CFI Workshop - Module 6 Take Off and Landings

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CFI Workshop - Module 6 Take Off and Landings

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  • Minard Thompson, ANM (425) 227-1027, minard.thompson@faa.gov Note: You will find that some slides are hidden for the “Slide Show” feature. This is to allow FPMs and Reps to have a shortened version that may better fit the time available. The short version contains the required training elements for this Core Topic. You may prefer to present the full version including all of the slides which can be accomplished by “un-hiding” the marked slides with a right mouse click. 2011/11/10 -006 (1) PP
  • Ask these three questions and give the audience time to think about the answers. Before showing the next slide ask the individuals to volunteer their thoughts.
  • Most pilots don’t usually practice air-work maneuvers by themselves. Fear of stalls, uncertainty of the outcome, or they don’t feel the need (“I know what a stall is”) to practice the basics anymore. The basics are what we revert to, the “muscle memory” when everything goes wrong and we are trying to correct the situation we got ourselves into. Or, it could be the student got you there and you weren’t quick enough to realize what was happening. Everytime we fly we perform low-level maneuvering flight (LLMF). The take-off, climb-out, downwind, base and final are all within 1000’ AGL, or what we would call low-level maneuvering flight. The Nall Report from AOPA and the FAASTeam’s own data shows that 40+% of fatal accidents happen in this phase of flight. LLMF can also be the low-level buzz job, legal low-level flight in unpopulated areas, the “moose-stall” (looking at wildlife or other objects on the ground and stalling the aircraft) or any other activity that puts you within 1000’ AGL. Many pilots practice stalls just prior to their flight review, or not until the moment when the CFI says, “Show me a departure stall.” Do they even remember the clearing turns prior to the stall series? If the aircraft they fly is approved for spins, have they ever been in a spin? Spin entries are only required as a sign-off in the CFI’s log-book….how proficient are they in spins? The wrong place to discover your lack of spin knowledge is in the traffic pattern when you are less than 1000” AGL!
  • Study this chart. The numbers in red are the lethality rates of accidents in the different phases of flight. Notice that we are getting real good at making forced landings when we run the aircraft out of fuel. How long have we been trained to use our watch and known fuel burns instead of the fuel gauges? However, we are still running out of gas! Notice that when we get into the weather and we are used to only flying in VFR conditions how fast the fatality rate goes up. Take-off and climb accidents account for 16% of the fatal accidents. Usually loss of airspeed control resulting in stall/spin accidents. Maneuvering flight accounts for 58% of the lethality rate. Descent and approach numbers are near 40% Note the huge total number of landing accidents but the very low fatality rate. How come? Slow speeds, surface is usually free of obstructions and flat.
  • 1. Two things required to survive a crash. Survivable “G” force and survivable “space”. That means the cabin shape must stay structurally shaped to protect your body from injury. It has been taught that if a forced landing will put you in trees or other inhospitable terrain to use the terrain to slow your crash speed. For example, using trees to slow your deceleration over time and distance. This also means that the pilot must be adequately restrained by the seat belt and shoulder harness so they don’t hit the instrument panel or other hard objects. If the shoulder harness isn’t worn or the seat belt is not tight across your hips, the body will move until it hits the belt causing more injury to the body.
  • As proven by US Air Force Colonel John Stapp the human body can survive many Gs if adequately restrained. (Google the story for more background information)
  • Why do we have stall-spin accidents in the traffic pattern? Distractions can certainly be a cause, especially with the newer pilots, or someone who hasn’t flown in a long time. Paying attention to the airspeed might fall by the wayside until the stall warning horn alerts them to a problem. Distractions could be: Other aircraft in the pattern can distract the pilot’s attention, especially if there is something unusual about the aircraft they are observing. Weather, wind and turbulence can be a distraction and cause control difficulties, especially if the pilot is unaccustomed to the weather. Other pilots using non-standard traffic pattern entries can cause confusion and distractions. Any unusual activity on the ground, or on an adjacent runway can cause a visual distraction. Frustration over busy unicom frequency congestion can cause frustration and confusion. Aircraft performing non-standard maneuvers in the pattern. The go-around, yours or someone else, causes a division of attention while flying your aircraft. Your passengers or pedestrians on the ground cause distractions. The individual pilot, are they engaged in flying the aircraft? Sick, tired, drug impaired? (The accident photo – Pitts doing a low-level high speed pass with a steep pitch up at the end of the runway. Cessna pilot could not see Pitts after they went into the steep climb. Pitts not on the Unicom frequency. Cessna pilot landed and during the rollout the Pitts landed on top of the 172. One minor injury, one aircraft totaled. Could have been much worse.
