Author(s): Fred Harms and June Tonsing Date: 10/2006 Phone No. 314-890-4815 Note: FPM’s can tailor any of the slides to add information pertinent to local needs. You can use this as a template for building a program that is compatible with your district and its needs. You can add slides, delete slides, add more graphics or delete the graphics.
The good news is that winter crashes tend to be a little more survivable. That is because you are sometimes crashing, (or does “making a forced landing” sound more appealing?) in snow, which both cushions the impact and helps prevent fire.
The bad news is that once having survived the crash, you are in a survival situation in the depths of winter in an area even more remote at this time of year than in the summer.
Most of us recognize that AIR is a necessity for life, but it often comes as a surprise that shelter is more important than water. Knowing our priorities in the event of a survival situation can reduce anxiety and get us moving toward surviving more quickly.
There are basic fears in each of us: Fear of the unknown, fear of the dark, fear of discomfort, fear of being alone, fear of animals, fear of personal guilt, fear of punishment, fear of loss, fear of death.
Any or all of these fears may be present if we have to make an unscheduled off airport landing. By addressing them in training we may have a better chance of controlling them.
OUR MIND is the best tool for survival. Learn how to Use It!. The Number one enemy is yourself. The number two enemy is injuries. The number three enemy is extreme temperatures and the number four enemy is disease.
Keep in mind that survival is 80% mental, 10% equipment, and 10% skills. Our best chance for survival depends on our keeping a positive can-do attitude… Not having “give-up-itis” is or just sitting down and doing nothing. Also, we can’t run off without taking time to think out each problem. We Keep ourselves mentally steady and avoid imagining things that are not there.
What do we have in the aircraft that can be used to aid in survival? The compass will keep you going in one direction. Gasoline will help make a fire. Oil can be used for smoke signals. Seat upholstery may be used to wrap around feet or hands. Wiring may be used for tie strings. The aircraft battery may be used to ignite fuel.
One of the first questions we will have to address after dealing with our immediate survivability will be whether to remain with the aircraft or to try to walk out. There are certainly more concerns than are listed here, but the most basic information we must have is an idea of our location. This is an important factor to think about when briefing our passengers. If something bad happens and we aren’t around to tell them where we are, will they have some idea of our route of flight and which way to go if they decide to walk.
Take the compass! The aircraft won't need it for awhile and there is absolutely no sense walking around in circles. Make a plan. The closest place on the map may not be the easiest, fastest, or likeliest place to get to. Pack what you need. Make a pack out of the seats if you have to. Leave a message in the aircraft telling would be passers by of your circumstances and intent. Tell the date of your "collision with the planet", your physical condition and that of any passengers, where you set off for with your compass and when. If they find the aircraft first this may speed them in your direction.
Don't waste body heat by eating snow. Make a fire; heat water before drinking. Body heat can escape 240 times faster from wet clothing than from dry clothing. Keeping dry is vital to survival, even if temperatures aren’t extremely low. It is best to eat small amounts of sugary foods to replace the energy lost through body heat. Carry hard candy in your pocket to be sure it gets out of the aircraft with you.
Depending on where we fly, we should be aware of the dangers we may face. This can be particularly Important if we are flying from one temperature zone to another. Knowing the conditions we might expect will determine the equipment we should carry.
If we plan on operating over fairly hostile terrain where we might be on our own for several days, here are some suggested items for a life support kit.
These suggestions may remind us of other ways to customize a life support kit for our operations.
Personal First Aid Kits may be purchased commercially or individually constructed. Kits should be checked at least annually to verify that any item with an expiration date is replaced. Individual medication should also be remembered when planning a flight.
Reference..best served as a handout This suggested list of items in a winter survival kit can be individually modified as necessary.
It is recommended and good practice to wear multiple layers of loose fitting clothing because the air between layers provide additional insulation. However, be careful loose clothing is more likely to snag on aircraft structures and components.
Remove any snow or ice from clothing before entering cockpit. Melting snow in a warm cockpit may run down into controls or components and later refreeze. Maintain body temperature below perspiration level. Perspiration reduces clothing’s insulation qualities.
Ground personnel should have eye protection from blowing snow and ice and have clothing to protect from rotor and prop wash. If an emergency landing is necessary, you may only have what you are wearing. Dress to survive.
Cold and blowing snow pose special problems and difficulties in ground operations, preflight, and actual flight conditions. Special skills and techniques must be mastered for safe and efficient flight operations.
