The Making ofa Professional Teacher       2007師德全台巡迴講座          Michael Tsai           師德種子講師       知名連鎖品牌美語師資培訓講師        ...
Agenda1. Approach, Method and Technique2. Teaching Methodologies3. How to choose the “best” method?4. Teaching very young ...
What is it to bea professional teacher?                          3
A professional teacher is… Life-Long Learning                          PassionateAppreciative                        Resol...
Approach, method or    technique?                      5
6
METHODOLOGYAPPROACH         METHOD       TECHNIQUETheories         Principles   ActivitiesBelief           Goals        Sk...
Teaching Methodologies                         8
Before we start…Don’t look at your handouts!How did you learn your first foreign language?How did you learn your mother...
Now, let’s have a little test…Look at the handouts now.Discuss with your partner which teaching methods fit into the dif...
Teaching Methodologies                         11
1. The Grammar-Translation          Method                             12
13
General descriptionFocus     Translation     GrammarTraditional way to teach     Latin     Greek19th century     E...
ActivitiesPresentation of grammar rulesStudy of lists of vocabularySynonyms, antonyms, roots, prefixes, suffixesTransl...
2. Natural Approach                      16
17
General description1970s-1980s, Krashen & TerrellFocus     Spoken language     Oral communication skill     Use of ob...
ActivitiesUse pictures, drawings, gesturesTPRCommandsClassroom language                                    19
3. The Direct Method                       20
21
General description19th centuryTarget language onlyMeaning “directly” communicated using     Actions     Objects    ...
Example 1Example 4            Grammatical   Example 2               Rules              Example 3                          ...
Example 1Example 4            Grammatical   Example 2               Rules              Example 3                          ...
ActivitiesReading aloudQ & ASelf-correctionConversationFill-in the blanksDictationListening comprehensionParagraph...
Berlitz1.    Never translate: demonstrate2.    Never explain: act3.    Never make a speech: ask questions4.    Never imita...
4. The Audio-Lingual Method                          27
28
General description1950s-1960s, USArmy MethodBehaviorismL & S before R & WUse     Dialogues     DrillsDiscourage t...
Behaviorism                     +               REPEATED                     REINFORCEMENT   BEHAVIORSTIMULUS   REPONSE   ...
ActivitiesRepetitionInflection: he she; singular pluralReplacement: “Helen is a girl.” “SHE is a girl.”Restatement:...
5. The Silent Way                    32
33
General description1970s, US, Galeb GattegnoUse     Gesture, Mime, Visual aids, Wall chart,      Cuisenaire rodsVocabu...
Rectangle Chart                  35
English Fidel                36
Word Chart             37
Cuisenaire Rods                  38
Activities1. Pronunciation (stress, intonation)     Word     Phrase     Sentence2. Structure     Vocabulary     Sente...
6. Desuggestopedia                     40
41
General description1970s, Bulgaria, Georgi LozanovRich sensory learning environment     Picture, color, songs, music, p...
Activities1. Presentation     Relax     Positive frame of mind     Learning is going to be easy and fun.2. First Concer...
7. Community Language      Learning                        44
45
General description1960s, US, Charles            Group learning Curran                             Mutual trust, help,...
ActivitiesTranslation     L decides what T teaches; T translatesGroup work     Group prepares materials, e.g. a talk, ...
8. Total Physical Response                             48
49
Let’s have a French lesson now!Assis!Debout!Venez ici!Allez la-bas!Dormez!Levez!                                    ...
General description1960s, US, James AsherKey concepts   COMPREHESNION   ACTIONS   RESPONSESIt’s all in the way we le...
How does a baby learn to utter the          first word and then speak?Language-body conversationBabies don’t learn by me...
Procedure1. T says & acts; C observes2. T says & acts; C acts3. T says; C acts4. T says; C says & acts5. 1 L says & a...
9. Communicative Approach                            54
55
General description1980sLinguistic + Communicative competence     Knowledge of language     Knowledge of rules of spea...
ActivitiesJohnson and Morrow 1981Real communicative activities:     Information gap     Choice     FeedbackSame form...
10. Content-based Approach                             58
59
General descriptionLanguage across the curriculumLanguage immersionTarget language is a medium to learn other content a...
Activities              Listening                 Language   Social                                Math  Studies          ...
11. Task-based Approach                          62
63
General descriptionLesson based around the completion of a central taskLanguage determined by what happened during the c...
