Constitution of the Society for Space Law and the Law of the SeaArticle I – Name 1) The name of this organization shall be Society for Space Law and Law of the Sea.Article II – Purpose 1) The Society for Space Law and the Law of the Sea (“SSLLS”) strives to provide opportunities for personal and professional enrichment to its members and the University of Michigan Law student body by deepening their understanding of legal and policy framework governing use of space and the sea. 2) This organization will focus on exploring professional opportunities for those who hold career interests in space law or law of the sea as well as on drawing speakers to campus who can discuss various aspects of both areas of law.Article III – Jurisdiction 1) This organization shall be governed by all applicable rules set down by the University of Michigan Law School and the University of Michigan Law School Senate and the University of Michigan Student Senate.Article IV – Membership 1) Eligibility – Any law student currently enrolled in good standing at the University of Michigan Law School is eligible for membership in the SSLLS. a. The SSLLS does not discriminate on any basis, including but not limited to race, sex, national origin, color, age, appearance, religious belief or lack thereof, sexual identity, disability or veteran status. 2) Requirements – All eligible individuals wishing to join the SSLLS are subject to a series of requirements: a. Dues – All members are required to pay dues, the exact sum of which shall be determined by the Board before each academic year. Members are required to pay the Treasurer, in full, before they may officially qualify as a member of the organization and to take advantage of any opportunities the Board determines available exclusively to official members. b. Responsibilities – Board members are required to execute their duties in good faith and participate in a positive manner. All members are encouraged to attend meetings, speaking events, or any events that the organization may host. c. ‘Good Standing’ – A member of the SSLLS is considered in good standing by meeting all requirements outlined above.
3) Rights – All members of the SSLLS in good standing are imbued with certain rights: a. Voting Rights – In all scenarios where voting is approved by the Board or required by this instrument, all members in good standing shall be permitted to vote. b. Open Government – All members in good standing are entitled to the benefits provided by transparent government and leadership. To that end: i. Any member may at any time request to view the financial records of the SSLLS. ii. Any member may at any time request to review the minutes of any session where minutes are taken. iii. Any member may at any time request an official meeting with the Board to request aid, information or redress of grievances. This meeting shall be held at the closest time of convenience to all members. 1. In the case of a meeting called to achieve a redress of grievances, the meeting shall be closed to all except the Board and the parties involved. 4) End of Membership – A member may cease to be a member of this organization. If the member graduates from the University of Michigan Law School, transfers, is expelled or is placed on academic leave, they shall also cease to be a member of the Society for Space Law and Law of the Sea. Furthermore, a member may voluntarily resign their membership by informing the Board of that wish. 5) Study Abroad – A member on a study abroad assignment may remain a member and retain all other rights. 6) Removal of Members – Any member may be removed by the unanimous decision of the Board. a. The member whose removal is under review has the right to be notified that this measure is being considered before the vote is taken. Furthermore, that member has the right to a hearing before the Board before the vote is taken, to present their case for remaining within the SSLLS.Article V – Leadership Board 1) Purpose - The Board shall function as the leadership of this organization. 2) Composition – The Board shall be made up of at least three members, elected annually. a. Duties – It shall be the duty of the Board to designate and oversee meetings of the organization, to plan and execute events in the organization’s name, to manage the organization’s finances, to open and maintain relations with the University of Michigan Law School, to represent the organization, and to ensure the proper execution of all elements of this Constitution.
