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Stall and Spins - Awareness and Avoidance

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Stall and Spins - Awareness and Avoidance

  1. 1. Presented to: Pilots and InstructorsBy: The FAASTeamDate: October 20, 2012Federal AviationAdministrationStall SpinAwareness - AvoidanceLakeland Florida Situational Awareness Takeoff, Landings, and LowAltitude Maneuvering Aircraft Operational Limitations
  2. 2. 2Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Clinic Objectives• Reduce the Risk of Stall / Spins Related Accidentsdue to Improper Takeoffs, Landings and Loss of AircraftControl.– Evaluating Takeoff and Landing Procedures and Techniques.– Encourage you to maintain your Takeoff and Landing skillsthrough a Proficiency Program. (WINGS)– Review recent General Aviation accident statistics forTakeoff and Landings to Increase Awareness and Safety.
  3. 3. 3Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012What is a Stall ?
  4. 4. 4Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012What is a Stall ?– A stall is a condition where in the angle of attack increasesbeyond a certain point such that the lift begins to decrease..
  5. 5. 5Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012What is a Stall ?– A stall is a condition where in the angle of attack increasesbeyond a certain point such that the lift begins to decrease..
  6. 6. 6Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012 16.4% Of GeneralAviation Accidentsoccurred during theTake-Off phase ofFlight.Why Focus on Take-offs,Landings and Aircraft Control?
  7. 7. 7Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Why Focus on Take-offand Landings?40.3% Of accidentsoccurred during theLanding phase ofFlight.
  8. 8. 8Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012“What Can this Clinic Do for Me?”Offer a Proficiency Evaluation.Improve Takeoff, Landing and AircraftControl SkillsReinforce Good Habits.Encourage Involvement in the WINGSProgram
  9. 9. 9Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012“What Will this Clinic Do for Me?”Help Identify Your Piloting Strengthsand Weaknesses.Earn Credit Towards The PilotProficiency Program (WINGS).
  10. 10. 10Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Let’s Get Busy!Photo © Danny Fritsche
  11. 11. 11Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Centerline Control•Always keep the Aircraft on the Centerline of theTaxiway and Runway.
  12. 12. 12Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Normal Takeoff Review
  13. 13. 13Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Normal Take Off - Common ErrorsPlease Watch The Following Video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OVM3RRd1vf0FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  14. 14. 14Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Normal Take Off - Common Errors Failure to adequately clear the area prior to taxiinginto position on the active runway. Abrupt use of the throttle. Failure to check engine instruments for signs ofmalfunction after applying takeoff power. Failure to anticipate the airplane’s left turningtendency on initial acceleration.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  15. 15. 15Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Normal Take Off - Common Errors(continued) Overcorrecting for left turning tendency. Relying solely on the airspeed indicator rather thandeveloped feel for indications of speed and airplanecontrollability during acceleration and lift-off. Failure to attain proper lift-off attitude. Inadequate compensation for torque/P-factor duringinitial climb resulting in a sideslip. Over-control of elevators during initial climb out.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  16. 16. 16Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Crosswind Takeoff Review
  17. 17. 17Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Application of Aileron
  18. 18. 18Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012X-Wind Take Off - Common Errors Failure to adequately clear the area prior totaxiing onto the active runway. Using less than full aileron pressure into thewind initially on the takeoff roll. Mechanical use of aileron control rather thansensing the need for varying aileron controlinput through feel for the airplane.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  19. 19. 19Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012X-Wind Take Off - Common Errors(Continued) Premature lift-off resulting in side-skipping. Excessive aileron input in the latter stage of thetakeoff roll resulting in a steep bank into thewind at lift-off. Inadequate drift correction after lift-off.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  20. 20. 20Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Slow Flight or MCA
  21. 21. 21Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012What’s going on with drag vs airspeed?