  • Show video. The Cessna 150/152 is an excellent training aircraft, however if you stall the airplane and add power at the same time with no rudder application it will roll with the torque and P-factor. With the aircraft stalled and elevators full up, it will enter a spin.
  • Emphasize the importance of coordinated flight at all times during the traffic pattern turns. Mention slips on final and the difference between intentional slips and sloppy uncoordinated flight and not using the rudders, or too much rudder. Emphasize the use of trim to control the desired and recommended approach speeds. We don’t fly the aircraft just by looking at the airspeed indicator. We need to use all of our senses while flying. What happens if the airspeed indicator fails? Can you fly without it? Do you teach that technique?
  • There is a host of other things that could get you near or into a stall that you have little warning about. Wake turbulence is invisible. So is wind shear. Turbulence from the wind around and over objects (buildings, hangars, etc.) can’t be seen. What are the effects of in-flight icing on your aircraft? Stall speeds go up with ice on the wings and tail. Can a malfunctioning autopilot get you into a stall or toher control difficulty? Vmc in multiengine aircraft can cause all kinds of control difficulties. Do you know how to avoid Vmc? How about when the aircraft is rolling during Vmc…can you level the wings? How do you do that? In a two-crew aircraft. Can the other pilot becoming incapacitated cause you problems when they are the pilot flying?
  • Practice of the basic flight maneuvers is a necessity to maintain proficiency . Pilots need to practice stall recoveries, slow flight at minimum controllable airspeeds (not just when the stall warning horn starts beeping) so they know what do when close to the ground and they inadvertently get into a stall.
  • This film shows the results of stalling the aircraft and using excessive top or bottom rudder in a turn. Many pilots won’t understand the terms “top” and “bottom” rudder. If making a left hand turn the top rudder (pedal) would be the right rudder, as it is now above the left rudder pedal. Bottom rudder is the opposite. If making a left-hand turn the bottom rudder (pedal) would be the left hand rudder pedal, as it is below the right hand rudder pedal. Adding too much rudder pressure in the turn will result in a spin in the direction of the overly-applied rudder pressure. Note that if you are turning right and apply too much left rudder pedal pressure, when the aircraft stalls it will roll over the top and start a spin to the left. Pilots sometimes use the rudder pedals to slow or accelerate a turn to final. If the pilot has overshot the runway centerline they might step on the bottom rudder to accelerate the turn. Or, if they undershot the runway centerline they might try to slow or extend the turn by applying too much top rudder. Either one of these two maneuvers will become extremely difficult for any pilot to recover from at 500 feet AGL (as in the turn from base to final). Teach the proper use of rudders and coordinated flight, even when the airplane has a yaw damper installed.
  • Many pilots believe that if they crash the only person they will hurt or kill is themselves. They are in “complete” control as the pilot and they are flying the aircraft. What happens when they shear a wing on a MET tower, a tree snag or a power line they didn’t see?
