Education is managed by the government Ministry of Education and the provincial governments Federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, certification and some financing of research.
Education is Divided into five levels: • Primary (grades one through five) • Middle (grades six through eight) • High (grades nine and ten) • Intermediate (grades eleven and twelve) • University programs (Peter, 1994).
Heavily influenced by the religion of Islam 98% of populations in Pakistan is Muslim therefore, its culture is heavily influenced by Islam (a religion which emphasizes education) Since Islamic tradition values knowledge and respects those who possess knowledge, teachers are highly respected by their students and are held in high esteem by parents and honoured by the society (depending on the geographical location). For example, when a teacher enters the classroom even at the college and university level, students stand up to show respect and do not sit down until they are told to do so. Social recognition
According to 2010 UNESCO figures • Primary school enrolment for girls stands at 60 % as compared to 84 % for boys. • Secondary school enrolment rate stands at a lower rate of 32 % for girls and 46 % for boys. Regular school attendance for girls is 41 % while that for boys is 50 per cent • There are 72,915 male teachers and only 43,653 female teachers
Gender Role - the degree to which a person adopts the gender-specific behaviors ascribed by his or her culture. Gender refers to the cultural expectations attached to feminine and masculine roles. Gender Stereotypes: the psychological or behavioral characteristics typically associated with men and women. They are judgments about what males and females ought to be like or ought to do. Gender Stratification: A division in society where all members are hierarchically ranked according to gender. Gender roles are reinforced by biological, social, cultural and religious factors
Literacy is a process of reading, writing, thinking, and articulating meanings from within a socio- cultural context (Latif, 2009). Pakistan‟s Ministry of Education defines a literate person as one who can read a newspaper and write a simple letter Literacy in Pakistan is demonstrated by fluency in Urdu and English
“TheState shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period” (Government of Sindh).
1. Poverty2. Illiteracy of parents3. Social norms and taboos4. Non-availability of adequate education facilities.5. The ability to recite and read the Quran in the Arabic language is not considered literacy6. Government ignores the forms of literacy practices that take place at home
Over-crowded classrooms andlack of trained teaching staff. Eg. in Sindh, the average high school class size: 80-100 students per class. Teachers cannot pay attention to all of the students. Teachers act as active partners and students as passive partners. Students are not allowed to ask questions, unless they are „bright questions‟.
Teachers are poorly paid and over-worked. Teachers‟ work is not recognized, so they are not motivated to improve their skills and knowledge. Teachers have a lack of knowledge of science and technology. Government‟s education curriculum emphasizes non-scientific fields
The ideology of Pakistan lays down two important obligations for the Government. Firstly Education will become accessible to all citizens. Secondly it will enable students to become enlightened and civilized individuals committed to the cause of Islam. These obligations are in accordance with the teaching of the Quran, which recognizes provision of education as a right of the individual (Government of Sindh).
The quality of education in the state-owned institutions has deteriorated considerably. Standards are only slightly better in the countrys private sector schools, but these are too expensive for most people. Poorer parents have tended to send their children to religious seminaries (madrassas) which offer free food and boarding to their students.
Family organization is strongly patriarchal and hierarchical Most people live with large extended families in the same house The patriarchal structure of Pakistani society designates a man principal role of „provider‟ to family‟s economic needs and as „protector‟ of the family People are respected because of their age and position. The eldest male, whether he is the father, grandfather, or paternal uncle, is the family leader and makes all significant decisions regarding the family and its members Traditionally, a woman‟s place in society has been secondary to that of men, and she has been restricted to the performance of domestic chores and to fulfilling the role of a dutiful wife and mother
In rural area, parents like to put their children to work at early age and do not like to educate them, especially for girls. The academic carrier is mostly decided by the parents: the parents usually prefer certain educational fields for girls, but girls cannot decide what they are going to become. Girls are not allowed to go to co- educational institutes.
Some parents have a misconception where they think education means freedom for girls which may make girls promiscuous. Some parents are not educated enough to realize the responsibilities of children to school work, so they require girls to do all household chores as they come home.
Many traditional families do not like that their female children to go to school, they prefer female teachers to go to their houses to educate their female children.. Socio-religious institutions (Maderessa) have their distinct forms of education.
Girls vs. Brothers: Brothers were mobile in the public sphere. Many girls spent their time afterschool performing care giving roles at home and contribute to domestic income. Mobility beyond the home was seen as prohibited by the parents of girls. Girls indicated a gender divide in families in relation to available resources: the male members of the family (including siblings) get preference in terms of the best food, clothing and education (Page 224). Parents like their daughters to demonstrate utmost obedience. Girls from rural schools reported their parents approval for their conforming of the traditional dress code and fulfillment of religious rituals as part of their daily routines. While girls took pride in their ability of performing multiple tasks, they also showed their dislike for household chores such as cooking, washing dishes and laundry, which they reported interfered with their studies (Page 224).
Usually parents living in poverty lack educational opportunities. If they can afford to send their children to school, they would give first priority to their male children. Female education is discouraged to a great extent as compared to that for males by cultural and religious dictates. Eg. The Pakistan law introduced in mid 1980s considers two women equal to one man.
When resources are limited, decisions are based on what the investment will bring to the family. Do parents have an incentive to invest more in boys‟ education? In many Pakistani families it is the role of sons to take care of the parents when they are old. Parents believe that better economic position of their sons brings better old age living for them. If this is so, both parents may prefer to ensure that their sons have higher human capital as compared to their daughters whose human capital returns may soon be shifted to another family through marriage. Girls will marry out of the family and devote their future time and earnings to their husbands family.
