Language Development Through the Curriculum


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Language Development Through the Curriculum

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Language Development Through the Curriculum

  1. 1. Language Development Supporting Language and Literacy Development
  2. 2. Theoretical Views of Language Development <ul><li>Behaviorist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language is primarily influenced by external factors such as the modeling and reinforcement of parents and important others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innatist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language is innate, linked to the biological maturation and follows an internal clock, needing to emerge during the “critical age” for language acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep structure: the underlying rules of grammar that are present is all cultures and languages. The common features of al languages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface Structure; the specific vocabulary and grammar of specific languages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ineractionist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A compromise between both theories. The interactionist sees many factors involved in the acquisition of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive: language is rooted in cognition and the ability to represent objects mentally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social: language is intimately tied to social processes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Components of Language <ul><li>Stages of early language development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One word stage (around 16 months) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babbling decreases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First words are familiar objects/people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech may be shortened versions of a phrase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young toddlers may use holophrases ( a message in one word), such as “milk” for “ I want some milk” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two word stage (18-30 months) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraphic speech in which words are left out (“baby sleep” for “the baby is sleeping”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiword stage (2-4 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary increases dramatically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More complex syntax and other semantic knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mistakes show that chidren are working out complex grammar rules </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Language Systems and Rules <ul><li>Phonology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sounds of words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning of words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatical rules that govern sentence structure (subject-verb agreement) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social rules of language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word rules such as plurals, tense, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Bi-Lingualism <ul><li>Ability of a person to speak in a language other than their native language with a degree of fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous acquisition : when a child is exposed to two languages from birth </li></ul><ul><li>Successive acquisition : occurs as a child with one language enters a world of a second language </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Bi-Lingual Education? <ul><li>For a great resource on bi-lingual education go to this website </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>And fro information on Two Way Immersion Programs, click here… </li></ul><ul><li>CAL: Digests: Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some Guidelines for Second-Language Teaching <ul><li>Understand how children learn a second language </li></ul><ul><li>Make a plan for the use of two languages </li></ul><ul><li>Accept individual styles/differences </li></ul><ul><li>Support children’s attempts to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain as additive philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a stimulating, active and diverse environment </li></ul><ul><li>Use informal observations to guide the planning of curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Find out about the family </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an accepting classroom climate </li></ul>
  8. 8. Language Skills in Early Childhood Education <ul><li>Articulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How chidren actually say the sounds and words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Receptive language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What children hear and what they gain when they listen and understand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expressive language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What children say , including words, grammar, and elaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphic language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ talk written down”. Learning about print and the written word </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing the power and the pleasures of language </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Child-Directed Speech <ul><li>Almost every aspect of the early childhood environment and program facilitates language development. The knowledgeable teacher converses with the children using “child-directed” speech </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is Child-Directed Speech? <ul><li>Speaking… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With clear pronunciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At a slower rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In shorter sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And repeating the same utterances, when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a higher than usual pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With simple words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With an exaggerated intonation so that the speech has a sing-song quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In grammatically simple sentences </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Language Activities <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Flannel board stories </li></ul><ul><li>Lap board stories </li></ul><ul><li>Story enactment </li></ul><ul><li>Puppets </li></ul>
  12. 12. Emergent Literacy <ul><li>An awareness that learning to read and write is a dynamic, ongoing, emerging process. All aspects of language-listening, speaking, writing and reading-are all intertwined and develop concurrently, not necessarily sequentially </li></ul>
  13. 13. Key Components <ul><li>Rich teacher-talk: engaging chidren in rich conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Reading: read, read, read, and then read some more. Research continually shows us that reading aloud to children increases their reading ability, plus it’s fun! </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological awareness: an understanding that speech is made up of units, such as words, syllables, and sounds.The ability to use these when speaking. Playing with language is a way to enhance this. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Letter and sound recognitions; association of letters with appropriate sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of print and support for emerging reading: understanding that words in print convey a message, that we read from left to right, and that printed words have a corresponding spoken word </li></ul><ul><li>Early writing development: attempts to imitate writing, such as scribbles and inventive spelling </li></ul>
  15. 15. Promoting Literacy Development <ul><li>Whole language Approach </li></ul><ul><li>International Reading Association : Home </li></ul><ul><li>And a lot of articles about literacy development are at this website… </li></ul><ul><li>California Preschool Instructional Networks </li></ul>
  16. 16. Language Milestones <ul><li>There are a lot of useful websites for you to look at that give developmental milestones for language development. I like the following one: </li></ul><ul><li>Language and Speech Development In Children </li></ul>
  17. 17. Creating a Print Rich environment <ul><li>Provide plenty of time for using books and other materials </li></ul><ul><li>Make a space that is quiet and comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Have plenty of books and supporting materials </li></ul><ul><li>Display children’s literary creations </li></ul><ul><li>Foster children’s reading at home </li></ul><ul><li>Use books around the room </li></ul>