Preflight planning for a winter flight should include the items indicated at a minimum.
Filing a flight plan is always the right thing to do, but it may be the major factor in our survival in cold weather.
One of the most basic things we can do when planning a winter flight is to adjust our flight path to give us an edge in the event of trouble. We can certainly fly a direct log to our destination using electronic Navaids, but the terrain we’re flying over might not be exactly where we want to land in an emergency. By adjusting our route slightly, we can remain over a road, ensure more visible landmarks, and be closer to civilization in the event of an emergency.
Prepare your aircraft for Winter Operations. Air inlet openings designed for cooling are susceptible to snow accumulation in blowing snow storms. These include: Oil coolers Engine cooling Instrument cooling Cabin ventilation Be sure Pitot tube and static openings are not covered by frozen precipitation.
Lead Acid batteries are sensitive to cold temperatures Have them serviced before the cold weather sets in
Aircraft with oil coolers will bypass the cooler when the engine and oil is cold. Single grade oils will thicken in colder temperatures where multigrade oil is formulated to operate in a wide range of temperatures. Most multi grade oils are formulated for wide temperature ranges. Single grade oils should be appropriate for the temperatures you are operating in.
Check for tire wear… worn tread is an invitation to hydroplaning. Replace Tires if necessary. If the aircraft has wheel pants, we may want to think about removing them for winter operations. An entry should be made in the aircraft records if this is done.
Aircraft that have been exposed to rain should be given extra consideration with regard to possible fuel contamination due to leaky fuel caps, and water pooling within the aircraft structure.
Open areas of an unfilled fuel tank can allow surfaces for condensation to occur followed by that moisture becoming solid ice in our tank.
We certainly want to ensure that the cabin heating system is working correctly. If exhaust fumes are allowed to enter the cabin we could be exposed to an unacceptable amount of Carbon Dioxide. Carbon Dioxide poisoning can incapacitate and kill. If we haven’t used the cabin heater since last March, it might be a good time to have a mechanic take a look at it. Most small aircraft heaters consist of a cuff surrounding an exhaust pipe. An exhaust leak fills the cabin with carbon monoxide. A simple monoxide detector is a cheap piece of protection. Gas powered heaters can also produce monoxide, and some of them have a nasty reputation for catching on fire. Types of cabin heating sources: Ducted air from the aircraft muffler there is a CO2 hazard if the muffler is defective. Combustion heater; Fueled form aircraft fuel tanks, operates independent from the aircraft engine. There is and Airworthiness Directive on the Janitrol Heater. You may not have used your cabin heater since last March. This might be a good time to have a mechanic take a look at it. Most small aircraft heaters consist of a cuff surrounding an exhaust pipe. An exhaust leak fills the cabin with carbon monoxide. A simple monoxide detector is a cheap piece of protection. Gas powered heaters can also produce monoxide, and some of them have a nasty reputation for catching on fire. Types of cabin heating sources: Ducted air from the aircraft muffler CO2 hazard if muffler is defective Combustion heater Fueled from aircraft fuel tanks Operates independent from aircraft engine Airworthiness Directive on Janitrol heater Aircycle Machine Pressurized from engine bleed air or turbocharger
Preheating is recommended if temperatures drop below 20º F. Preheating the cabin as well as the engine, will allow gyros to spin-up with less wear and tear. Advantages/Disadvantages to engine attachment heaters Can be left on during aircraft down time Aircraft is ready when you arrive Heats only the engine May not provide enough heat when temperatures are extremely low Condensation accumulation if humidity is sufficient Advantages/Disadvantages to complete engine compartment heating Heat can enter and warm the cabin area if vents are opened Instruments will warm up Minimal time for condensation to accumulate Time to preheat may require arriving earlier
An effective technique - after engine shutdown in Winter, advance the throttle an inch or two. Throttle cables can freeze and trying to push a cable to loosen it doesn’t work well. Having room to pull the cable provides a greater advantage in breaking it free. In some aircraft, antifreeze can be squirted into the cable housing to prevent freezing. Icing on control linkages and surfaces can disrupt their operation. Remove all ice, or snow prior to flight. Preheating the battery will allow for easier starts. Ensure flight controls have freedom of movement throughout their full range of motion.