ProcedurePre-task         Task Circle           Post-task•Defining the      •Task                •Reportingtask           ...
ActivitiesInformation gap     Exchange info     No continuous negotiatingOpinion gap     A given topic     Out of co...
12. Cooperative Learning                           67
68
General description                      69
Procedure1.   Planning2.   Grouping3.   Explanation4.   Assigning roles5.   Completing tasks6.   Observation7.   Presentat...
ActivitiesPeer tutoringJigsawCo-operative projectsGroup investigation                              71
13. Multiple Intelligences                             72
Yea                       me                      too.I just love to talk88                             73
General description1983, US, Howard GardnerThere is more than one psychological site of intelligence in the human brain....
The Intelligence Pizza                         75
The 8 intelligences                      Scientific thinking                      Inductive/deductive                     ...
The 8 intelligences                      Sense of sight                      learning                      Internal image ...
The 8 intelligences                      Physical                      movement                      Brain’s motor        ...
The 8 intelligences                      Person-to-person                      relationships                      Communic...
The 8 intelligencesRecognition of tonalpatternsSensitivity to rhythmand beats                                             ...
The 8 intelligencesInner states ofbeingSelf-reflection                                        81
The 8 intelligencesWordsLanguage                                 82
The 8 intelligencesRecognition,Appreciation, andUnderstanding of theflora and fauna of thenature                          ...
Logical / MathematicalAbstract Symbols/       Logical/Pattern Formulas                 GamesCalculation             Nu...
Visual / Spatial StrategiesActive imagination    Mind mappingColor/texture         Montage/collage schemes            ...
Bodily / Kinesthetic StrategiesBody                  Gymnastic routines language/physical     Inventing gestures       ...
Intrapersonal StrategiesConsciousness          Thinking strategies practices              IndependentEmotional process...
Musical / Rhythmic StrategiesEnvironmental         Percussion vibrations sounds                RappingInstrumental sou...
Interpersonal StrategiesCollaborative skills               Intuiting others’ teaching                            feeling...
Verbal / Linguistics StrategiesCreative writing     PoetryFormal speaking      ReadingHumor/jokes          Storytell...
Naturalist StrategiesCaring for       Nature encounters/ plants/animals    field tripsConservation     Natural observa...
How to choose the “best”        method?                           92
What affects your choices?Personal beliefExperienceTeaching stylesClassesStudentsSituations                         ...
Different choicesAbsolutismRelativismPluralismEclecticismPrincipled Eclecticism                                  94
To sum up…There is no perfect method!A method is suitable only for a certain environment.A good method depends on the e...
Teaching very young learners                           96
Teaching very young learnersPhysical and mental differences3 phases:     Listening phase     Developing phase     Mim...
Practical games, activities  and scoring systems                              98
What is a “game”?A game in language teaching is defined as followings:     An organized activity that usually has the   ...
Warm-ups or lead-ins?Warm-ups (warmers):     To raise students’ energy level     Make them feel comfortable     Not al...
Scoring beyond scoresThink beyond pointsUse toys, toy moneyCombine games, gambling with scoringFocus on fun, not on co...
Conclusion             102
What you can do…Improve your overall English ability!Learn everything around English teaching!Reflect upon your own tea...
Thank you for your attention!      Any comments or shares of        thoughts are welcome!         huttm@hotmail.com       ...
