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  1. 1. Physical educationproject2012- 2013Delhi public school,Navi MumbaiPROJECT COORDINATOR- MR.YASHWANT MOKASHI
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express my specialthanks of gratitude to my teacheryashwant sir as well as our principalwho gave me the golden opportunity todo this wonderful project. Which alsohelped me in doing a lot of Researchand I came to know about so many newthingsI am really thankful to them.Secondly I would also like to thank myparents and friends who helped me alot in finishing this project withinthe limited time.
  3. 3. HISTORY AND ORIGINJames Naismith was the Canadian physicaleducation instructor who inventedbasketball in 1891. James Naismith wasborn in Almont, Ontario and educated atMcGill University and Presbyterian Collegein Montreal.In contrast to other sports, basketball hasa clear origin. It is not the evolutionfrom an ancient game or another sport andthe inventor is well known: Dr. JamesNaismith. In 1891, while working as aphysical education teacher at the YMCAInternational Training School (today,Springfield College) in the United States,Naismith was faced with the problem offinding in 14 days an indoor game toprovide "athletic distraction" for thestudents at the School for ChristianWorkers (Naismith was also a Presbyterianminister).After discardingthe idea ofadapting outdoorgames like soccerand lacrosse,
  4. 4. Naismith recalled the concept of a game ofhis school days known as duck-on-a-rockthat involved accuracy attempting to knocka "duck" off the top of a large rock bytossing another rock at it.Of course it was not exactly as we know ittoday. The first game was played with asoccer ball and two peach baskets nailed10-feet high used as goals, on a court justhalf the size of a present-day court. Thebaskets retained their bottoms so ballsscored into the basket had to be poked outwith a long dowel each time and dribbling(bouncing of the ball up and down whilemoving) was not part of the original game.The sport was an instant success and thanksto the initial impulse received by the YMCAmovement, basketballs popularity quicklygrew nationwide and was introduced in manynations. He had the honor to witnessbasketball become an Olympic sport atthe 1936 Games held in Berlin.
  5. 5. The firstbasketball team. ORIGINAL 13 RULES OF BASKETBALL 1. The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. 2. The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist. 3. A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man running at good speed.
  6. 6. 4. The ball must be held in or between the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it.5. No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game. No substitution shall be allowed.6. A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violations of Rules 3 and 4 and such as described in Rule 5.7. If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul).8. Goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the ground into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edge and the opponents move the basket, it shall count as a goal.9. When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. In case of dispute the umpire shall
  7. 7. throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them.10. The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have the power to disqualify men according to Rule 5.11. The referee shall be the judge of the ball and decide when it is in play in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee.12. The time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes rest between.13. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners. DIMENSIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
  8. 8. Dimensions of the court
  9. 9. Distance ofthe pole from the court.Dimensions of the board
  10. 10. FUNDAMENTAL SKILLSThe sport of basketball requires five basicskills. While some players might be moreexperienced with some skills than others,it is best to have at least some ability inall five areas. Basketball is a fast-pacedgame that requires the knowledge andinstinct to perform quickly and properly.Be sure to practice all five skills.DribblingDribbling is an important skill for allbasketball players. This skill will allowyou to move up and down the court, maneuverpast defenders and execute plays. Properdribbling requires ball-handling skills andknowledge of how to spread your fingers forball control. Different types of dribblesare:- High Dribble Low Dribble Speed Dribble Change-Of-Pace Dribble Crossover Switch.
  11. 11. ShootingIn order to score points in basketball, youneed to shoot the ball into the hoop. Thisrequires the ability to properly hold andthrow the ball into the air toward thebasket while avoiding defenders. A propershot requires precise aiming, arm extensionand lift from the legs. Different types ofshots are :- Jump Shot Layup Hook Shot Dunk Free ThrowRunningRunning is a big part of basketball. In afull-court game, you will find yourselfrunning back and forth as the game quicklytransitions between offense and defense.When you have the ball, running will helpyou to avoid defenders and get to thebasket quicker. On defense, you often willfind yourself needing to run after theopponent, especially during fast breaks.Passing
  12. 12. Passing is another skill that when masteredcan help you become a complete basketballplayer. Basketball is a team sport thatinvolves finding a teammate who is open fora shot. The ability to pass the ball tothis player can make the difference betweenscoring and not scoring. Types of passes :- Chest passes 2. Bounce Pass 3. Overhead Pass 4. Outlet Pass 5. No-Look Pass 6. behind the Back PassJumpingJumping is another skill that can definehow good a basketball player is. Jumping isinvolved in offense during the jump ball inthe beginning, while taking shots andsometimes while trying to catch a pass. Ondefensive you will need the ability to jumpwhen trying to block a shot or a pass.Being able to out jump your opponent for arebound also is important.
