6Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsA careful inspection may revealan accumulation of snow
7Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsTHE AIRCRAFTThe first step is to review the aircrafts pilotoperating handbook (POH) or flight manual.
8Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsTHE AIRCRAFT• Each aircrafts operating manual lists thosethings that owners need to be aware of.• For example, the type of oil, the viscosity of theoil and grease is specified.
9Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsTHE AIRCRAFT• Along with the dangers of flying with frost andsnow on the aircraft, the manual may talk aboutthe care of the aircrafts battery and electricalsystem
10Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsTHE AIRCRAFTSTARTING YOUR ENGINE• Recommended cold weather starting techniquesneed to be reviewed and practiced.• More than one pilot has learned on a cold wintermorning, weak batteries dont work well in thecold.
11Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsICE• Ice can lock or jam your flight controls.• If the aircraft has been exposed to ice or snow, makesure the flight controls have not frozen or been jammed.
12Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsICE• The same applies if you de-ice your aircraft ormove the aircraft in or out of a warm hanger ifthe aircraft has been covered with snow, ice, orfrost.
13Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsICE Be aware of the danger any time you have achance of liquid water and a below freezingaircraft coming into contact
14Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsRESOURCES• Another valuable winter resource is the personwho maintains your aircraft.• Your FAA certificated mechanic is an excellentsource of winter data.
15Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsRESOURCES• However, it does pay to ask if he or she hasever lived or worked in cold country.• Clearly, someone who has spent his or herwhole career in Miami may not be the mostknowledgeable about flight operations in Maine.
16Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsHEATING• It is important that the heating system beinspected for proper operation before its used.• Unless you are flying a turbojet aircraft that usesbleed air from the engine for heating,
17Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsHEATING• You probably have either the old exhaustheater shroud on the muffler system or one ofthe fuel-burning, self-contained heaters.
18Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsHEATING• Each has unique risks.• If your heater is the shroud type system and ifthe exhaust pipe the shroud goes around hasany holes in it, deadly carbon monoxide andother exhaust gases may enter your cabinarea.
19Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsHEATING• More than one pilot has died from carbon monoxiderelated incapacitation.• Many more have been able to recognize their owndeterioration and shut off the cabin heater, open awindow, and land safely.
20Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsHEATING Regardless of the type of heating systemaboard your aircraft. The key to its safe operation is your knowledgeof how it functions. Ensuring that it is safe to operate.
21Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsPREFLIGHT• An interesting preflight item that can be very difficult tocheck is water in the fuel system.• Although water in a fuel line can freeze at altitude andblock fuel flow, a more insidious problem is waterfreezing in a fuel tank.
22Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsPREFLIGHT• Think of the amount of water possible in yourtank. In the winter, you now have a large icecube in your tank.• Since it is frozen solid, any fuel in the tank willcheck clear of water.
23Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsPREFLIGHT• Then when you fly into an area above freezing,your flying ice cube melts, and you have waterin your fuel.
24Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsPREFLIGHT• Engines dont like water.• They dont run too well on H2O, either.• So, if your aircraft has been out in the weather,check it carefully.
25Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsTHE PILOT• The proper care of your aircraft is important.• No one argues with the role the aircraft plays inflight.• However, the aircraft, being a machine, is fairlypredictable.
26Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsTHE PILOT• Put the right stuff in it, make the properadjustments, and it will fly.• The same is not true of the pilot.
27Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsTHE PILOT• The problem is the pilot.• Bad decision making and failure to properlycontrol the aircraft are important risk factors foraircraft.
29Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsWEATHER BRIEFSMore than one accident has been caused by pilots who have run theiraircraft off a snow-covered runway or hit a snow bank or flew into asnowy whiteout and lost control.The need for good weather briefs during the winter season is veryimportant to help pilots avoid making bad weather related decisions.
30Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsWINTER FLYING CANADVERSLEY AFFECT FLIGHTOPERATIONS• Fast moving fronts• Strong and gusty winds• Blowing and drifting snow• Icing Conditions
31Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsWEATHER AND YOU• One of the facts of winter life is the lack ofdaylight. Cold, long, dark nights,• Add the possibility of blowing snow
32Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsWEATHER AND YOU• Dreaded whiteouts are all good reasons to bequalified and current for the intended flight.
33Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsWEATHER AND YOU• Add in the risk of cold and hypothermia toanyone forced down in the snow and you canbegin to see the many dangers winter poses forthe unprepared.
34Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsWEATHER AND YOU• So you dont have to have an accident to becold and miserable, you can find yourself in thatsituation after a safe flight-if you have not doneyour homework and a little prior planning.
35Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsWEATHER AND YOU• That includes landing safely at a remote airfieldand finding the FBO closed and the fuel pumpslocked and no one within miles to help you.
36Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsHow many fatal accidents haveresulted because a pilot attempted toland in weather conditions thatexceeded their ability?The sad reality, in most of those accidents, is that withinThe sad reality, in most of those accidents, is that withina few minutes flying time better weather was availablea few minutes flying time better weather was availableor during a short time in a holding patternor during a short time in a holding patternthe weather would have improvedthe weather would have improved
37Federal AviationAdministrationWinter OperationsREMEMBER…..Please be careful out there!