  • Gearhart, OR crash scene. The pilot rented a Cessna 172. Weather was poor as departure time. NTSB report: The pilot rented the airplane from an operator at Seaside Municipal Airport the night before the accident. The operator stated that the pilot told him that he was making a business trip to Klamath Falls, Oregon, in the morning. Global positioning system (GPS) data recovered from a handheld GPS unit located in the airplane recorded that the takeoff occurred at 0644. The airplane climbed to about 412 feet mean sea level (msl) on a northerly heading, then entered a climbing left-hand turn that tightened into a spiral over the beach. The airplane climbed to 1,350 feet msl then entered a rapid descent at 0646:31. The final GPS data point occurred at 0646:39, at an altitude of 832 feet msl. The airplane collided with a vacation home in Gearhart, about 1 mile northwest from the Seaside Municipal Airport. The airplane appeared to have been traveling in a northerly direction when it first impacted a large pine tree, and then into the house (sheared the wing and became the un-guided missile). A post impact fire erupted and destroyed the house. The pilot took off in the morning without filing a flight plan for the planned cross-country flight. Weather in the vicinity of the airport was less than 3 miles visibility with overcast clouds at 300 feet above ground level. The overcast layer extended from 300 feet to 2,600 feet. The pilot, age 36, held a commercial pilot certificate, issued on September 11, 2003, with single-engine land and instrument airplane ratings. Additionally, he held a certified flight instructor (CFI) certificate, single-engine land, issued on August 4, 2006. He held a second-class airman medical certificate, with no limitations, that was issued on June 24, 2008. The pilot’s logbook was not located during the course of the investigation. The pilot noted on his June 24, 2008, medical application a total pilot time of 1,650 flight hours. The owner of the airplane stated that he had given the pilot a flight review on June 27, 2008, in which he reviewed Cessna 172 operations, engine failures, GPS familiarization, and crosswind landings. They did not fly any practice instrument flight using a hood. A review of the pilot’s available flight records could not establish the existence of recent instrument flight experience or currency.
  • The first pilot impulse with an aircraft problem is to return to the airport and the runway that the aircraft departed from. The 180 degree turn back to the departure runway might work if altitude and pilot abilities allow, but most pilots do not know how many feet of altitude it takes in their aircraft or the rented aircraft to complete the turn. The engine failure after take-off has the “surprise factor”, i.e. the pilot isn’t expecting the engine to fail, so it catches them by surprise. Climb speeds in most light aircraft immediately after take-off are not far from the flaps up or clean stall speed. An immediate pitch change from climbing flight to best glide speed is required. The aircraft’s speed at the time of pilot recognition is probably below the aircraft’s best glide speed and this results in more altitude loss establishing airspeed for best glide and aircraft control. The turn required will probably be in excess of 30 degrees of bank, thus bringing the stall speed in the turn back into the picture, but probably not into the pilot’s mental focus, hence the turn-stall-spin scenario that is replicated so many times. If the turn is successfully completed, is there enough airspeed (energy) to make a successful landing, or will the aircraft fall through the round-out and impact the runway with a hard landing and structural damage?
  • Note the classic stall-spin situation. Also note in the film footage the vast areas to land straight ahead instead of making the 180-degree turn.
  • Many of the accidents in the traffic pattern result from loss of airspeed control during climbout. This often happens when the pilot is faced with an obstacle and either consciously or sub-conscientiously adds back pressure to the elevator flight controls. The stall warning horn comes on, but the pilot is focused on the obstacle and either doesn’t hear the stall warning or ignores it and the aircraft stalls. To give the pilot more distance and opportunity to make a successful departure the Air Safety Foundation of the AOPA suggests the 50/50 solution when making a landing or departure over a 50 foot obstacle. If the POH says the aircraft needs 1,600 feet to take-off and clear the 50 foot obstacle, add 50% of that distance (800 feet) and use the conservative number of 2,400 feet needed to clear the 50 foot obstacle. Many pilots don’t know that the performance figures in the POH were accomplished by a production test pilot (someone who flies often), in a new aircraft (no dents in the leading edge, mis-rigged flight controls, etc.), with a new engine (not the 2,000 hour, flown once every two months engine with leaking valves and low-compression cylinders) and a new prop (not one that hasn’t seen the overhaul shop in 20 years, or is beyond the overhaul limits on chord width and blade length). How many pilot know how to figure in the grass runway penalties, or what if the grass is wet and long?