Any frost on the aircraft surface is going to change the way it performs. Even if it is rubbed smooth, it is not the same as a clean wing. It probably takes the same amount of time to smooth frost as it does to remove it. NOTE: Some aircraft have guidance by the aircraft manufacturer in the Approved Flight Manual, requiring specific surface contamination removal and tactile verification requirements.
We’ve all seen drivers on the highway peeking through a small hole in their windshield cleared by the defroster. It really isn’t a good plan to operate an aircraft that way.
Air inlet openings designed for cooling are susceptible to snow accumulation in blowing snow storms Oil coolers Engine cooling Instrument cooling Cabin ventilation Be sure Pitot tube and static openings are not covered by frozen precipitation.
Frozen water in fuel tanks of aircraft left outside may melt when the aircraft is brought into a warm hangar. Check for water in fuel after the aircraft is moved outside. Water present in fuel will freeze at low temperatures. Fuel boost pumps should be operationally checked for possible ice damage. Fuel does not freeze. It remains in a super cooled state and if it is spilled on an individual it may result in instant frostbite. If water is frozen and the aircraft is flown into warmer temperatures the water may melt.
Follow Aircraft and Engine Manufacturer’s recommendations to: Add Jet A+ or additive to fuel. Oil levels should be checked at operational temperatures - normally on shut down. Tires may stiffen in cold weather creating a flat spot. If frozen to the surface, the tread may be torn away when moved. Tire pressure may have to be replenished, colder temperatures will reduce pressure
Synthetic material used in fuel lines and electrical wiring may become stiff and crack or break if bent. Plastic structures and mounting frames may become brittle and crack. These cracks may lead to disintegration in flight.
Leaks may appear more frequently due to contraction and expansion of materials. Hydraulic leaks may occur due to deforming and contracting of seals. System should be evaluated at normal operating temperatures before maintenance is performed.
Don’t use scrapers to remove ice from windshields or other plastic windows. Protective covers may become frozen to the aircraft surface and could cause damage if not removed carefully. Additionally parts or components not covered will require closer attention especially after blowing snow or freezing rain.
The propeller may be cautiously turned to aid in starting…consult POH or engine manufacturer. External power starts should be used if available. Be cognizant of where the external power cables are. KEEP them away from the propeller arc. Preheating the battery may result in faster starts… During starting, oil pressure gages may indicate maximum pressure and tachometers may indicate lower than normal readings. Gyro-operated instruments may be unreliable due to increased bearing friction and congealed lubricants.
If the engine is not preheated or inadequately preheated allow extra run time before adding full power to the engine(s) to avoid damaging an oil cooler with a defective bypass valve. Don’t cycle constant speed propellers when the oil temperature is low. Aircraft with constant speed propellers need the oil temperature warm enough to prevent blowing seals. Run-up to normal operating temperatures. Shorter periods could cause water vapor to condense, then freeze and split oil coolers, oil lines, and increase the possibility of an engine failure.
Check the brakes during the preflight inspection for frozen condition. Operate the brakes before starting then try moving the wheels to be sure the brakes are not frozen closed. An airplane with enough power can drag a locked wheel(s). If on ice you may not be aware that the brakes are locked until you reach dry surface areas.
Refer to your handbook or approved flight manual for the correct leaning procedures for your specific make and model.
Power application should be accomplished with great care. Sudden torque applied to a helicopter parked on an icy surface could cause the aircraft to spin, with disastrous results.
Prior to lifting or attempting to move a helicopter under it’s own power, always ensure that the skids or landing gear are not frozen or stuck to the surface. Dynamic rollover may result from one wheel or skid breaking free.
Taxiing must accomplished with great care using minimum power and slow rates. Pilots should be prepared to immediately shut-down engines if the aircraft begins to skid or slide toward an obstacle.
Icy taxiways and ramps can cause us to lose control and begin sliding toward a snowbank.
Snow bank related accidents are the greatest hazard to ground operations during the Winter season.
Wing tip clearance may not be visible from the cockpit.
Loose ice represents a FOD hazard to turbojet aircraft.
Differential power may be necessary on multiengine airplanes.
Aircraft equipped with reversible propellers can use that capability to maintain control.
Whiteout conditions will obscure airport markings and obstacles.
When everything looks alike, mistakes can happen.
Taxiway markings may be obscured causing us to get face-to-face with someone’s multi-million dollar executive jet.
Engine run-up should be performed on a clean, dry surface
Ensure that all anti-ice and deice equipment is operational
The greatest amount of rotor wash is produced when hovering. Ground taxiing skid equipped or wheeled helicopters using minimal pitch will reduce the blowing snow effect.