  22. 22. 22Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012DefinitionFAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  23. 23. 23Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Slow Flight - Common Errors Failure to adequately clear the area. Inadequate back-elevator pressure as power isreduced, resulting in altitude loss. Excessive back-elevator pressure as power isreduced, resulting in a climb, followed by a rapidreduction in airspeed and “mushing.” Inadequate compensation for adverse yaw duringturns.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  24. 24. 24Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Slow Flight - Common Errors(Continued)Fixation on the airspeed indicator.Failure to anticipate changes in lift as flapsare extended or retracted.Inadequate power management.Inability to adequately divide attentionbetween airplane control and orientation.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  25. 25. 25Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Steep TurnsFAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  26. 26. 26Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Steep Turns - Common Errors Failure to adequately clear the area. Excessive pitch change during entry or recovery. Attempts to start recovery prematurely. Failure to stop the turn on a precise heading. Excessive rudder during recovery, resulting inskidding.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  27. 27. 27Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Steep Turns - Common Errors(continued) Inadequate power management. Inadequate airspeed control. Poor coordination. Gaining altitude in right turns and/or losing altitudein left turns. Failure to maintain constant bank angle.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  28. 28. 28Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Steep Turns - Common Errors(continued) Disorientation. Attempting to perform the maneuver byinstrument reference rather than visualreference. Failure to scan for other traffic during themaneuver.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  29. 29. 29Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Power Off Stall Recovery1. Reduce Angle of Attack2. Add Power3. Keep Wings Level4. Use adequate Rudder
  30. 30. 30Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Power On Stall Recovery1. Reduce Angle of Attack2. Keep Wings Level3. Use adequate RudderFAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  31. 31. 31Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Stabilized ApproachFAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  32. 32. 32Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Gross Wt Compensation80 kts @ Gross• Divide actual wt by gross wt to get % ofgross (2000 by 2500 = 80%)• Subtract % of gross from 100% (100%-80%=20%)• Divide % by 2 (20% by 2 = 10%)• Reduce your app spd by this % ( 10% of 80kts = 8 kts. 80 – 8 = 72 kts)• Actual Speed for Approach…..72 kts
  33. 33. 33Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Landing - Common ErrorsFailure to allow enough room on final toset up the approach, necessitating anoverly steep approach and high sink rate.Un-stabilized approach.Undue delay in initiating glide pathcorrections.Too low an airspeed on final resulting ininability to flare properly and landinghard.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  34. 34. 34Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Landing - Common Errors(continued)Too high an airspeed resulting in floatingon round out.Prematurely reducing power to idle onround out resulting in hard landing.Touchdown with excessive airspeed.Excessive and/or unnecessary brakingafter touchdown.Failure to maintain directional control.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  35. 35. 35Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Crosswind Landings
  36. 36. 36Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Crosswind LandingsCommon ErrorsAttempting to land in crosswinds that exceed theairplane’s maximum demonstrated crosswindcomponent.Inadequate compensation for wind drift on the turnfrom base leg to final approach, resulting inundershooting or overshooting.Inadequate compensation for wind drift on finalapproach.Unstabilized approach.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  37. 37. 37Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012 Failure to compensate for increased dragduring sideslip resulting in excessive sink rateand/or too low an airspeed. Touchdown while drifting. Excessive airspeed on touchdown. Failure to apply appropriate flight control inputsduring rollout.Crosswind LandingsCommon Errors(continued)FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  38. 38. 38Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Crosswind LandingsCommon Errors(continued) Failure to maintain direction control on rollout. Excessive braking.FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  39. 39. 39Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Go Around From Rejected LandingFAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  40. 40. 40Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Go Around Common Errors Pitch attitude increased excessively resulting in astall Applying only partial power Failure to reconfigure the aircraft (gear and Flaps)for climb Retracting the flaps too quickly Elevator trim (excessive forward pressures)FAA-H-8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook
  41. 41. 41Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6Module #6, Core Topic #11Questions?Comments?Ideas?Quiz time ~
  42. 42. 42Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20121. If you realize you are low on the approach, youshoulda. Initiate a 360 degree and enter the pattern at theappropriate altitudeb. Retract flapsc. Immediately apply powerd. Increase the pitch attitude2. If you bounce your landing, you shoulda. Force the airplane onto the groundb. Go- Aroundc. Add power and re-landd. Let the instructor land the airplane
  43. 43. 43Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20123. True or False; The takeoff or landing speed isgenerally a function of the stall speed or minimumflying speed.4. What is a stabilized approach?5. During takeoff or landing a cross wind is only afactor when it is in excess of ten miles per hour orgusty.True or false?Answers follow . . . . . . . . . . . .
