34. 34. 4. Reference Lists<br />Free tools to help you organise citations and<br />references include:<br />Citavi<br />Cite u Like<br />Connetea<br />EasyBib<br />Mendeley<br />WorldCat<br />Zotero<br />
  35. 35. Reference List<br />What is a reference list?<br />Found at end of assignment<br />A list of all sources referred to in the main body of the assignment<br />Listed A-Z by author’s surname<br />What does it include?<br />List of sources from which quotes have been taken<br />List of sources which have been paraphrased<br />What does it not include?<br />any resources used only for background reading<br />
  36. 36. 5. Bibliography<br />What is a bibliography?<br />A complete list of all the resources consulted during research.<br />Not just a reference list.<br />Contains all items whether or not you referred to them in the final project<br />
  37. 37. Microsoft Office Word 7<br /><ul><li> Select references tab then citations & bibliography tools
  38. 38. Styles – APA, Chicago, GB7714, GOST, ISO 690, MLA, SIST02, Turabian
  39. 39. Manages sources, insert citation, bibliography
  40. 40. More info: Create a bibliography</li></ul><br />