Apply pitch to blow away loose snow. Stabilize at flat pitch to allow the snow cloud to dissipate. Select a visual reference point. Position the cyclic and apply pitch to establish a hover above the snow cloud . Air taxi at a speed slightly faster than normal, at or above effective translational lift. Remain forward and slightly above the snow cloud. Hover into the wind if at all possible. As plowing of prepared surfaces occurs, snow banks are built up and tail rotor clearances are reduced. A higher than normal hover height should be used to ensure adequate T/R clearance.
Position flight controls for cross-wind conditions. Apply power evenly and correct torque effect immediately. Use soft field procedures as appropriate.
If the aircraft begins to skid uncontrollably, we should shut down the engine to stop the prop. Even an idling propeller that bites into an icy snow bank is going to suffer damage.
A factor that goes hand in hand with Winter flying is darkness. Ramps and runways that were clear and dry during the day may become covered with water from melting snow and ice, only to refreeze after the sun sets.
If the surface was wet or slushy, you may want to delay retracting the gear after takeoff to allow any moisture to blow away or dry.
Operating on wet surfaces during taxi, results in moisture on aircraft surfaces that could refreeze in flight.
Water or slush in the wells might freeze, preventing the gear from being extended for landing. Recycling the gear once or twice might help keep water and slush from freezing in the well preventing the gear from extending for landing.
Blow away loose snow and stabilize on the ground while snow cloud dissipates. Select a visual reference point for a takeoff into the wind if possible. Position the cyclic for takeoff and apply sufficient power for a rapid ascent above the snow cloud.
Check points and topographical features may be obscured by snow. Snow showers may obscure obstacles in the flight path. Emergency landing areas may appear suitable, but might not be.
Fly at altitudes which are below the freezing level or clear of any visible moisture. Ice accumulation on windscreen and structures will usually be the first indicators.
Use de-ice and anti-ice appropriately. Ice shedding may cause FOD to turbine engines. Do not disembark passengers from a helicopter with suspected ice on rotors until the blades have stopped turning.
Rapidly changing weather is by far the greatest hazard to cold weather flying for both the beginner and the expert.
Accident records show that poor weather decisions are a leading cause of fatal aircraft accidents. The best decision is to avoid putting ourselves in a position where we have to make a critical in-flight weather decision.
Taking chances is gambling with our safety.
Winter weather can often develop suddenly.
When preflighting our aircraft in these conditions we might want to keep in mind that ice and snow contamination can accumulate faster than we can clean it off.
A snow storm such as this can blow the fluffy white stuff into inlets
And this should be removed before flight
This type of wet heavy snow will coat your propeller, often melting and refreezing into icesicles and into areas that you can’t see.
And blocking the air intake.
Adequate fuel reserves should be maintained and a realistic alternate plan of action should be developed .
Select an indicated minimum altitude that will allow time to implement options. Set personal minimums and stick to them. Be aware that the closer we get to our destination, the less likely we are to divert.
Don’t fly until you only have one visual reference remaining. If you don’t have good references, don’t go there. Cross-check instruments frequently to ensure proper altitude and to establish confidence in the information they provide . If they have been operating OK for the last hour, they’re probably still working when we inadvertently bump into a cloud. Plan approaches so that references are always in sight.
If references are lost for any reason, go around. Trust the instruments. Execute a 180º turn and start looking for outside references. Above all - fly the aircraft.
AFSS Monitors all emergency frequencies. Coordinate with appropriate ATC facilities. VOR or ADF orientation. Advise where VFR conditions are. Airport information. Initiate search and rescue.
Ice fog Is not common locally, but may be encountered when operating in areas where air temperatures drop to -25° C. Consists of suspended ice crystals in the air, usually in a no-wind condition
Freezing fog or cold fog Caused by water vapor condensing to liquid water droplets at temperatures below freezing. Supercooled droplets will freeze when contact is made with solid objects. Ground operations are particularly affected.
A hazardous condition associated with cold weather operations. Aircraft must be certified and equipped with adequate anti-icing and deicing equipment. Most common at temperatures between 32°F / 0°C and -4°F / -20°C.
When you are reviewing the weather during trip planning, it is important to consider the location of fronts to avoid areas most likely to contain icing conditions associated with various types of fronts.
Note the areas that are primary icing regions.
