Motion, class 9


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Green Fields School, India

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Motion, class 9

  1. 1. Spandan B., IX E, Roll No. 21
  2. 2.  In physics, motion is a change in position of anobject with respect to time and its referencepoint. Motion is observed by attaching a frame ofreference to a body and measuring its change inposition relative to another reference frame. As there is no absolute frame ofreference, absolute motion cannot bedetermined.Thus, everything in the universe canbe considered to be moving.
  3. 3.  Newton’s laws Elements of motion –▪ Distance and Displacement▪ Time▪ Speed andVelocity▪ Acceleration▪ Rate of change of acceleration, rate of change of rate ofchange of acceleration and rate of change of rate of changeof rate of change of acceleration Equations of motion Quantum mechanics – A brief introduction.
  4. 4.  Newtons laws of motion are three physical laws that togetherlaid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body andthe forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to said forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearlythree centuries, and can be summarized as follows: First law:An object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon bya force.An object in motion remains in motion, and at a constantvelocity, unless acted upon by a force. Second law:The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to, andin the same direction as, the net force acting on the body, andinversely proportional to its mass.Thus, F = ma, where F is the netforce acting on the object, m is the mass of the object and a is theacceleration of the object. Third law:When one body exerts a force on a second body, thesecond body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude andopposite in direction to that of the first body.
  5. 5.  Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "howmuch ground an object has covered" during itsmotion. Displacement is a vector quantity which refers tothe shortest path from the origin to the finalposition. The SI unit of distance is meters. The SI unit of displacement is meters + directionDistance and Displacement
  6. 6. Distance DisplacementDistance cannot be negative . Displacement can be negativeDistance travelled neverdecreases.Displacement may decrease orincreaseDistance is a scalar quantity orhas only magnitude.Displacement is a vectorquantity with both magnitudeand directionThe SI unit of distance ismeters.The SI unit of displacement ismeters + direction
  7. 7.  Time in physics is defined byits measurement: time is what a clock reads. It is a scalar quantity like length, mass,and charge. Time can be combined mathematically withother physical quantities to derive otherconcepts such as motion. The SI unit of time is seconds(s).
  8. 8.  Velocity is the rate of change of the position ofan object, equivalent to a specification ofits speed and direction of motion. Speed describes only how fast an object ismoving, whereas velocity gives both how fastand in what direction the object is moving. If a car is said to travel at 60 km/h, its speed hasbeen specified. However, if the car is said tomove at 60 km/h to the north, its velocity hasnow been specified. To have a constant velocity, an object musthave a constant speed in a constant direction.
  9. 9. Speed Velocity1 It is scalar quantity. It is a vector quantity.2 Speed describes only how fast an object ismovingVelocity gives both howfast and in what directionthe object is moving3 To have constant speed, an object must coverequal distances in equal intervals of time.To have a constantvelocity, an object musthave a constant speed in aconstant direction.4 If a car is said to travel at 60 km/h, its speed hasbeen specified.If the car is said to moveat 60 km/h to the north,its velocity has beenspecified.
  10. 10.  In physics, acceleration is the rate at whichthe velocity of a body changes with time. In general, velocity and acceleration are vectorquantities with magnitude and direction. The SI unit of acceleration is the meter persecond squared (m/s2). Though in many cases only magnitude isconsidered (sometimes with negative values fordeceleration, treating it as a one dimensionalvector).
  11. 11.  In physics, jerk, also known as jolt, surge, or lurch, isthe rate of change of acceleration; thatis, the derivative of acceleration with respect totime, the second derivative of velocity, or the thirdderivative of position. In physics, jounce or snap is the fourth derivative ofthe position vector with respect to time, the jounce isthe rate of change of the jerk with respect to time. The fourth, fifth and sixth derivatives of position as afunction of time are referred toas "Snap", "Crackle", and “Pop” respectively.
  12. 12. o Used to describe the behavior of a physical system as a setof mathematical functions in terms of dynamic variables.The most commonly used of these arei. V = u +atii. S = ½ at*t + utiii. v*v = u*u + 2aso The various variables in the equations represent thefollowing- V= final velocity U= initial velocity T= time S= distance A= acceleration
  13. 13.  Quantum mechanics is a branch of physics which deals withphysical phenomena at microscopic scales. Quantum mechanics provides a mathematical description ofmuch of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior andinteractions of energy and matter. The name quantum mechanics derives from the observation thatsome physical quantities can change only in discrete amounts(Latin quanta), and not in a continuous way. The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics areabstract, quantum mechanics concerns itself withposition, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. Quantum mechanics is often the only tool available that canreveal the individual behaviors of the subatomic particles thatmake up all forms of matter.