Physical DevelopmentThrough the Curriculum

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Physical DevelopmentThrough the Curriculum

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Physical DevelopmentThrough the Curriculum

  1. 1. Physical Development Through the Curriculum
  2. 2. Development of the Physical Self
  3. 3. <ul><li>An overview of typical physical development in early childhood, including the development of children’s large muscle, fine muscle and sensory-perceptual development </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a framework for planning a comprehensive range of activities that fosters the full development of each child. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Principles of Physical Development <ul><li>Development occurs in predictable patterns and sequences </li></ul><ul><li>The course of development moves from head to tail-cephalcaudal </li></ul><ul><li>The course of development moves from large to fine muscle control </li></ul>
  5. 5. Physical Development and Motor Development <ul><li>A lifelong process of continuous change based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New motor activities </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Components of Motor Development <ul><li>Four Phases of motor development (Gallahue, 1993) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexive Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the first year of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudimentary movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The second year of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The next four or five years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins to appear around age seven </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Body Control <ul><li>Gross-motor or Large motor: movements of the entire body or large parts of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locomotor: a change of location of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-locomotor: balancing or stabilizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulative: the operation and control of limited and precise movements of the small muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six important elements of body control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking, running, jumping, hopping, throwing, and balancing </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Body Control <ul><li>Fine motor or manual motor: movements of the small muscles and its extremities. Basic grasping, manipulation skills. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pincer grasp, holding grip, palmar grasp, tripod grasp </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Body Control <ul><li>Sensory-Perceptual Development: a process in which the child develops the skill and ability to take in and interpret information from the environment and respond to it from movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The senses, eye-hand coordination, kinesthetic sense, perceptual motor skills, perceptual development </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Gross Motor Activities <ul><li>Activities that involve the large muscles of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Fitness: research shows that early childhood teachers need to be more concerned with providing physical fitness types of activities on a daily basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor play: remember to try and provide planned activities outdoors as well as unstructured free play. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block Play: Block support all domains of development: large and small muscles, concept learning, cooperative play, role playing, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Fine Motor Activities <ul><li>Fine motor typically involves the muscles of the hands and wrists. These muscles are needed in precise and small movements. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sensory Activities <ul><li>Activities that are primarily for tactile enjoyment, those that sharpen sensory acuity </li></ul><ul><li>These are essential for brain development because it is through exploration with the body and the senses that children's earliest learning takes place </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory information and identification is used to discriminate as children match, seriate, or classify sensory stimulation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Caring For the Body <ul><li>In addition to establishing routines and activities that lay the foundation for recognizing the importance of physical exercise, children should learn about appropriate nutrition, health, and safety concepts. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Useful Web Sites <ul><li>The following are some web sits that you may find helpful when thinking about physical development and health and safety with young children. </li></ul><ul><li>Kid-Fit Physical Education </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition Explorations </li></ul><ul><li>Toys and Materials From Home </li></ul>

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