A condition favorable for rapid accumulation of clear icing is freezing rain below a frontal surface. Rain forms above the frontal surface at temperatures warmer than freezing . Subsequently, it falls through air at temperatures below freezing and becomes super cooled. The super cooled drops freeze on impact with an aircraft surface.
Icing can also become serious in cumulonimbus clouds along a surface cold front, along a squall line, or embedded in the cloud shield of a warm front.
NOTE: the area of potentially severe icing occurs in the temperature range …approximately 0 degrees C to – 10 degrees C in visible moisture.
Structural icing, when in visible moisture can occur in the range from + 2 degrees centigrade to – 40 degrees centigrade.
Structural Icing can usually be detected first on structures with a thin or narrow form.
Windscreen wipers will often collect it.
Most aircraft manufacturers require the pitot heat to be “ON” in conditions conducive to icing.
We need to know which way to go if we encounter icing.
We should avoid flying parallel to a front if conditions are conducive for icing.
If we are flying an aircraft that is certified for flight in icing conditions, we should plan on penetrating any front as quickly as possible. If we encounter icing conditions that are worse than expected it may exceed our aircraft’s ability. THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A LITTLE ICE .
If IFR … either request a course reversal, a clearance to climb to warmer air or approval to divert.
Lets looks closer at how freezing rain occurs:
Freezing Rain happens when rain falls through colder temperatures. It may remain in a liquid state well below the freezing temperature and freeze on contact with the aircraft.
Ice as it collects on an aircraft in flight, weighs about 50 pounds per cubic foot, which works out to about 7 pounds per hour per foot of exposed structure. Weight will probably not bring the aircraft down.
Slowing your aircraft in icing conditions, exposes the underside of the airfoil to icing, impacting a greater surface area.
Even small buildups of ice on an airfoil can decrease the maximum lift coefficient by 30%. The drag coefficient continues to build and may double or triple the drag of the airfoil. Narrow cross-sections accumulate ice at a higher rate than wider ones.
Windshields become opaque. Unheated fuel vents may freeze over. Cooling air scoops may become blocked leading to overheating of generators or avionics. Antennas may break off. Static systems may be affected.
Ice accumulation on the horizontal stabilizer can be a major problem. As a review, lets recall that the function of the horizontal stabilizer is to provide a downward force-lift that essentially holds the nose up.
If ice accumulates on the stabilizer it can cause it to stall, resulting in a nose-down pitch. If we detect icing on any of the aircraft structure we can assume it has accumulated on the stabilizer. Pitch changes should be minimized. Flaps should either not be used or only set to the take-off position. Higher than normal airspeeds should be maintained during approach and landing. Which means greater consideration must be given to the landing surface.
Rotor blade icing begins near the blade root. Ice buildup can cause loss of lift, requiring more power to maintain lift. Autorotational ability may be lost. Asymmetrical shedding occurs when one rotor blade sheds ice, leaving the rotor out of balance.
When flying over clouds, look at the aircraft’s shadow. If you see colored rings (rainbow) around the shadow, the cloud is liquid droplets Ice crystals will produce a brilliant light, denoting the cloud is glaciated.
Can occur at any time, even when full power is applied. Usually indicated by a loss of RPM or manifold pressure.
Apply carb. heat fully and leave it on, unless a carburetor temperature gauge is available to adjust the heat. Engine roughness may be experienced when heat is initially applied.
Knowing how our aircraft systems work is vitally important. Even though our fuel injected engine doesn’t have a carburetor, icing can still shut down the engine if the air intake becomes blocke. Some alternate air systems are automatic while others are manual. We need to know how ours works.
Any time we have ice on the aircraft we are essentially ferforming as a test pilot. Since we really don’t know how the aircraft is going to perform, particularly when we’re low and slow, we should treat approaches and landings conservatively. We already know that if we can see ice anywhere on the aircraft we can pretty well assume that we have ice on the tail section. For that reason our approach speed should be higher and only minimal flaps should be used. It is still a good idea to extend the landing gear, however. Consult your POH or AFM for any recommendations the manufacturer may have about landing with ice contamination.
Ice not only affects our aircraft, but the surface we’re going to operate from. If we must land on a wet or ice covered runway we can assume that braking will not be available. This may necessitate finding a longer runway to land on.
On wet or icy runways, opt for a landing direction most closely aligned with the wind.