  44. 44. 44Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20121. If you realize you are low on the approach, youshoulda. Initiate a 360 degree and enter the pattern at theappropriate altitudeb. Retract flapsc. Immediately apply powerd. Increase the pitch attitudec. Apply power - Airplane Flying Handbook2. If you bounce your landing, you shoulda. Force the airplane onto the groundb. Go- Aroundc. Add power and re-landd. Let the instructor land the airplaneb. go-around - Airplane Flying Handbook
  45. 45. 45Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20123. True or False; The takeoff or landing speed isgenerally a function of the stall speed or minimumflying speed.True - Pilot’s Handbook of AeronauticalKnowledge.4. What is a stabilized approach?An approach in which the pilot establishes andmaintains a constant angle glide path towards apredetermined point on the landing runway.Airplane flying handbook p. 8-7
  46. 46. 46Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20125. During takeoff or landing a cross wind is only afactor when it is in excess of ten miles per hour orgusty.True or false?False, in fact FAASTeam statistics demonstratethat a cross wind of significantly less than tenmiles per hour is frequently a contributingfactor to the cause of mishaps.
  47. 47. 47Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6Take a Break!
  48. 48. 48Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Aircraft OperationalLimitations ?
  49. 49. 49Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Nice place, seemed a little short when we landed!
  50. 50. 50Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20121850’, grass, it’s hot, and the tanks are pretty full ….
  51. 51. 51Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012... only three of us and there’s a river beyond the trees ....
  52. 52. 52Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012I think we’ll be ok to try a takeoff ……….
  53. 53. 53Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012We’re not accelerating very well … I can’t stop now! ….
  54. 54. 54Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012• They didn’t consider the potential problemsfor takeoff before they landed there.• They didn’t consider options when theyrealized the takeoff might be difficult.• They didn’t confirm that the airplane’sperformance capabilities would allow a safetakeoff, or not.• They didn’t plan for a point at which to abortthe takeoff if acceleration was too slow.• The aircraft owner, his teenage son, and aCFI did all drown in the wreckage.
  55. 55. 55Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Take your pick, each one defines an end tooptions:• limitation - restriction: a principle that limitsthe extent of something;• limitation - the quality of being limited orrestricted;• limitation - limit: the greatest amount ofsomething that is possible or allowed;• limitation - (law) a time period after whichsuits cannot be brought;• limitation - an act of limiting or restricting(as by regulation)
  56. 56. 56Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012• What do you want your students to do?• Will they know what options exist?• Is “I think we can” good enough for you?• Where is the performance information apilot needs in order to be sure?• What warnings are thereto tell us we’re at or neara limit?
  57. 57. 57Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012• What do you want your students to do?Make decisions based on knowledge and facts.• Will they know what options exist?Give them problems to solve during their training.• Is “I think we can” good enough for you?Give them the opportunity to evaluate conditions.• Where is the performance information a pilot needsin order to be sure?Show them the Pilot Operation Handbook andperformance charts, insist that they are used.• What warnings are there to tell us we’re at or near alimit?Teach them to use situational awareness in allaspects of preflight planning and in flight
  58. 58. 58Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Yes, take thetime ….…..get all that stuff out,review it yourself andthen share yourknowledge.
  59. 59. 59Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012• Watch This Video…….• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OVM3RRd1vf0
  60. 60. 60Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Emphasize the importanceof aircraft performanceplanning!Demonstrate the aircraft’s limitedperformance at reduced power tosimulate the effect of temperatureand pressure altitude.
  61. 61. 61Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Full can be abeautiful thing!Full can exceed theweight and/or CG limits!But, when itcomes toloading anairplane ……..
  62. 62. 62Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Weight can be a limitationdepending on runway length,temperature, runway condition,and density altitude.What to do?• Less fuel? Maybe, what’s the weather doing?• Fewer passengers? Could you leave someone behind?• Different runway? Perhaps the opposite direction?• Wait until the temperature decreases? Can you spare thetime it takes to stay alive?
  63. 63. 63Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Does the weight of whatever you put into the aircraftremain constant?What happens when you bank for a turn ……….and maintain your altitude ………………………then increase your bank angle to 45 ….. 60 degrees ?In which Category was your airplane Certificated, how manyGs are legal?100 pounds at 3 Gs becomes 300 pounds ……. Is that alimitation? How about bags and cargo?
  64. 64. 64Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012After you have convinced yourstudents that you can’t always fillevery space in the aircraft, fill thetanks, and not exceed several of itsoperational limitations …………Remind them that the Certificated limitsare based on the performance of a newaircraft, at the exact weight, at a densityaltitude equal to sea level and standardtemperature, demonstrated by …...