  13. 13. RULES AND REGULATIONSMeasurements and time limits discussed inthis section often vary among tournamentsand organizations; international and NBArules are used in this section.The object of the game is to outscore onesopponents by throwing the ball through theopponents basket from above whilepreventing the opponents from doing so ontheir own. An attempt to score in this wayis called a shot. A successful shot isworth two points, or three points if it istaken from beyond the three-point arc whichis 6.25 meters (20 ft 6 in) from the basketin international games and 23 feet 9 inches(7.24 m) in NBA gamesPlaying regulationsGames are played in four quarters of10 College games use two 20-minutehalves, while United States high schoolvarsity games use 8 minute quarters. 15minutes are allowed for a half-time breakunder FIBA, NBA, and NCAA rulesand 10minutes in United States high schools.Overtime periods are five minutes in
  14. 14. length except for high school which is fourminutes in length. Teams exchange basketsfor the second half. The time allowed isactual playing time; the clock is stoppedwhile the play is not active. Five playersfrom each team may be on the court at onetime. Substitutions are unlimited but canonly be done when play is stopped. Teamsalso have a coach, who oversees thedevelopment and strategies of the team, andother team personnel such as assistantcoaches, managers, statisticians, doctorsand trainers.For both mens and womens teams, astandard uniform consists of a pair ofshorts and a jersey with a clearly visiblenumber, unique within the team, printed onboth the front and back. Players wear high-top sneakers that provide extra anklesupport. Typically, team names, playersnames and, outside of North America,sponsors are printed on the uniforms.A limited number of time-outs, clockstoppages requested by a coach areallowed.They generally last no longer thanone minute unless, for televised games, acommercial break is needed.The game is controlled bythe officials consisting of the referee(referred to as crew chief in the NBA), one
  15. 15. or two umpires (referred to as referees inthe NBA) and the table officials. Forcollege, the NBA, and many high schools,there are a total of three referees on thecourt. The table officials are responsiblefor keeping track of each teams scoring,timekeeping, individual and team fouls,player substitutions, team possessionarrow, and the shot clock. COMMON SPORTS INJURIESBasketball is one of the most popularsports in the United States and throughoutthe world. Basketball injuries can beseparated into two general categories:overuse injuries and traumatic injuries.Overuse injuriesInjuries caused by stressing anarea over and over until it isdamaged and begins to hurt aredescribed as overuse injuries.One such injury is patellar
  16. 16. tendinitis, or "jumpers knee," which ischaracterized by pain in the tendon justbelow the kneecap.Achilles tendinitis is another commonoveruse injury in basketball players. Thisinjury of the tendon connecting the musclesin the back of the calf to the heel bonecauses pain in the back of the leg justabove the heel.Traumatic injuriesTraumatic injuries are those caused by asudden forceful injury. Some of the morecommon traumatic injuries in basketball arejammed fingers. The severity of a jammedfinger can range from a minor injury of theligaments, which connect bones, to a brokenfinger. Splinting may be needed to allowthe injured finger to heal.Another type of traumatic injury is a muscle pull or tear. Ankle sprains The most common basketball injury is the ankle sprain. This injury often occurs when a player lands on another players foot or the ankle rolls too far outward. When this happens, the ligaments connecting bones
  17. 17. and supporting the ankle are stretched andtornKnee injuriesKnee injuries are some of the most seriousbasketball injuries. One type of kneeinjury is a sprain. A knee sprain is asmall tear in the ligaments or jointcapsule that is not severe enough to causeyour knee to give way. To help the tear heal, you must protect your knee for a short time by immobilizing it. If you twist your knee, you can tear a meniscus, which is tissue that acts as a cushion between the bones of the upper and lower leg at the knee. The surgeoninserts a camera and instruments into theknee joint through small skin incisions. ARJUNA AWARDThe Arjuna Awards were instituted in 1961by the government of India to recognizeoutstanding achievement in National sports.The award carries a cash prize of 500,000, a bronze statuette of Arjuna anda scroll.
  18. 18. Over the years the scope of the award hasbeen expanded and a large number ofsportspersons who belonged to the pre-Arjun Award era were also included in thelist. Further, the number of disciplinesfor which the award is given was increasedto include indigenous games and thephysically handicapped category.
  19. 19. ARJUNA AWARD WINNERS FOR BASKETBALL Khushi ramKhushi Ram is a former basketball playerfrom India who represented India at manyinternational competitions. He wasawarded Arjuna award in 1967. He was bornin Rajasthan state in 1936.Khushi ram has areputation of being amongst the bestplayers of Asia .He was the first captainof Indian Basketball team. After retiringin 1976, he took over as coach of shri ramrayons team in Kota. Surendra Kumar KatariaSurendra Kumar Kataria is aformer basketball player from India whorepresented India at many internationalcompetitions. He was awarded Arjunaaward in 1973. He was borninRajasthan state and represented IndianRailways in national tournaments. It shouldalso be mentioned here that he was a sharp-shooter in the true sense of the word, and
  20. 20. Indian basketball has not seen such ashooter in all its history. Hanuman SinghHanuman Singh is a noted former basketballplayer from India. He played for Indiain Asian Games, Commonwealth Games andat 1980 Olympics.[1] He was awarded ArjunaAward in 1975. Born in 1950 in Nagaurdistrict of Rajasthan state.He sudiedat Military School,Ajmer . Herepresented Indian railways in nationaltournaments .He is now employed with SAIL. Radhey Shyam BijarniaRadhey Shyam Bijarnia wasan Indian basketball player whorepresented India at the 1980 SummerOlympics and the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi.He was a recipient of the Arjuna Award forhis achievements. He died in 2005 at theage of 54 at his native village SriMadhopur in Rajasthan.