  • The root cause of most take-off and landing problems is Aeronautical Decision Making (Single Pilot Resource Management). The pilot makes a bad decision in the departure runway (down wind) traffic pattern, airspeed control, aircraft configuration, traffic pattern width, bank angles, skids, slips, etc. and they set themselves up for a problem during take-off or landing. They forget that they can abort the take-off, ask for a different runway into the wind, or less crosswind, or change runways themselves at an uncontrolled field. They also forget about the go-around when a pilot makes a mistake….and we ALL make mistakes. Pilots must make an effort to stay proficient, not just current. If they aren’t proficient, then take a CFI along for the flight and get some practice in T/O & Landings. Study the aircraft POH, be familiar with its handling characteristics. Know the airport you are flying into or out of by referencing the data available to you through the computer or the Airport/Facility Directory. Call the airport manager and ask them about any special items you should know before arriving or departing their airport. Get a weather briefing for the airport(s). The one you are departing and the one your planned destination. Most importantly know yourself!
  • Know yourself. Know when it’s time for you to divert due to weather (ceilings, visibility and wind), runway conditions, time of day, etc. Know when it’s time for you to go-around. Know when it’s time for staying on the ground.
  • Just things we all know, but we could all use reminding of every once in a while. The Fuel left in the truck. 2. The runway behind you. 3. The altitude above you. Density Altitude considerations should be in the front of a pilot’s mind during all times of the year. Performance numbers…who figures this stuff anyway? The manufacturer’s pilots (aka test pilots), new engine, new prop, new airframe, results are maximum efforts to obtain minimum numbers. The airplanes used in testing are not 20+ years old, tired engines & props with student pilots at the controls. 1..How many times have you seen the intersection take-offs that roll all the way to the end of runway? Now that summer is here, and it’s hot in most parts of the country, do we think about the density altitude? Just because the airplane has 4 seats in it, doesn’t mean that it will haul four adults out of that hot high-altitude strip. Or even on a cold day. 4-seats doesn’t mean four adults of the 170-250 pound variety! Check your weight & balance figures to see how much weight you can lift. Remember the weight includes you, your passengers, the fuel & oil. The total must be less than the gross take-off weight for the aircraft and then you must figure in the take-off distance based on conditions and density altitude. Hot, high and humid? Use the longest runway available. You know the climb performance won’t be stellar on a high-altitude, hot-day take-off, so look for the long runway without any obstacles that has a headwind. If you do have an obstacle, you climb out at Vx until you are clear of the obstacle and then accelerate to Vy and then your enroute climb speed. Remember that on a hot afternoon day in high DA situation the aircraft won’t perform as well over an obstacle as it does at sea level on a cool morning.
  • Crosswinds and flight controls. Why do we deflect the ailerons into the wind? Do we use a little aileron, half of the aileron, or all the way to the stops? Why? What if the crosswind is too great for your pilot skills or the exceeds the recommendations of the aircraft POH? Ask the tower for another runway (if you have a choice). Once one pilot asks for a different runway, others will usually follow like ducks in a row. Often times the tower then changes the active runway. Crosswinds at the recommended POH limit? Use a slightly higher rotation speed to avoid side loads on the landing gear due to side-skipping. Avoid tailwinds unless there is no other option, e.g. one-way strips. On most one-way strips it’s usually best to take-off downhill. The risks associated with weather conditions vary with the wind, aircraft type, runway slope and surrounding terrain. This is where pilot decision making plays a major role in every flight. Take-offs uphill, or with a grass runway, or a tailwind require more runway. High density altitude, grass runways, upslope take-off, all slow the acceleration. When do you abort the takeoff? Do you pace the length of the takeoff distance when it is unknown? Save at least half of that distance for stopping if you aren’t airborne by your decision point. Some runways are near terrain that some single-engine aircraft cannot out climb. The obstacles look a long way off in the distance, however the high density altitude will affect the climb performance of the aircraft and you might not climb fast enough to clear the terrain.