Even if we are the “ACE of the place” when it comes to crosswind landings, if the aircraft won’t stick to the ground we could find ourselves making an unsuccessful short-cut through the grass.
Good Aeronautical decision-making and judgment really demands that we give serious consideration to alternatives. If something unfortunate occurs, you can bet that someone is going to ask. If we break the airplane and there were options we didn’t use, it may be difficult to defend our decision-making and competency.
If snow covers the runway, the normal visual clues we use during approach and landing may not be available. What runway is this aircraft landing on? How wide is it? How long is it? Are we high or low on the approach? At times such as these it is important to establish a visual reference point that we can maintain throughout the approach and touchdown.
Since breaking won’t be effective on a wet or icy runway, we want to take advantage of aerodynamic braking which simply means holding the nose off as long as possible.
Aircraft control can only be maintained if the main wheels are turning. Any breaking should be applied gently and evenly using care not to lock the wheels. The often used technique of retracting the flaps during a short field landing to provide greater breaking action … probably shouldn’t be used. In fact leaving the flaps down will probably help aerodynamic breaking.
This chart shows that braking force increases as we slow down, even on ice.
When we add the effect of aerodynamic drag we see that it is greatest at touchdown and decreases as the aircraft slows down.
However, we can see that aerodynamic drag has a greater effect for a longer period of time on ice than it does on dry concrete. What that means is to keep the nose up until the elevator will no longer hold it there before applying the brakes.
When the airplane slows down, control effectiveness from the rudder and ailerons is lost, and the airplane does what comes naturally - it cocks into the wind.
Side loads imposed on landing gear can cause the gear to fold or cause structural damage to the landing gear system.
Repeated plowing of runways may cause snow banks to become hazards.
Determining snow depth from the air may not be accurate…... If we aren’t sure, this might be a good time to practice the most difficult aeronautical maneuver to perform and demonstrate … good judgment an aeronautical decision-making by diverting to an alternate airport. If we elect to land and we have incorrectly determined the depth of the snow on the runway, we could find ourselves in a dangerous situation…
… resulting in a stop that could cause damage to the aircraft and possibly cause injury to the occupants.
Or it could lead to the aeronautical equivalent of an airplane shaped hold in the snow.
At larger, towered airports, braking reports may be available. The type of aircraft making runway condition and braking reports must be considered. ATC provides braking action advisories that are reported as: Good, Fair, Poor, Nil. MU (friction) values range from 0 to 100 where zero is the lowest friction value and 100 is the maximum. When a MU value is 40 or less, the aircraft braking performance begins to deteriorate and directional control begins to be less responsive.
Landing in a helicopter on a snow covered surface may require a modified approach. Landing at a prepared landing site with a suitable surface (Helicopters): Select a visual reference point that will be visible during touchdown. Land into the wind with some forward airspeed to remain ahead of the snow cloud. Landing at an unprepared site with no obstacles (Helicopters): Verify a suitable surface. Execute a shallow approach so that minimum power will be required. Maintain a visual reference point if possible and touchdown with no forward speed.
Landing in a confined area ; Establish an out-of-ground-effect hover into the wind. Remain above the snow cloud an blow away as much loose snow as possible. Attempt to maintain a visual reference point and descend vertically to touchdown. If visual references begin to disappear for any reason abandon the approach.
A wet runway can happen at any time of the year but are most often associated with snow and slushy conditions.
Touching down on wet runway can cause controllability problems.
Under certain conditions the water will prevent the tires from making contact with the runway surface. This condition is called hydroplaning.
When hydroplaning occurs, the aircraft will literally be surfing on a thin film of water.
Some airports have runways with grooved surfaces to help reduce surface water. Most smaller GA airports do not.
Hydroplaning is actually a function of tire pressure
Here is the formula for calculating when dynamic hydroplaning might occur.
If we know we will be landing on a wet runway, certain procedures should be used. By calculating the speed at which hydroplaning can occur we will find that we probably want to plan to touchdown very close to the stall speed of the airplane.
In this case we calculated that hydroplaning could begin at 54 knots. If we can touchdown below that speed it would be beneficial. It should be noted that once hydroplaning begins it may continue at speeds below the calculated initiation speed. Tests have also shown that wheels do not turn when hydroplaning. Even if they were turning before hydroplaning. Once it starts, the wheels quit turning. If the wheels aren’t turning, control is lost!