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The Making-of a Professional Teacher

  1. 1. The Making ofa Professional Teacher 2007師德全台巡迴講座 Michael Tsai 師德種子講師 知名連鎖品牌美語師資培訓講師 英國劍橋TKT國際認證講師 快速記憶及心智繪圖講師 1
  2. 2. Agenda1. Approach, Method and Technique2. Teaching Methodologies3. How to choose the “best” method?4. Teaching very young learners4. Practical games and activities 2
  3. 3. What is it to bea professional teacher? 3
  4. 4. A professional teacher is… Life-Long Learning PassionateAppreciative Resolved Naïf Open-minded PROFESSIONAL Optimistic TEACHER FlexibleImaginative Energetic Self- Confident Sympathetic 4
  5. 5. Approach, method or technique? 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. METHODOLOGYAPPROACH METHOD TECHNIQUETheories Principles ActivitiesBelief Goals SkillsNature of Syllabus Procedureslanguage and Roleslanguage Materialslearning Plans 7
  8. 8. Teaching Methodologies 8
  9. 9. Before we start…Don’t look at your handouts!How did you learn your first foreign language?How did you learn your mother tongue?Which teaching method or methods do you usually use to teach English?Talk with your partner.Share with us. 9
  10. 10. Now, let’s have a little test…Look at the handouts now.Discuss with your partner which teaching methods fit into the different descriptions. 10
  11. 11. Teaching Methodologies 11
  12. 12. 1. The Grammar-Translation Method 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. General descriptionFocus  Translation  GrammarTraditional way to teach  Latin  Greek19th century  European languagesDevelop  Reading skill  cognitive ability 14
  15. 15. ActivitiesPresentation of grammar rulesStudy of lists of vocabularySynonyms, antonyms, roots, prefixes, suffixesTranslation exerciseReading comprehension 15
  16. 16. 2. Natural Approach 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. General description1970s-1980s, Krashen & TerrellFocus  Spoken language  Oral communication skill  Use of objects and actions in teaching  Natural principles of first language acquisition  Content, not formMeaningful communication4 Hypothesis  Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis  Monitor Hypothesis  Natural Order Hypothesis  Input Hypothesis: i+1  Affective Filter Hypothesis 18
  19. 19. ActivitiesUse pictures, drawings, gesturesTPRCommandsClassroom language 19
  20. 20. 3. The Direct Method 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. General description19th centuryTarget language onlyMeaning “directly” communicated using  Actions  Objects  Mime  Gestures  SituationsL & S before R & WGrammar: inductive learning 22
  23. 23. Example 1Example 4 Grammatical Example 2 Rules Example 3 23
  24. 24. Example 1Example 4 Grammatical Example 2 Rules Example 3 24
  25. 25. ActivitiesReading aloudQ & ASelf-correctionConversationFill-in the blanksDictationListening comprehensionParagraph writing 25
  26. 26. Berlitz1. Never translate: demonstrate2. Never explain: act3. Never make a speech: ask questions4. Never imitate mistakes: correct5. Never speak with single words: use sentences6. Never speak too much: make students speak much7. Never jump around: follow your plan8. Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student9. Never speak too slowly: speak normally10. Never speak too quickly: speak naturally11. Never speak too loudly: speak naturally12. Never be impatient: take it easy 26
  27. 27. 4. The Audio-Lingual Method 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. General description1950s-1960s, USArmy MethodBehaviorismL & S before R & WUse  Dialogues  DrillsDiscourage the use of mother tongue 29
  30. 30. Behaviorism + REPEATED REINFORCEMENT BEHAVIORSTIMULUS REPONSE NO / - NO REPEATED REINFORCEMENT BEHAVIOR 30
  31. 31. ActivitiesRepetitionInflection: he she; singular pluralReplacement: “Helen is a girl.” “SHE is a girl.”Restatement: indirect speech direct speechCompletion: “I want a hot dog and you want…”Transposition: “I’m hungry. (SO…)”Expansion: “I enjoy it. (…very much)”Contraction: “I play at school.” “I play THERE.”Transformation: I am… I am not… Am I…Integration: “I am glad.” + “You are here.”Rejoinder: Introduce yourself in a polite way…Restoration: students/ waiting/ bus 31
  32. 32. 5. The Silent Way 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. General description1970s, US, Galeb GattegnoUse  Gesture, Mime, Visual aids, Wall chart, Cuisenaire rodsVocabulary is the keyForce learners’  self-awareness, self-reliance, self-responsibilityTeaching should be subordinated to learning.The teacher works with the students, the student works on the language.The teacher is not a language teacher, but a teacher of language learners. 34
  35. 35. Rectangle Chart 35
  36. 36. English Fidel 36
  37. 37. Word Chart 37
  38. 38. Cuisenaire Rods 38
  39. 39. Activities1. Pronunciation (stress, intonation)  Word  Phrase  Sentence2. Structure  Vocabulary  Sentence pattern 39