  • Talk to the airport manager and find out the nuances of their airport before you arrive. Check the A/FD for information. Check the internet for more information. If you know you will be making a soft-field take-off complete the run-up in an area where you can continue the taxi to the runway without stopping. Keep the weight off the nose-wheel. Once airborne, accelerate in ground-effect to Vx, then Vy after the obstacle (if any) is cleared.
  • There is a difference between day and nighttime flying. Avoid short runways for take-off and landings at night. During night flight you will have decreased visibility, possible disorientation, and possible optical illusions. Use runways with electronic or visual glideslope indications
  • The often forgotten “go-around”…are they automatic in your pilot skill tool box?
  • Many accidents could be avoided if the pilot would decide early in the approach to make a go-around. Go-arounds are not without risk, and as such, they should be practiced until the go-around process is deeply rooted in muscle memory. Low altitudes, close to the ground, all the way into the landing flare, after a bounced landing, regardless you are near the surface of the earth. The airspeed is low if you have been flying the recommended approach airspeed, which is usually 1.3 Vso or 30% above the stall speed in landing configuration. The flaps are usually down, many times at the full-flap setting. The aircraft usually doesn’t respond well during the go-around with slow airspeeds, full-flaps and high-density altitude. Often times you can not change the pitch attitude to a positive climb with full-flaps until you have built some flying speed and retracted some of the flap-causing drag. High density altitudes can have a huge effect on the ability to go-around and aircraft performance with flaps extended. Not proficient? Go get some proactice with a CFI!
  • None of these pilots planned on crashing their aircraft on the day the photos were taken. Stuff happens! To keep things from happening that are not planned you have to be “engaged” with the airplane and fly it 100% of the time. Even if the autopilot is flying in level flight you need to keep an eye on what it is doing. Photos top to bottom, left to right: Loss of directional control on landing (taildragger) Go-around attempted with mixture levers set at high-altitude cruise position, one engine came to near full power, the other one quit. Vmc encountered. Landing on rain covered runway, could not stop on runway. Departed the runway surface during landing. Aircraft went through a ditch and hit some rocks with the propeller. Loss of control on take-off. Long landing, approach speeds too fast, touched down beyond the mid-point on the runway, no go-around. Too slow on approach, stalled aircraft and crashed. Failed to correct for below glidepath. Landed on up-slope and bounced onto another aircraft doing their run-up. Pilot tried to land on his house’s driveway. Hit the house and bounced down the hill to it’s final resting spot.
  • Most fatal accidents happen in Low-Level Maneuvering Flight. Flying coordinated will help you avoid the stall-spin situation that claims so many each year. Practice….practice….practice. Proficiency is your key to survival. Don’t let the autopilot destroy the stick and rudder skills you have. If it’s too late…..get them back by flying with a CFI! Know yourself and your individual limits. What are you really capable of doing? Don’t fool yourself! Stick to your limits! Learn how to make a go-around from anywhere in the pattern. Build the go-around process into muscle memory!
  • Please! Learn to fly.
  • Quiz follows
  • CFI Workshop - Module 6 Take Off and Landings

    1. 1. Presented to: CFI Workshops By: The FAASTeam Date: January 2012 Federal Aviation Administration (Maneuvering Flight and Brushing off the Rust!) CFI Workshop 6 Core Topic 11 Take Offs and Landings
    2. 2. Federal Aviation Administration 2 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Questions? 1. How often do you perform low-level maneuvering flight? 2. When do most of the fatal accidents happen? 3. When is the last time you practiced stalls, slow flight and spins?
    3. 3. Federal Aviation Administration 3 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 ANSWERS 1. Every time you fly you Take off or Land! 2. Most fatal accidents happen in the maneuvering phase of flight either on takeoff or maneuvering for landing…over 40% !! (AOPA Nall Report & FAA data) 3. Usually every 2 years for the flight review… some never have been in a spin!
    4. 4. Federal Aviation Administration 4 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Data on Takeoffs & Maneuvering 10.8% 61.9% 16.3% 58.2% 39.6% 24.7% 1.7% Why so low?