b. Positions – The Board shall be made up of at least three positions— although one member may serve more than one position provided the President and the Vice President are different individuals—serving different needs of the organization. i. Appointment - all organization members in good standing who choose to participate in the voting procedure shall designate each ii. President –One member shall be designated as the President of the organization. It shall be the duty of the President to open and maintain relations with the Law School and otherwise lead the SSLLS in all its pursuits and general activities. Further, it shall be the responsibility of the President to provide official signatures. iii. Vice President — One member shall be designated as the Vice President. The Vice President will be charged with the duty of overseeing functionality of other decisions and proving leadership and direction to the club in general. iv. Secretary — One Board member shall be designated as the Secretary of the organization. It shall be the responsibility of the Secretary to maintain a historical record of the organization, oversee website activities and to take minutes and notes where necessary. v. Treasurer – One Board member shall be designated as the Treasurer of the organization. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to handle all financial and fundraising activities for the Society of Space Law and Law of the Sea. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to open and maintain the organizational bank account and to maintain regular reports on the status of organizational finances. Further, it shall be the duty of the Treasurer to collect dues from the membership in a timely manner. vi. Operations Chair—It shall be the duty of the Operations Chair to take charge of logistical concerns for whatever the organization may need including but not limited to: travel arrangements, room reservations, oversight of a particular committee, or any technical concerns that present themselves in the course of business.Article VI – Ratification 1) The document shall be ratified by a ¾ vote at the first board meeting of the SSLLS. 2) Ratification of the Constitution – This document shall take effect immediately upon ratification by the LSSS.
BylawsElections – The Board shall be elected by the general body of the Society for SpaceLaw and Law of the Sea. a. Quorum – These elections require quorum to be met. i. Definition - In all scenarios where quorum is required, it shall be defined as three-quarters (3/4) of the current membership. If this calculation does not result in a whole number, the number shall be rounded down. ii. For members to be counted towards quorum, they must be physically present at the vote unless the Board institutes an absentee voting option. iii. Members not capable of being present may vote by absentee ballot only when voting on new board members, in a manner and form to be determined by the outgoing Board. b. Date and Time – These elections shall be held annually before the end of the academic year at a date and time convenient to the membership. It shall be the responsibility of the outgoing Board to establish and announce this date and time. c. Candidates – All members of the Society for Space Law and Law of the Sea in good standing are eligible to run for election to the Board. Candidates are required to announce their candidacy to the Board and General Body one (1) week in advance of the date of the election. d. Manner and Method – These elections shall be held by approval voting, and accomplished by secret ballot. i. Campaigning – The Candidates shall each be allowed a brief speech before the vote is taken to detail their qualifications and stances. e. Run-off Procedure – In the event of a tie, a second round of voting in the same manner shall take place between the two deadlocked candidates. In the case of a run-off, members may vote during a specified period of time either in person or via email to the President. f. Recount Procedure – A candidate may dispute the results of an election if they believe they have a good-faith basis on which to do so. In this case, a group consisting of the outgoing Board and the individual disputing the election results shall recount the ballots. They are not permitted to reveal the exact vote totals beyond returning the results of the recount. 3) Vote of No Confidence – Upon the petition of a member of the organization in good standing, a vote may be held for the removal of a member of the Board from that position. a. Quorum – For a Vote of No Confidence, quorum is required as defined above.
b. Manner and Method – A vote of three-fourths (3/4) of the membership in the affirmative is required to effect a Vote of No Confidence. If this calculation does not result in a whole number, the number shall be rounded down. The vote shall be accomplished by secret ballot. i. Vote Counting – In a Vote of No Confidence the ballots shall be removed from the room and counted by all Board members not in question, in the presence of the petitioning member. All parties to this counting are forbidden from revealing the vote totals, beyond returning a simple ‘yea’ or ‘nay’ on the motion. c. Effect – If the Vote of No Confidence passes the Board Member in question is removed immediately from that position. They are not removed from the organization as a whole. 4) Vacancy Provisions – In the situation that a member of the Board is removed, resigns or becomes unable to fulfill their responsibilities, it is the duty of the remaining SSLLS to hold an Election as soon as possible, pursuant to election procedure above.Appointed Officers 1) General Delegation of Duties – The Board may further delegate duties, and may create specialized temporary Appointed Officer positions if necessary.Amendment and General Voting Procedure 1) Amendment to the Constitution – Any member in good standing may present the Board with a proposed amendment to the Constitution. If a quorum as defined above approves a proposed amendment, it will be placed on the agenda, discussed, and voted upon according to normal voting procedure. a. A board member may place an amendment on the agenda at any time provided it is seconded by another member of the organization, including the Board.