  65. 65. 65Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Make sure your students know that the tables andcalculations available in the Pilots OperatingHandbook are based on pressure/density altitude.The International Standards Association (ISA) has defined a StandardAtmosphere as:• Sea Level Barometric Pressure of 29.92 inches of Mercury (in. Hg)• Sea Level Temperature of 15° Celsius (15° C or 59° F)• Relative humidity of 0 %• Standard temperature lapse rate of 2° C per 1000 feet altitude• Standard pressure lapse rate of 1 in. Hg per 1000 feet altitude• A standard decrease in density as altitude increases
  66. 66. 66Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012• Pressure Altitude adjusts for pressure differencebetween your air and standard atmosphere. Thequestion is “What would your altimeter read if youwere in a standard atmosphere at your currentactual altitude?” This altitude is called PRESSUREALTITUDE.• Density Altitude usesPressure Altitude as abasis, and adds in acorrection factor fornonstandard temperature.
  67. 67. 67Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012150015501600165017001750180018501900195020002050210021502200225023002350240045 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115Total Moment/1000TotalWeight(lbs)Normal Category Utility Category Operating pointEven when you take care ofall the other details, if youhaven’t considered C of G …..You may become aTESTPILOT!
  68. 68. 68Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012What shouldyou expect if …the airplane is tail heavy, evenwhen you are within CG limits or,the airplane is nose heavy;• Flight Control effectiveness?• During takeoff?• During Landing?• During a Stall?• During Spin Recovery?
  69. 69. 69Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Any limitations to consider before Landing?
  70. 70. 70Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Pilot skills, aircraft limits, and the runway?
  71. 71. 71Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012A little wind, a little too fast, no margin for error!
  72. 72. 72Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Again,Teach your students to consider optionsprior to takeoff, operations during flight,and landing.Teach them to consider the limitations ofthe aircraft and their own limitations basedon their knowledge and experience.
  73. 73. 73Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012The airplane couldn’t do it ……… do you remember why?
  74. 74. 74Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012The aircraft’s performance capability, theairspeed, and altitude from which themaneuver was initiated combined did notallow the pilot torecover from themaneuver.Same thing here,physics willinterruptflight!
  75. 75. 75Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012Module #6, Core Topic #12Useful sources for more information:Advisory Circular – AC-61-67CAircraft Weight and Balance Handbook – FAA-H-8083-1aQuestions?Comments?Ideas?Quiz time ~
  76. 76. 76Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20126. Baggage weighing 90 pounds is placed in a normalcategory airplane’s baggage compartment which isplacarded at 100 pounds. If this airplane issubjected to a positive load factor of 3.5 Gs, thetotal load of the baggage would be ………a. 315 pounds and would be excessive.b. 315 pounds and would not be excessive.c. 350 pounds and would be excessive.d. 350 pounds and would not be excessive.
  77. 77. 77Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20127. The performance tables of an aircraft for takeoff andclimb are based ona. Pressure/density altitudeb. Cabin altitudec. True altituded. Indicated altitude8. Aircraft designed to withstand load limits up to4.4G’s are labeled “normal or utility categoryaircraft??
  78. 78. 78Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20129. What is the definition of Maximum weight?10. What is definition of the Empty weight?Answers follow …………………
  79. 79. 79Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20126. Baggage weighing 90 pounds is placed in a normalcategory airplane’s baggage compartment which isplacarded at 100 pounds. If this airplane issubjected to a positive load factor of 3.5 Gs, thetotal load of the baggage would be ………a. 315 pounds and would be excessive.b. 315 pounds and would not be excessive.c. 350 pounds and would be excessive.d. 350 pounds and would not be excessive.b. 315 pounds, not excessive Pilot’s Handbook ofAeronautical Knowledge
  80. 80. 80Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20127. The performance tables of an aircraft for takeoff andclimb are based ona. Pressure/density altitudeb. Cabin altitudec. True altituded. Indicated altitudea. Pressure/density altitude - Pilot’s Handbook ofAeronautical Knowledge.8. Aircraft designed to withstand load limits up to4.4G’s are labeled “normal or utility categoryaircraft??“Utility” Category aircraft - Pilot’s Handbook ofAeronautical Knowledge.
  81. 81. 81Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 20129. What is the definition of Maximum weight?The maximum authorized weight of the aircraft and allof its equipment as specified in the Type CertificateData Sheets (TCDS) for the aircraft.Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook, p. 1-110. What is definition of the Empty weight?The weight of the airframe, engines, and all items ofoperating equipment that are permanently installedin the aircraft.Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook.
  82. 82. 82Federal AviationAdministrationFAASTeam – Stall-Spin AvoidanceOctober 20, 2012This CompletesThe Stall Spin SeminarBe sure to have your attendance record validated!

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