  40. 40. 6. Desuggestopedia 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. General description1970s, Bulgaria, Georgi LozanovRich sensory learning environment  Picture, color, songs, music, posterPositive expectation of successUse a varied range of methods  Dramatized texts  Music  Active participation in songs and games, etc. 42
  43. 43. Activities1. Presentation  Relax  Positive frame of mind  Learning is going to be easy and fun.2. First Concert - "Active Concert“  Active presentation  Accompanied by classical music.3. Second Concert - "Passive Review“  Relax and listen to some Baroque music  Text read very quietly in the background4. Practice  Games, puzzles, etc.  Review and consolidate 43
  44. 44. 7. Community Language Learning 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. General description1960s, US, Charles Group learning Curran  Mutual trust, help,Whole persons cooperation  “Language is people.” Counseling learning  “Language is persons  Teacher: Counselor in contract.” Non-defensive  “Language is persons learning in response.”  Security  “Learning is persons.”  AggressionHighly learner  Attention centered  Reflection  Retention  Discrimination 46
  47. 47. ActivitiesTranslation  L decides what T teaches; T translatesGroup work  Group prepares materials, e.g. a talk, a topic, a storyRecording  Piece by piece, in target languageCopying  Write down the scriptsReflection & Observation  Share feeling with others, with group, or with classListening  Listen to teacher’s or learner’s own recordingFree Talk  With others or teacher, about content or experience 47
  48. 48. 8. Total Physical Response 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. Let’s have a French lesson now!Assis!Debout!Venez ici!Allez la-bas!Dormez!Levez! 50
  51. 51. General description1960s, US, James AsherKey concepts  COMPREHESNION  ACTIONS  RESPONSESIt’s all in the way we learn.“Do not attempt to force speaking from students.”Comprehension before expression.Focus on the content, not on the form.Verb is the king!  Imperative! 51
  52. 52. How does a baby learn to utter the first word and then speak?Language-body conversationBabies don’t learn by memorization.Words without actions in the primary stage  Meaningless!  No matter how many times they are repeated!  Try with your dog! 52
  53. 53. Procedure1. T says & acts; C observes2. T says & acts; C acts3. T says; C acts4. T says; C says & acts5. 1 L says & acts; both C & T act6. 1 L says & acts; C acts7. 1 L says; both C & T say & act8. 1 L says; C says & acts 53
  54. 54. 9. Communicative Approach 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. General description1980sLinguistic + Communicative competence  Knowledge of language  Knowledge of rules of speaking  Knowledge of different types of speech acts  Knowledge of how to use the language appropriately in different kinds of social contextsAuthentic language, materialsSpecific vocabulary and expressionsFunctions  Requesting, describing, expressing likes & dislikesUse language to perform different kinds of tasks 56
  57. 57. ActivitiesJohnson and Morrow 1981Real communicative activities:  Information gap  Choice  FeedbackSame forms Different functions  “How are you?”Same functions Different forms  Introduce yourselfRole playInterviewsSurveysPair work 57
  58. 58. 10. Content-based Approach 58
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. General descriptionLanguage across the curriculumLanguage immersionTarget language is a medium to learn other content areasLanguage immersion  Immerge language teaching with authentic contents, communication and other school subjectsDevelop communicative skillSatisfy learners’ needs  Choose their own materials, topics, activitiesEncourage independent learning! 60
  61. 61. Activities Listening Language Social Math Studies TopicWriting Theme Speaking Health Edu Art P.E. Science Technology Reading 61
  62. 62. 11. Task-based Approach 62
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. General descriptionLesson based around the completion of a central taskLanguage determined by what happened during the completion of the task 64
  65. 65. ProcedurePre-task Task Circle Post-task•Defining the •Task •Reportingtask •Pair or group •Feedback•Preparing for work •Analyzingthe task •Planning for the •Practicing report •Oral •Written 65
  66. 66. ActivitiesInformation gap  Exchange info  No continuous negotiatingOpinion gap  A given topic  Out of controlReasoning gap  New info concluded from given info  The bestProject workProblem solving 66
  67. 67. 12. Cooperative Learning 67
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. General description 69
  70. 70. Procedure1. Planning2. Grouping3. Explanation4. Assigning roles5. Completing tasks6. Observation7. Presentation8. Evaluation 70
  71. 71. ActivitiesPeer tutoringJigsawCo-operative projectsGroup investigation 71
  72. 72. 13. Multiple Intelligences 72
  73. 73. Yea me too.I just love to talk88 73