Knowing our tire pressure and touchdown speed is necessary to calculate when dynamic hydroplaning may occur. Using the same aerodynamic braking techniques used on icy runways is recommended.
A good conservative estimate is to always have at least one hour of fuel reserve for each VFR flight and 1:30 for IFR flights. Considering the possibility of having to perform the most difficult aerial maneuver it might be a good idea to provide a greater cushion and plan for more reserve fuel. Special considerations for servicing are also necessary during cold weather operations.
It is good technique to ensure that fuel tanks are “Topped off” after any flights in cold weather. If the tanks are not full, airspace will exist between the fuel and the top of the fuel tank.
This can allow condensation to develop that can drop to the bottom of the tank and freeze. This frozen water cannot be removed when draining the sumps on preflight and if it melts during a flight, the water may be ingested by the engine and cause a stoppage. One technique to use during preflight is to GENTLY rock the aircraft wings and listen for ice hitting the inside of the tank. If it is detected, the only alternative will be to move the aircraft to a location where the ice can melt and the water drained out…Before Flight!
Cold dry air is most conducive to static electricity. It may be generated by the movement of the aircraft through the air, fuel through a hose, or by brushing snow from aircraft surfaces. Rotors turning in snow filled air will generate significant static electricity. When servicing, grounding the aircraft to the earth is always the preferred method. At a minimum bond the aircraft to the fueling apparatus (truck or island pump).
During refueling it is extremely important to properly ground aircraft and fuel source. If grounding points are not available, bonding must be assured. Nozzles should remain in contact with the structure and not removed rapidly. Certified fuel hoses are made with metal windings to provide a source of bonding.
We may actually see static electricity causing sparks in the fuel cell. The reason an explosion hasn’t happened is because the fuel/air ratio is too rich inside the tank to support combustion. However, about an inch above the filler port the fuel / air mixture is just about perfect. The last thing we want to do is pull the nozzle out and create a spark. If static electricity is detected, stop fueling and leave nozzle inserted in the filler neck. Fuel spills inside hangars or on ramps, should be treated with caution. Ungrounded personnel can cause a static spark.
In the perfect fuel/air ratio one cup of gasoline can have the explosive energy of 10 sticks of dynamite. Fuel vapors are heavier than air and will flow downhill or with the wind to find an ignition source. Don’t take aircraft servicing casually.
During external load operations, hookup personnel should use a grounding device to avoid electrical shock. Charges build up rapidly and may cause injury to personnel and damage equipment.
Regardless of the type of aircraft we operate...
Authors: Fred Harms and June Tonsing Date: 11/2006 Phone No. 314-890-4815 office and 314-540-5963 cell e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
WINTER OPERATIONS80% Mental80% Mental10% Equipment10% Equipment10% Skills10% SkillsSURVIVAL Is:
WINTER OPERATIONSOn Hand Survival EquipmentOn Hand Survival EquipmentThe compass.The compass.Gasoline.Gasoline.OilOilSeat upholsterySeat upholsteryWiringWiringThe aircraft batteryThe aircraft battery
WINTER OPERATIONSStay with it – or start walking?Stay with it – or start walking?Did you file a flight plan?Did you file a flight plan?Is your ELT operating?Is your ELT operating?Do youDo you knowknow where you are?where you are?Do you have a survival kit?Do you have a survival kit?Dont fight a storm.Dont fight a storm.Stay put and find shelter.Stay put and find shelter.
WINTER OPERATIONSTake the compass!Take the compass!Make a plan.Make a plan.Pack what you need.Pack what you need.
WINTER OPERATIONSUse whatever is available to protectUse whatever is available to protectthe body from the loss of heatthe body from the loss of heatMake a fireMake a fireKeep clothing dry.Keep clothing dry.Eat sugary foods.Eat sugary foods.