    5. 5. Federal Aviation Administration 5 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Why Such a Low Leathality Rate? 1. Landing speeds are lower 2. Terrain is flatter 3. Most obstacles are limited near the runway
    6. 6. Federal Aviation Administration 6 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 What is Required to Survive a Crash? 1. Survivable “G” – The human body is flexible and deformable, particularly the softer tissues. Human tolerances depend on the magnitude of the g-force, the length of time it is applied, the direction it acts, the location of application, and the posture of the body. (G + duration + direction = survivability) Vertical G - 5 G’s without G-suit, 9 G’s with a G-suit (Blood pooling) Horizontal G - 20+ depending on deceleration forces, health and training. 2. Survivable Space – the cockpit space after the crash
    7. 7. Federal Aviation Administration 7 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012
    8. 8. Federal Aviation Administration 8 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Traffic Pattern Distractions 1. Other aircraft in the pattern 2. Weather - wind – turbulence 3. Non-standard traffic pattern entries (the “other” pilot) 4. Aircraft on the runway, or accident on an adjacent runway 5. Radio traffic – busy Unicom frequencies - non-essential radio communications 6. Aircraft performing low-level flight in traffic pattern (buzz jobs) 7. Go-arounds 8. Passengers - Pedestrians 9. The Pilot – YOU?!?
    9. 9. Federal Aviation Administration 9 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 QUESTION Why do you believe a stall / spin in the traffic pattern would not happen to you? Watch the video – imagine you are flying a C-152, 500 ft. above ground in the traffic pattern. Could you recover? Could any professional aerobatic performer?
    10. 10. Federal Aviation Administration 10 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Click here to play video
    11. 11. Federal Aviation Administration 11 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 ANSWER Why a stall/spin would not happen to you…. 1. Because I fly my aircraft with coordinated flight control movements, with no slips or skids in the turns. The ball on the turn coordinator, or the turn & slip indicator is centered in the race during my turns. 2. I maintain a correct, but not excessive, airspeed in the traffic pattern, (downwind, base & final) 3. My aircraft is always trimmed for the correct speed. 4. I fly with all of my senses ENGAGED
    12. 12. Federal Aviation Administration 14 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Click here to play video
    13. 13. Federal Aviation Administration 15 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 QUESTION What do you believe are some of the temptations that would lead a pilot into performing unapproved aerobatics or buzzing? Look at the next three short films and think of some answers.
    14. 14. Federal Aviation Administration 16 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Click here to play video
    15. 15. Federal Aviation Administration 17 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Click here to play video
    16. 16. Federal Aviation Administration 18 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Click here to play video
    17. 17. Federal Aviation Administration 19 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 POSSIBLE ANSWERS 1. Personality type – “Regulations were written for the other guy” 2. Peer pressure – wanting to be part of the group 3. Giving the thrill ride for the first time flyer 4. It’s legal – “What? I’m 500 ft. from anything” 5. Showing off for the airport crowd What if…? You hit something? Break something? Stall? Spin? Kill someone, in the air or on the ground?
    18. 18. Federal Aviation Administration 21 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 The Impossible Turn The 180 degree turn after engine failure on takeoff Depends on the individual circumstances Many Reasons to be wary of this maneuver - 1. The turn requires substantial altitude 2. Requires aggressive maneuvering 3. “Surprise factor”
    19. 19. Federal Aviation Administration 22 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 The Impossible Turn Click here to play video
    20. 20. Federal Aviation Administration 23 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Ways to Combat T/O & Ldg Problems AOPA’s 50 / 50 solution ASF recommends adding 50% to the POH T/O or Landing distance over a 50’ obstacle Example: If POH says 1,600 ft over a 50’ obstacle, add 800 feet (50%) = 2,400’ for a safety distance.
    21. 21. Federal Aviation Administration 24 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Root Cause of Most T/O & Ldg Problems Poor judgment – ADM - SRM (Aeronautical Decision Making) How do we combat poor judgment? • Know the aircraft you are flying • Know the airport • Know the weather & environment (terrain in vicinity)
    22. 22. Federal Aviation Administration 25 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING MOST IMPORTANTLY … KNOW YOURSELF Know when it’s time for YOU to divert, or Go-around, or Stay on the ground!