  74. 74. General description1983, US, Howard GardnerThere is more than one psychological site of intelligence in the human brain.  7 basic intelligences  8th: Naturalist intelligence  9th: Existentialist/ Spiritualist intelligenceThe weak intelligences can be improved by working on strong ones!!Use the children’s natural learning strengths to enhance their weak ones. 74
  75. 75. The Intelligence Pizza 75
  76. 76. The 8 intelligences Scientific thinking Inductive/deductive reasoning Pattern recognition 76
  77. 77. The 8 intelligences Sense of sight learning Internal image construction 77
  78. 78. The 8 intelligences Physical movement Brain’s motor cortex 78
  79. 79. The 8 intelligences Person-to-person relationships Communication 79
  80. 80. The 8 intelligencesRecognition of tonalpatternsSensitivity to rhythmand beats 80
  81. 81. The 8 intelligencesInner states ofbeingSelf-reflection 81
  82. 82. The 8 intelligencesWordsLanguage 82
  83. 83. The 8 intelligencesRecognition,Appreciation, andUnderstanding of theflora and fauna of thenature 83
  84. 84. Logical / MathematicalAbstract Symbols/ Logical/Pattern Formulas GamesCalculation Number Sequences/Deciphering Codes PatternsForcing Relationships OutliningGraphic/Cognitive Problem Solving Organizers 84
  85. 85. Visual / Spatial StrategiesActive imagination Mind mappingColor/texture Montage/collage schemes PaintingDrawing Patterns/designsGuided Pretending/Fantasy imagery/visualizing Sculpting 85
  86. 86. Bodily / Kinesthetic StrategiesBody Gymnastic routines language/physical Inventing gestures Physical exerciseBody Role playing/mime sculpture/tableaus Sports gamesDramatic enactmentFolk/creative dance 86
  87. 87. Intrapersonal StrategiesConsciousness Thinking strategies practices IndependentEmotional processing studies/projectsFocusing/ Mindfulness practices concentration skills Silent reflectionHigher-order reasoning 87
  88. 88. Musical / Rhythmic StrategiesEnvironmental Percussion vibrations sounds RappingInstrumental sounds Rhythmic patternsMusic composition/ Singing/humming creation Tonal patternsMusic performance Vocal sounds/tones 88
  89. 89. Interpersonal StrategiesCollaborative skills Intuiting others’ teaching feelingsCooperative learning Sensing others’ strategies motivesEmpathy practices JigsawGiving feedback Person-to-person Yea me too.Group projects I just love to talk communication Receiving feedback 89
  90. 90. Verbal / Linguistics StrategiesCreative writing PoetryFormal speaking ReadingHumor/jokes StorytellingImpromptu speaking Story creationJournal/diary Verbal debate keeping Vocabulary 90
  91. 91. Naturalist StrategiesCaring for Nature encounters/ plants/animals field tripsConservation Natural observation practices Natural world simulationsEnvironmental feedback Species classification  (Organic/inorganic)Hands-on labs 91
  92. 92. How to choose the “best” method? 92
  93. 93. What affects your choices?Personal beliefExperienceTeaching stylesClassesStudentsSituations 93
  94. 94. Different choicesAbsolutismRelativismPluralismEclecticismPrincipled Eclecticism 94
  95. 95. To sum up…There is no perfect method!A method is suitable only for a certain environment.A good method depends on the efforts furnished by the teacher him-/herself.All methods are results of wisdom and experiences of many people.Consider about your students’ needs!“Adapt; don’t adopt!”~ Clifford Drator 95
  96. 96. Teaching very young learners 96
  97. 97. Teaching very young learnersPhysical and mental differences3 phases:  Listening phase  Developing phase  Miming phaseClassroom managementWords are not enoughPlay with the languageVariety in the classroomEstablishing routines and learning habitsCooperation not competition 97
  98. 98. Practical games, activities and scoring systems 98
  99. 99. What is a “game”?A game in language teaching is defined as followings:  An organized activity that usually has the following properties:  a particular task or objective  a set of rules  competitions between players  communication between players by spoken or written language 99
  100. 100. Warm-ups or lead-ins?Warm-ups (warmers):  To raise students’ energy level  Make them feel comfortable  Not always connected to the topicLead-ins:  Focus on the topic or the new language  Motivate students  Make a link between the topic and students’ own lives 100
  101. 101. Scoring beyond scoresThink beyond pointsUse toys, toy moneyCombine games, gambling with scoringFocus on fun, not on competitionBe fair! 101
  102. 102. Conclusion 102
  103. 103. What you can do…Improve your overall English ability!Learn everything around English teaching!Reflect upon your own teaching often!Think about the ultimate destination you want to take your students to in the end!Be open-minded!Be a life-long learner yourself! 103
  104. 104. Thank you for your attention! Any comments or shares of thoughts are welcome! huttm@hotmail.com 104

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