WINTER OPERATIONSLife Support KitLife Support KitFood and Energy PackageFood and Energy Package(1 person, 5-day rations)(1 person, 5-day rations)30 - wrapped sugar cubes30 - wrapped sugar cubes
WINTER OPERATIONSLife Support KitLife Support Kit10 - pita bread or 2510 - pita bread or 25crackerscrackers10 - packets of salt10 - packets of salt3 - tea bags3 - tea bags
WINTER OPERATIONSLife Support KitLife Support Kit12 - rock candy12 - rock candy5 - gum5 - gum10 - bouillon cubes10 - bouillon cubes20 - protein wafers20 - protein wafers(if available)(if available)
WINTER OPERATIONSLife Support KitLife Support KitInsect repellentInsect repellentMosquito netMosquito netWhistleWhistle50 of 1/8" nylon rope or shroud line50 of 1/8" nylon rope or shroud lineSmoke flares or red day - night flaresSmoke flares or red day - night flares
WINTER OPERATIONSLife Support KitLife Support KitWaterproofed matchesWaterproofed matchesCandle or fire starterCandle or fire starterSignal mirrorSignal mirrorSmall compassSmall compassKnife - Boy Scout styleKnife - Boy Scout style
WINTER OPERATIONSPersonal First Aid KitPersonal First Aid KitSealable Plastic ContainerSealable Plastic Container2 - Compress bandages2 - Compress bandages1 - Triangle bandage1 - Triangle bandageSmall roll 2" tapeSmall roll 2" tape6 - 3 x 3 gauze pads6 - 3 x 3 gauze pads25 - Aspirin25 - Aspirin10 - Band - Aids10 - Band - Aids
WINTER OPERATIONSPersonal First Aid KitPersonal First Aid KitRazor blades or scissorsRazor blades or scissorsHotel size soapHotel size soapKotex - purse sizeKotex - purse sizeKleenex - purse size, toilet paperKleenex - purse size, toilet paper6 - safety pins6 - safety pins1 - Small tube of Unguentine1 - Small tube of Unguentine
WINTER OPERATIONS• ClothingClothing1.1.Multilayers of clothing worn looselyMultilayers of clothing worn looselywill provide more warmth than awill provide more warmth than abulky layer.bulky layer.2.2.Loose clothing is more likely toLoose clothing is more likely tosnag or get caught on aircraftsnag or get caught on aircraftstructures or components.structures or components.HUMAN FACTORSHUMAN FACTORS
WINTER OPERATIONS• ClothingClothingRemove any snow or iceRemove any snow or icefrom clothing beforefrom clothing beforeentering cockpit.entering cockpit.HUMAN FACTORSHUMAN FACTORS
WINTER OPERATIONS• ClothingClothingDress to survive.Dress to survive.HUMAN FACTORSHUMAN FACTORS
WINTER OPERATIONSPre-flight Weather BriefingPre-flight Weather BriefingIcing advisoriesIcing advisoriesNOTAMs for departure & destinationNOTAMs for departure & destinationTemperatures at flight levelTemperatures at flight levelAir mass synopsisAir mass synopsisFILE A FLIGHT PLAN!FILE A FLIGHT PLAN!
WINTER OPERATIONSRoute ConsiderationsRoute ConsiderationsEase of navigationEase of navigationForced landing areasForced landing areasVisible checkpointsVisible checkpointsLikelihood of whiteoutLikelihood of whiteoutSurvivabilitySurvivability
WINTER OPERATIONSCold Weather Pre-flightCold Weather Pre-flightCabin heating system
WINTER OPERATIONSTypes of preheat:Types of preheat:Engine compartment heaters -Engine compartment heaters -heats only the engineheats only the engineOil Sump HeatersOil Sump HeatersCabin heaters - heat the cabin andCabin heaters - heat the cabin andinstrumentsinstrumentsHangar (heatedHangar (heated))
WINTER OPERATIONSIntake IcingIntake IcingFuel injected aircraft do not haveFuel injected aircraft do not havecarburetors, but the air intake maycarburetors, but the air intake maybecome contaminated with ice.become contaminated with ice.Alternate air provides a source of heatedAlternate air provides a source of heatedair from around the engine.air from around the engine.
WINTER OPERATIONSLanding with ice on the aircraftLanding with ice on the aircraft.
WINTER OPERATIONSBraking efficiency can drop to zeroBraking efficiency can drop to zeroon a wet or ice covered runwayon a wet or ice covered runwayLANDING ON WET, ICYLANDING ON WET, ICYAND SNOW-COVEREDAND SNOW-COVEREDRUNWAYSRUNWAYS
WINTER OPERATIONS““A Superior pilot is oneA Superior pilot is onewho uses Superior Judgmentwho uses Superior Judgmentto avoid situationsto avoid situationsthat require Superior skill.”that require Superior skill.”
WINTER OPERATIONSWINTER OPERATIONSFederal AviationFederal AviationAdministration Safety TeamAdministration Safety Team(FAASTeam)(FAASTeam)Thank You For Attending