    23. 23. Federal Aviation Administration 31 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Your First Go-Around? Your first go-around was probably when your CFI said, “go-around” If you have a problem during approach or landing, there’s almost always a simple solution: Go around! It’s far better to make another trip around the pattern than to push ahead and risk a runway overshoot or loss of control.
    24. 24. Federal Aviation Administration 32 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 “Flipper” – The Friendly Porpoise Click here to play video
    25. 25. Federal Aviation Administration 33 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 The Saga of the Non-Go Around Unfortunately, a lot of pilots seem to forget the Go- Around option, and end up having accidents Risks involved with go-arounds: Low altitudes, low airspeeds, flaps down, high DA If you aren’t proficient in Go-Arounds, get some practice with a CFI !!
    26. 26. Federal Aviation Administration 36 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Remember 1. Most fatal accidents happen in low level maneuvering flight (LLMF) 2. Coordinated flight helps avoid stall/spin 3. Practice makes you a better pilot 4. Stick and Rudder skills are required skills 5. Know your individual limits – stick to them 6. The Go-Around is your friend
    27. 27. Federal Aviation Administration 37 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012
    28. 28. Federal Aviation Administration 38 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Your Questions?
    29. 29. Federal Aviation Administration 39 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012
    30. 30. Federal Aviation Administration 40 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 1. Can the airplane be forced into the air prior to normal lift-off speed? a. No, it’s too heavy b. No, the tail will drag on the runway c. Yes, but this is considered an unsafe practice. d. Yes, but only if you have a strong headwind
    31. 31. Federal Aviation Administration 41 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 2. During crosswind takeoffs with a significant wind, what should you do? a. Stay on the ground b. Hold the main gear on the ground slightly longer so a smooth but very definite lift-off will occur c. Get airborne as soon as possible d. Ask your CFI to demonstrate another takeoff
    32. 32. Federal Aviation Administration 42 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 3 During an emergency landing what two things are necessary for survival of the crash? a. Survivable space, survivable “G” force b. Water, food c. Food, medical supplies d. Functioning 406Mhz ELT, survivable “G”
    33. 33. Federal Aviation Administration 43 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 4. Takeoff performance figures in the POH are determined by a student pilot, using an older aircraft. a. True b. False
    34. 34. Federal Aviation Administration 44 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 5. Most fatal accidents happen during low-level maneuvering flight. a. True b. False
    35. 35. Federal Aviation Administration 45 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012
    36. 36. Federal Aviation Administration 46 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 1. Can the airplane be forced into the air prior to normal lift-off speed? a. No, it’s too heavy b. No, the tail will drag on the runway c. Yes, but this is considered an unsafe practice. d. Yes, but only if you have a strong headwind Reference: Airplane Flying Handbook, page 5-3.
    37. 37. Federal Aviation Administration 47 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 2. During crosswind takeoffs with a significant wind, what should you do? a. Stay on the ground b. Hold the main gear on the ground slightly longer so a smooth but very definite lift-off will occur c. Get airborne as soon as possible d. Ask your CFI to demonstrate another takeoff Reference: Airplane Flying Handbook, page 5-6.
    38. 38. Federal Aviation Administration 48 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 3 During an emergency landing what two things are necessary for survival of the crash? a. Survivable space, survivable “G” force b. Water, food c. Food, medical supplies d. Functioning 406Mhz ELT, survivable “G” Reference: Airplane Flying Handbook, page 16-2.
    39. 39. Federal Aviation Administration 49 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 4. Takeoff performance figures in the POH are determined by a student pilot, using an older aircraft. a. True b. False Reference: Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, page 10-17.
    40. 40. Federal Aviation Administration 50 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 Question 5. Most fatal accidents happen during low-level maneuvering flight. a. True b. False Reference: AOPA’s Nall Report.
    41. 41. Federal Aviation Administration 51 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 6 January 2012 B R E A

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