The question of whether parents give boys preference over girls in schooling in Pakistan, changes depending on the ethnic groups or provinces within Pakistan Myth or Fact: The belief that parents living in a traditional Muslim society will prefer to educate boys rather than girls Misconceived notions of culture and misinterpretation of religion: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mR3w-2VXhI&feature=related (0:47- 1:19) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F5bq48eD0PY (0.00- 2:55 ..... 4:04-4:30)
There are many factors besides cultural and religious reasons for low female enrollment rates in schools. Consider gender not being a factor when quality and affordable education is provided to boys and girls..what other factors are there contribute to gender disparities in schools? Issues of equity, access and quality; Practically this refers to family attitudes allowing girls to study equally with boys, having schools close enough to homes or safe enough for the girls to walk to, schools having a reasonably decent infrastructure (boundary wall, basic toilet and drinking water facilities and electricity),and enough well trained female teachers Unsafe standard of government funded schools: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IV5S2iGHz68&feature=related(1:09-1:50 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7nFq_Dmx5Ts&feature=related (0.00- 1:05)
Limited parental resources Parents Income/Socio-economic status (i.e. Cannot afford costly textbooks, etc.) Poverty Parents level of education Helping the family with household labour and domestic chores http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DCMLfxYkL04&feature=related(time: 2:44- 3:05) Size of family/number of siblings Particularly important in Pakistan are cultural mores that enforce the protection of young women from exposure to the opposite sex Distance away from the schools
If a girl does not have a male family member who can accompany her to school, she may not be permitted to go to school Shortage of female teachers (According to cultural norms, girls should be taught by female teachers, so when there are insufficient female teachers, many parents do not enrol their girls in school.) Conflict/safety concerns of the school (e.g. Taliban, armed conflict) The destruction of girls’ schools by the Taliban:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZGXzr6psB4
Teachers‟ disciplinary measures further explained the gendered nature of teachers‟ interaction with their students Teachers reported that they might beat boys when they misbehaved in class; however, they could only reprimand girls, but not punish them physically. “We cannot touch (physically punish) girls as they are mature and grown up”…. (Page 229) According to the teachers, the sight of boys being beaten was warning enough for the girls to make them realize that they could also be penalized for not listening to the teacher
Do you believe that it is the cultural norms that prevent many girls from going to school in Pakistan, or do you believe that the notion that boys are given preference over girls in education is not true?
What is the role of today‟s Pakistan women? How does this changing role contribute to the changing of education in Pakistan? Do you think that school system can facilitate social progress in Pakistan or socio-cultural norms dictate education system to prevent positive changing in education system? Why or why not?
Classroom teaching in Pakistan is usually teacher directed with teachers using lecture or a read-explain question format to transmit textbook knowledge and regularly testing students to ensure memorization of this knowledge. Teaching in Pakistan is based on rote learning. (288 of article, 143 of course kit) Discussion Question Do you think that rote learning is the most efficient way of teaching? Why or why not?
In 2010, Rana Hussain and Sajid Ali from the University of Pakistan indicated that there is a low availability of teachers as well as the quality of teachers is questions in Pakistan. They recognize that in order to be appointed at the public level, a teacher must have completed a PTC (Primary Teaching Certificate) or a CT (Certificate of Teaching). Pakistan needs to improve teacher‟s pedagogical skills in such a way that both men and women are trained with the highest abilities. This can significantly be done by licensing and certifying teachers to improve the standard of education in Pakistan.
Respect the society Salary is not enough to lead a decent life and support a healthy family Frequent transfers between Transportation Training and education qualification Over crowded classrooms
Implemented to increase access to quality education throughout Pakistan, with an emphasis on the Sindh province (a five year $100 million bilateral agreement) Provided school teachers to develop mentoring capacities in 2004-2006. Through this program they learned about developing new and innovative teaching methods, issues of classroom management, curriculum designs and practices as well as learning to teach math, language, social studies and science. Workshops helped them build their knowledge, pedagogy and use of learning aids which made lessons more attractive and enjoyable for the students.
Pakistan spends 2.6% of its GNP on education (2006) 50% of the adult population (15 and older) could read and write. The world bank suggests that it needs to think carefully about how to engage the government about sensitive topics related to curriculum reform and textbook provision in an attempt to move beyond rote learning.
McClure argues that the western media needs to act with cultural sensitivity and direct its attention to promoting overall reforms of Pakistan‟s education system He suggests that the western media needs to build bridges of understanding so to communicate its aims and values and listen to the aspirations and sensitivities of the Pakistan citizens.
No quick fix for gender gap in education Read the article Is there anything you found that was interesting? Is there anything that can link to the situation in Pakistan? How do you think we can improve this situation?
Education of girls and women is the best investment that a country can make in the future. Improving training, planning, and management and promotion of innovations. Education system should change in according to demand of the society. The curriculum should change according to scientific needs of society(doing research, analyzing problems, and acquiring appropriate solutions). Encouraging privatization of education. Reducing the numbers of students in class.
Change the existing customs and social pressures. Use Education as an instrument for bringing social change. Strengthen the institutional structure and refining their roles. Improve status of women. Initiate job oriented educational programs. Improve the working conditions for women. Use mass and media to improve the status of women.
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